Abstract

After the invention of lasers, in the past 50 years progress made in laser-based display technology has been very promising, with commercial products awaiting release to the mass market. Compact laser systems, such as edge-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and optically pumped semiconductor lasers, are suitable candidates for laser-based displays. Laser speckle is an important concern, as it degrades image quality. Typically, one or multiple speckle reduction techniques are employed in laser displays to reduce speckle contrast. Likewise, laser safety issues need to be carefully evaluated in designing laser displays under different usage scenarios. Laser beam shaping using refractive and diffractive components is an integral part of laser displays, and the requirements depend on the source specifications, modulation technique, and the scanning method being employed in the display. A variety of laser-based displays have been reported, and many products such as pico projectors and laser televisions are commercially available already.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010

V. Yurlov, A. Lapchuk, S. K. Yun, J. Song, K. Lee, I. Yeo, and S. An, “A study of image contrast restriction in displays using diffractive spatial light modulators,” Displays 31, 15–24(2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

E. Erden, V. C. Kishore, H. Ürey, H. Baghsiahi, E. Willman, S. E. Day, D. R. Selviah, F. A. Fernandez, and P. Surman, “Laser scanning based autostereoscopic 3D display with pupil tracking,” in LEOS Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings, (IEEE, 2009), pp. 10–11.

V. C. Kishore, E. Erden, H. Urey, H. Baghsiahi, E. Willman, S. E. Day, D. R. Selviah, F. Aníbal Fernández, and P. Surman, “Laser scanning 3D display with dynamic exit pupil,” in Proceedings of the 29th International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, 2009), pp. 492–495.

F. Riechert, G. Bastian, and U. Lemmer, “Laser speckle reduction via colloidal-dispersion-filled projection screens,” Appl. Opt. 48, 3742–3749 (2009).
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M. N. Akram, V. Kartashov, K. Wang, G. Ouyang, and X. Chen, “Laser speckle reduction using a dynamic polymer-based diffraction grating spatial phase modulator,” Proc. SPIE 7382, 73822H (2009).
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F. Riechert, G. Craggs, Y. Meuret, B. V. Giel, H. Thienpont, U. Lemmer, and G. Verschaffelt, “Low-speckle laser projection with a broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser in the nonmodal emission regime,” Appl. Opt. 48, 792–798(2009).
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F. Riechert, F. Glöckler, and U. Lemmer, “Method to determine the speckle characteristics of front projection screens,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1316–1321 (2009).
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S. Heinemann, B. Regaard, T. Schmidt, and B. Lewis, “High-brightness fiber-coupled single emitter arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7198, 71980Q (2009).
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Y. Hirano, S. Yamamoto, Y. Akino, A. Nakamura, T. Yagi, H. Sugiura, and T. Yanagisawa, “High performance micro green laser for laser TV,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper WE1.

P. Janssens and K. Malfait, “Future prospects of high-end laser projectors,” Proc. SPIE 7232, 72320Y (2009).
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J. Wang, Z. Yuan, L. Kang, K. Yang, Y. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Study of the mechanism of “smile” in high power diode laser arrays and strategies in improving near-field linearity,” in IEEE 59th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (IEEE, 2009), pp. 837–842.

F. L. Williams, D. F. Elkins, J. P. Anderegg, B. D. Winkler, R. R. Christensen, C. C. Farmer, and C. L. Simmons, “Multiwatt high-efficiency CW single-mode visible lasers for ultrahigh-resolution displays,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference(Optical Society of America, 2009), paper PThA2.

M. Dawson, J. E. Hastie, S. Calvez, N. Laurand, D. Burns, and A. J. Kemp, “Semiconductor disk lasers: recent developments in bulk and micro-lasers,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper ME1.

S. Calvez, J. Hastie, M. Guina, O. Okhotnikov, and M. Dawson, “Semiconductor disk lasers for the generation of visible and ultraviolet radiation,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 407–434(2009).
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Y. Cheng, X. Liu, and H. Li, “A color temperature adjustment method for multiprimary displays using nonlinear programming,” Color Res. Appl. 34, 201–204 (2009).
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K. Bylund, D. H. Sliney, and M. Beard, “Comparative evaluation of ocular hazards from projectors—laser and lamp projectors,” in International Laser Safety Conference (ILSC) 2009 (Laser Institute of America, 2009), paper 1304.

F. Riechert, F. Glöckler, and U. Lemmer, “Method to determine the speckle characteristics of front projection screens,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1316–1321 (2009).
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I. Peled, M. Zenou, B. Greenberg, and Z. Kotler, “MEMS based speckle reduction obtained by angle diversity for fast imaging,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper JTuD44.

