Abstract

Optical interconnects are progressively replacing wires at shorter and shorter distances in information processing machines. This paper summarizes the progress toward and prospects for the penetration of optics all the way to the silicon chip.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010 (2)

2009 (4)

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160Gb/s Bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Advanced Packaging 32, 345–359 (2009).

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1166–1185 (2009).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1337–1361 (2009).

L. Tang, S. Latif, and D. A. B. Miller, “Plasmonic device in silicon CMOS,” Electron. Lett. 45, 706–708 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (12)

I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stolz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320, 769–772 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Horst, W. M. J. Green, B. J. Offrein, and Y. Vlasov, “Echelle grating WDM (de-)multiplexers in SOI technology based on a design with two stigmatic points,” Proc. SPIE 6996, 69960R (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Sevaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer with high reflective Bragg reflector facets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 309–311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photon. 2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photon. 2, 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and K. Higuma, “25.6Tb/s WDM transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 79–84 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246–1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Beausoleil, P. J. Kuekes, G. S. Snider, S.-Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Nanoelectronic and nanophotonic interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 96, 230–247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Kim and V. Stojanovic, “Characterization of equalized and repeated interconnects for NoC applications,” IEEE Design Test Comput. 25, 430–439 (2008).

H. Cho, K.-H. Koo, P. Kapur, and D. C. Saraswat, “Performance comparisons between Cu/low-κ, carbon-nanotube, and optics for future on-chip interconnects,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 122–124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, J. J. Caswell, A. Gauthier, J. Jahns, M. Jarczynski, P. Lukowicz, J. Oksman, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, J. F. Snowdon, O. Stübbe, G. Troster, and M. Wirz, “Design and construction of the high-speed optoelectronic memory system demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 47, 3500–3512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

D. Ahn, C. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15, 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Okyay, D. Kuzum, S. Latif, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “Silicon germanium CMOS optoelectronic switching device: bringing light to latch,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 3252–3259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Koo, H. Cho, P. Kapur, and K. C. Saraswat, “Performance comparisons between carbon nanotubes, optical, and Cu for future high-performance on-chip interconnect applications,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 3206–3215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15, 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

K. Jia, J. Yang, Y. Hao, X. Jiang, M. Wang, W. Wang, Y. Wu, and Y. Wang, “Turning-mirror-integrated arrayed-waveguide gratings on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1329–1334 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Zheng, H. Chen, and A. W. Poon, “Microring-resonator cross-connect filters in silicon nitride: rib waveguide dimensions dependence,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1380–1387 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Lipson, “Compact electro-optic modulators on a silicon chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1520–1526(2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “21GHz-Bandwidth germanium-on-silicon photodiode using thin SiGe buffer layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1450–1454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14, 9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

Y.-H. Kuo, Y.-K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437, 1334–1336 (2005).

D. A. B. Miller, A. Bhatnagar, S. Palermo, A. Emami-Neyestanak, and M. A. Horowitz, “Opportunities for optics in integrated circuits applications,” International Solid State Circuits Conference, 2005 (IEEE, 2005), paper 4.6, pp. 86–87.

W. R. Davis, J. Wilson, S. Mick, J. Xu, H. Hua, C. Mineo, A. M. Sule, M. Steer, and P. D. Franzon, “Demystifying 3D ICs: the pros and cons of going vertical,” IEEE Design Test Comput. 22, 498–510 (2005).

M. Gerken and D. A. B. Miller, “Limits to the performance of dispersive thin-film stacks,” Appl. Opt. 44, 3349–3357 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (6)

M. Gerken and D. A. B. Miller, “Multilayer thin-film stacks With steplike spatial beam shifting,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 612–618 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics (Wiley, 2004).

L.Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, eds., Silicon Photonics (Springer-Verlag, 2004).