R. Ryf, G. Chen, N. Basavanhally, M. Dinu, A. Duque, Y. L. Low, J. M. Wiesenfeld, Y. Shapiro, and R. Giles, “The Alcatel-Lucent microprojector: what every cell phone needs,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 14, 99–112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Buckley, R. Isele, and D. Stindt, “14.2 novel human-machine interface (HMI) design enabled by holographic laser projection,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, 2009), pp. 172–177.

2008

E. Buckley, “70.2: Invited paper: holographic laser projection technology,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers(Society for Information Display, 2008), Vol. 39, pp. 1074–1079.

G. Zheng, B. Wang, T. Fang, H. Cheng, Y. Qi, Y. W. Wang, B. X. Yan, Y. Bi, Y. Wang, S. W. Chu, T. J. Wu, J. K. Xu, H. T. Min, S. P. Yan, C. W. Ye, and Z. D. Jia, “Laser digital cinema projector,” J. Display Technol. 4, 314–318 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mitsubishi Electric, “Mitsubishi Digital Electronics America introduces new category of large-format televisions with groundbreaking laser technology,” press release of 7 January (Mitsubishi Electric, 2008), pp. 1–2.

Stephen A. Benton and V. M. Bove, Jr., Holographic Imaging (Wiley , 2008).

K. Keller, A. State, and H. Fuchs, “Head mounted displays for medical use,” J. Display Technol. 4, 468–472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-M. Jeong, Y.-H. Park, Y.-C. Cho, J. Hwang, S.-M. Chang, S.-J. Kang, H.-K. Jeong, J. O. Kim, and J.-H. Lee, “Slow scanning electromagnetic scanner for laser display,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS and MOEMS 7, 043003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Furukawa, N. Ohse, Y. Sato, D. Imanishi, K. Wakabayashi, S. Ito, K. Tamamura, and S. Hirata, “Effective speckle reduction in laser projection displays,” Proc. SPIE 6911, 69110T (2008).
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J.-P. Meyn, “Colour mixing based on daylight,” Eur. J. Phys. 29, 1017–1031 (2008).
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U. Steegmuller, M. Kuhnelt, H. Unold, T. Schwarz, R. Schulz, S. Illek, I. Pietzonka, H. Lindberg, M. Schmitt, and U. Strauss, “Green laser modules to fit laser projection out of your pocket,” Proc. SPIE 6871, 687117 (2008).
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G. Duggan, D. A. Barrow, T. Calvert, M. Maute, V. Hung, B. McGarvey, J. D. Lambkin, and T. Wipiejewski, “Red vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) for consumer applications,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 69080G (2008).
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J. Gollier, M. H. Hu, D. Ricketts, D. Loeber, V. Bhatia, and D. Pikula, “Multimode DBR laser operation for frequency doubled green lasers in projection displays,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, 2008), Vol. 39, pp. 2081–2083.

V. Bhatia, S. J. Gregorski, D. Pikula, S. C. Chaparala, D. A. S. Loeber, J. Gollier, Y. Ozeki, Y. Hata, K. Shibatani, F. Nagai, Y. Nakabayashi, N. Mitsugi, and S. Nakano, “63.2: Efficient and compact green laser incorporating adaptive optics for wide operating temperature range,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, 2008), Vol. 39, pp. 962–965.

R. McBride, H. Baker, J.-L. Neron, S. Doric, C. Mariottini, E. Nava, E. Stucchi, and P. Milanesi, “A high-brightness QCW pump source using a pre-aligned GRIN lens array with refractive beam correction,” Proc. SPIE 6876, 687602 (2008).
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Y. Suematsu and K. Iga, “Semiconductor lasers in photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1132–1144 (2008).
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M. Scholles, K. Frommhagen, C. Gerwig, J. Knobbe, H. Lakner, D. Schlebusch, M. Schwarzenberg, and U. Vogel, “Recent advancements in system design for miniaturized MEMS-based laser projectors,” Proc. SPIE 6911, 69110U (2008).
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S. Avino, B. Potsaid, and J. T. Wen, “Super-Gaussian laser beam shaping using deformable mirrors and intrinsic beam quality metrics,” Proc. SPIE 7266, 72660P (2008).
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B. G. Henderson and J. D. Mansell, “Laser beam shaping with membrane deformable mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7093, 70930I(2008).
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O. Homburg, A. Bayer, T. Mitra, J. Meinschien, and L. Aschke, “Beam shaping of high power diode lasers benefits from asymmetrical refractive micro-lens arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6876, 68760B (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Bayer, J. Meinschien, T. Mitra, and M. Brodner, “Beam shaping of line generators based on high power diode lasers to achieve high intensity and uniformity levels,” Proc. SPIE 7062, 70620X (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiyong, H. Shanglian, Z. Jie, Z. Zhihai, and Z. Yong, “Two-dimensional grating light modulator for projection display,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2813–2820 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, S. Hashimoto, S. Tajiri, T. Hayashi, Y. Sugawara, M. Oka, Y. Akiyama, A. Nakamura, and N. Eguchi, “56.1: high-frame-rate, high-contrast grating light valve laser projection display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, 2008), Vol. 39, pp. 846–849.