H. Cho, P. Kapur, and K. C. Saraswat, “Power comparison between high-speed electrical and optical interconnects for interchip communication,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2021–2033 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Naeemi, J. Xu, A. V. Mule, T. K. Gaylord, and J. D. Meindl, “Optical and electrical interconnect partition length based on chip-to-chip bandwidth maximization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1221–1223 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K.-N. Chen, M. J. Kobrinsky, B. C. Barnett, and R. Reif, “Comparisons of conventional, 3-D, optical, and RF interconnects for on-chip clock distribution,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 233–239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (5)

G. A. Keeler, B. E. Nelson, D. Agarwal, C. Debaes, N. C. Helman, A. Bhatnagar, and D. A. B. Miller, “The benefits of ultrashort optical pulses in optically-interconnected systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 477–485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Debaes, A. Bhatnagar, D. Agarwal, R. Chen, G. A. Keeler, N. C. Helman, H. Thienpont, and D. A. B. Miller, “Receiver-less optical clock injection for clock distribution networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 400–409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Nelson, G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, N. C. Helman, and D. A. B. Miller, “Wavelength division multiplexed optical interconnect using short pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 486–491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, P.-O Laprise, J. Eduardo, A. Lugo, and D. V. Plant, “Design and test of an optoelectronic-vlsi chip with 540-element receiver-transmitter arrays using differential optical signaling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 361–379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the Holms system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624–635(2003).

2002 (1)

T. Baba and M. Nakamura, “Photonic crystal light deflection devices using the superprism effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 909–914 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. Ho, K. W. Mai, and M. A. Horowitz, “The future of wires,” Proc. IEEE 89, 490–504 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88, 728–749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1312–1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Nelson, M. Gerken, D. A. B. Miller, R. Piestun, C.-C. Lin, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Use of a dielectric stack as a one-dimensional photonic crystal for wavelength demultiplexing by beam shifting,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1502–1504 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibenguth, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, and L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, R. Rozier, F. Kiamilev, Y. Liu, and M. Hibbs-Brenner, “Multichip free-space global optical interconnection demonstration with integrated arrays of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and photodetectors,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6190–6200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, M. G. Forbes, S. J. Fancey, G. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. A. B. Dines, C. R. Stanley, G. Pennelli, A. R. Boyd, P. Horan, D. Byrne, J. Hegarty, S. Eitel, H. P. Gauggel, K. H. Gulden, A. Gauthier, P. Benabes, J. L. Gutzwiller, M. Goetz, and M. P. Y. Desmulliez, “Design and construction of an optoelectronic crossbar switch containing a terabit per second free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 236–249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy and K. W. Goossen, “Optoelectronic-VLSI: photonics integrated with VLSI circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 899–912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Yayla, P. J. Marchand, and S. C. Esener, “Speed and energy analysis of digital interconnections: comparison of on-chip, off-chip, and free-space technologies,” Appl. Opt. 37, 205–227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

D. A. B. Miller and H. M. Ozaktas, “Limit to the bit-rate capacity of electrical interconnects from the aspect ratio of the system architecture,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 42–52(1997).

D. A. B. Miller, “Physical reasons for optical interconnection,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 11(3), 155–168 (1997).

1996 (1)

A V. Krishnamoorthy and D. A. B. Miller, “Scaling optoelectronic-VLSI circuits into the 21st century: a technology roadmap,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 55–76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

1991 (2)

1990 (2)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for digital optical processing,” in Digital Optical Computing, R.A.Athale, ed., SPIE Critical Reviews of Optical Science and Technology (SPIE, 1990), Vol. CR35, pp. 68–76.

D. A. B. Miller, “Quantum-well self-electro-optic effect devices,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S61–S98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (5)

D. A. B. Miller, “Optics for low-energy communication inside digital processors: quantum detectors, sources, and modulators as efficient impedance converters,” Opt. Lett. 14, 146–148 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, G. D. Boyd, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and R. M. Lum, “GaAs-AlGaAs multiquantum well reflection modulators grown on GaAs and silicon substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 1, 304–306(1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Streibl, K.-H. Brenner, A. Huang, J. Jahns, J. Jewell, A. W. Lohmann, D. A. B. Miller, M. Murdocca, M. E. Prise, and T. Sizer, “Digital optics,” Proc. IEEE 77, 1954–1969 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Jahns and A. Huang, “Planar integration of free—space optical components,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1602–1605 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jewell, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, Y. H. Lee, S. Walker, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, “Low-threshold electrically pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting microlasers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1123–1124 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

M. R. Feldman, S. C. Esener, C. C. Guest, and S. H. Lee, “Comparison between optical and electrical interconnects based on power and speed considerations,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1742–1751(1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Iga, F. Koyama, and S. Konoshita, “Surface emitting semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1845–1855(1988).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, and L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self-electro-optic effect device: optical set-reset latch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1419–1421 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Relation between electroabsorption in bulk semiconductors and in quantum wells: the quantum-confined Franz–Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 6976–6982 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light (Academic, 1985).