2007

S. Yun, J. Song, I. Yeo, Y. Choi, V. Yurlov, S. An, H. Park, H. Yang, Y. Lee, K. Han, I. Shyshkin, A. Lapchuk, K. Oh, S. Ryu, J. Jang, C. Park, C. Kim, S. Kim, E. Kim, K. Woo, J. Yang, E. Kim, J. Kim, S. Byun, S. Lee, O. Lim, J. Cheong, Y. Hwang, G. Byun, J. Kyoung, S. Yoon, J. Lee, T. Lee, S. Hong, Y. Hong, D. Park, J. Kang, W. Shin, S. Lee, S. Oh, B. Song, H. Kim, C. Koh, Y. Ryu, H. Lee, and Y. Baek, “Spatial optical modulator (SOM): high-density diffractive laser projection display,” Proc. SPIE 6487, 648710 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. K.Yun, “Spatial optical modulator (SOM): Samsung’s light modulator for next-generation laser displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Display 15, 321–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Tamada, “Invited paper: blazed GxLP™ light modulators for laser projectors,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15, 817–823 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Jiang and D. Liu, “The main factors which affect coupling efficiency of high-power semiconductor laser array and selfoc lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6823, 682308 (2007).
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B. V. Giel, Y. Meuret, and H. Thienpont, “Using a fly’s eye integrator in efficient illumination engines with multiple light-emitting diode light sources,” Opt. Eng. 46, 043001 (2007).
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F. C. Wippermann, P. Dannberg, A. Bräuer, and S. Sinzinger, “Improved homogenization of fly’s eye condenser setups under coherent illumination using chirped microlens arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6466, 64660R (2007).
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M. Zimmermann, N. Lindlein, R. Voelkel, and K. J. Weible, “Microlens laser beam homogenizer: from theory to application,” Proc. SPIE 6663, 666302 (2007).
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S. Menn, S. A. Cornelissen, and P. A. Bierden, “Advances in MEMS deformable mirror technology for laser beam shaping,” Proc. SPIE 6663, 66630M (2007).
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S. Hallstein, G. P. Carey, R. Carico, R. Dato, J. J. Dudley, A. M. Earman, M. J. Finander, G. Giaretta, J. Green, H. J. Hofler, F. Hu, M. Jansen, C. P. Kocat, S. Lim, J. Krueger, A. Mooradian, G. Niven, Y. Okuno, F. G. Patterson, A. Tandon, and A. Umbrasas, “RGB laser light sources for projection displays,” in 2007 IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings, Vols. 1 and 2 (IEEE, 2007), pp. 254–255.

U. Steegmueller, M. Kuehnelt, H. Unold, T. Schwarz, R. Schulz, and F. Singer, “Late-news paper: RGB laser for mobile projection devices,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers(Society for Information Display, 2007), Vol. 38, pp. 16–18.

M. Ebner, “Color reproduction,” in Color Constancy (Wiley, 2007).

J. D. Briers, “Laser speckle contrast imaging for measuring blood flow,” Opt. Appl. 37, 139–152 (2007).
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H.-D. Reidenbach, “Laser Safety,” Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, 1st ed. (Springer Science+Business Media, 2007).

M. Ou-Yang and S.-W. Huang, “Design considerations between color gamut and brightness for multi-primary color displays,” J. Display Technol. 3, 71–82 (2007).
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P. Benzie, J. Watson, P. Surman, I. Rakkolainen, K. Hopf, H. Urey, V. Sainov, and C. von Kopylow, “A survey of 3DTV displays: techniques and technologies,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 17, 1647–1658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. D. Yalcinkaya, H. Urey, D. Brown, T. Montague, and R. Sprague, “Two-axis electromagnetic microscanner for high resolution displays,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15, 786–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Harding, C. E. Rash, and S. J. Dennis, “Evaluation of Microvision SD2500 scanning laser display,” Proc. SPIE 6224, 62240R (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Cakmakci and J. Rolland, “Head-worn displays: a review,” J. Display Technol. 2, 199–216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Ko, J.-W. Cho, Y.-K. Mun, H.-G. Jeong, W. K. Choi, J.-W. Kim, Y.-H. Park, J.-B. Yoo, and J.-H. Lee, “Eye-type scanning mirror with dual vertical combs for laser display,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 126, 218–226 (2006).
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G. B. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, J. Lee, J. Yoo, K.-S. Kim, S.-M. Lee, S. Cho, S.-J. Lim, T. Kim, and Y. Park, “End-pumped green and blue vertical external cavity surface emitting laser devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181106 (2006).
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Z. D. Gao, S. N. Zhu, S.-Y. Tu, and A. H. Kung, “Monolithic red-green-blue laser light source based on cascaded wavelength conversion in periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181101 (2006).
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N. P. Ostrom, M. Gall, and B. O. Faircloth, “Development of high power high brightness fiber coupled diode laser systems,” Proc. SPIE 6104, 61040N (2006).
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S. C. Shin, S. S. Yoo, S. Y. Lee, C.-Y. Park, S.-Y. Park, J. W. Kwon, and S.-G. Lee, “Removal of hot spot speckle on rear projection screen using the rotating screen system,” J. Display Technol. 2, 79–84 (2006).
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S. Jutamulia, H. Zhai, and G. Mu, “Beam correction optics for laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6024, 60240I (2006).
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A. Akatay, A. Waddie, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, and H. Urey, “Comparative performance analysis of 100% fill-factor microlens arrays fabricated by various methods,” Proc. SPIE 6185, 61850C (2006).
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N. Eguchi, “GxL Laser Dream Theater at the Aichi Expo (equivalent to 2005 inch TV),” in IDW ‘06: Proceedings of the 13th International Display Workshops, Vols. 1–3 (2006), pp. 9–12.

X. Li, C. Antoine, D. Lee, J.-S. Wang, and O. Solgaard, “Tunable blazed gratings,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15, 597–604 (2006).
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2005

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2004

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2003

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2002

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2001

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2000

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1999

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1998

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1997

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1996

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1995

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1992

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Figures (27)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of an edge-emitting diode laser and its output intensity distribution (taken from Ref. [168]).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Operation of the G-1000 laser from Corning. Taken from Ref. [22], Copyright 2008 Society for Information Display.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Structure of a VCSEL and its output intensity distribution. Taken from Ref. [168].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

NECSEL arrays in operation. Photo courtesy of Necsel Intellectual Property, Incorporated

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of an OPSL, reproduced with permission from Ref. [30].

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

1931 CIE XYZ color matching functions of the standard observer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

1931 CIE xyY chromaticity diagram. The color gamut possible with CRT, LCD, LED, and laser-based displays is shown.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Transmission spectrum of the eye from the cornea to the retina (solid curve) and absorption of the retinal pigment epithelium as a function of wavelength (dotted curve). From Ref. [61], with kind permission of Springer Science+Business Media.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Speckle formation in (a) free space and (b) an imaging system.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Effect of speckle reduction. Images produced by a monochrome DLP engine without (left) and with (right) Dyoptyka speckle reduction technology. Image courtesy Dyoptyka.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Moving screen in (a) rear projection and (b) front projection displays, from Ref. [74].

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Formation of independent beamlets with DOE, from Ref. [65].

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

RGB laser rear-projection system design, from Ref. [78].

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Division of detector resolution spot into smaller phase cells, from Ref. [80].

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

GLV laser projection system with speckle reduction, from Ref. [80].

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Beam expander configuration with two plano–aspheric lenses.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Side view of the beam-shaping prism groups, from Ref. [102].

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Fly’s eye configuration for beam homogenization.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Fly’s eye configuration with a diffuser.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Improved fly’s eye configuration for uniform laser line creation from an array of diode lasers.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Comparison of intensity patterns of regular and chirped tandem arrays, Ref. [115].

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

SEM photograph of GLV ribbons. Photo courtesy of Silicon Light Machines.

Fig. 23
Fig. 23

Schematic of an RGB laser projector with GLV devices. From Ref. [134], Copyright 2007 Society for Information Display.

Fig. 24
Fig. 24

HELIUM 3D display schematic. Courtesy of HELIUM 3D consortium, which the authors are part of.

Fig. 25
Fig. 25

Schematic of a flying spot laser projector. Image courtesy of Microvision, Incorporated.

Fig. 26
Fig. 26

2D MEMS Scanner from Microvision, Incorporated, Ref. [154].

Fig. 27
Fig. 27

Schematic of a DMD-based laser projector. Taken from Ref. [155].

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Laser Optical Power Ratio for 6500 K at Some Representative Laser Wavelengths (in nm)

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

x ¯ ( λ 1 ) x ¯ ( λ 2 ) x ¯ ( λ 3 ) y ¯ ( λ 1 ) y ¯ ( λ 2 ) y ¯ ( λ 3 ) z ¯ ( λ 1 ) z ¯ ( λ 2 ) z ¯ ( λ 3 ) 1 X Y Z = k P ( λ 1 ) P ( λ 3 ) P ( λ 3 ) .
MPE single pulse = N 0.25 × 18 × t 0.25 W / m 2 ,
OD ( λ ) = log 10 H 0 MPE ,
C = [ 1 + 2 π 2 n 2 ( δ λ λ ¯ ) 2 ( σ ν λ ¯ ) 2 ] 1 4 .

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