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32, 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, and R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

P. W. Smith, “On the physical limits of digital optical switching and logic elements,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 61, 1975–1993 (1982).

K. C. Saraswat and F. Mohammadi, “Effect of scaling of interconnections on the time delay of VLSI circuits,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 29, 645–650 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, T. N. C. Venkatesan, A. C. Gossard, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, “Optical bistability in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 451–453 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, S. D. Smith, and A. Johnston, “Optical bistability and signal amplification in a semiconductor crystal. Application of new low-power nonlinear effects in InSb,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 658–660 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

Agarwal, D.

G. A. Keeler, B. E. Nelson, D. Agarwal, C. Debaes, N. C. Helman, A. Bhatnagar, and D. A. B. Miller, “The benefits of ultrashort optical pulses in optically-interconnected systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 477–485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Debaes, A. Bhatnagar, D. Agarwal, R. Chen, G. A. Keeler, N. C. Helman, H. Thienpont, and D. A. B. Miller, “Receiver-less optical clock injection for clock distribution networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 400–409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Nelson, G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, N. C. Helman, and D. A. B. Miller, “Wavelength division multiplexed optical interconnect using short pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 486–491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

Armstrong, J. A.

Athale, R. A.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, and R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, D. E.

D. E. Atkins, K. K. Droegemeier, S. I. Feldman, H. Garcia-Molina, M. L. Klein, D. G. Messerschmitt, P. Messina, J. P. Ostriker, and M. H. Wright, Final Report of the NSF Blue Ribbon Advisory Panel on Cyberinfrastructure: Revolutionizing Science and Engineering Through Cyberinfrastructure (NSF, January 2003), http://www.nsf.gov/cise/sci/reports/atkins.pdf.

Baba, T.

T. Baba and M. Nakamura, “Photonic crystal light deflection devices using the superprism effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 909–914 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Sevaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer with high reflective Bragg reflector facets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 309–311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baks, C. W.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160Gb/s Bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Advanced Packaging 32, 345–359 (2009).

Banerjee, S. K.

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “21GHz-Bandwidth germanium-on-silicon photodiode using thin SiGe buffer layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1450–1454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, R.

R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, J. J. Caswell, A. Gauthier, J. Jahns, M. Jarczynski, P. Lukowicz, J. Oksman, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, J. F. Snowdon, O. Stübbe, G. Troster, and M. Wirz, “Design and construction of the high-speed optoelectronic memory system demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 47, 3500–3512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the Holms system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624–635(2003).

Barnett, B. C.

K.-N. Chen, M. J. Kobrinsky, B. C. Barnett, and R. Reif, “Comparisons of conventional, 3-D, optical, and RF interconnects for on-chip clock distribution,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 233–239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Basak, J.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photon. 2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Ahn, C. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15, 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beausoleil, R. G.

R. G. Beausoleil, P. J. Kuekes, G. S. Snider, S.-Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Nanoelectronic and nanophotonic interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 96, 230–247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beck, A. L.

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “21GHz-Bandwidth germanium-on-silicon photodiode using thin SiGe buffer layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1450–1454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Benabes, P.

R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, J. J. Caswell, A. Gauthier, J. Jahns, M. Jarczynski, P. Lukowicz, J. Oksman, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, J. F. Snowdon, O. Stübbe, G. Troster, and M. Wirz, “Design and construction of the high-speed optoelectronic memory system demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 47, 3500–3512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the Holms system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624–635(2003).

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, M. G. Forbes, S. J. Fancey, G. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. A. B. Dines, C. R. Stanley, G. Pennelli, A. R. Boyd, P. Horan, D. Byrne, J. Hegarty, S. Eitel, H. P. Gauggel, K. H. Gulden, A. Gauthier, P. Benabes, J. L. Gutzwiller, M. Goetz, and M. P. Y. Desmulliez, “Design and construction of an optoelectronic crossbar switch containing a terabit per second free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 236–249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246–1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bernardis, S.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photon. 2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bhatnagar, A.

D. A. B. Miller, A. Bhatnagar, S. Palermo, A. Emami-Neyestanak, and M. A. Horowitz, “Opportunities for optics in integrated circuits applications,” International Solid State Circuits Conference, 2005 (IEEE, 2005), paper 4.6, pp. 86–87.

C. Debaes, A. Bhatnagar, D. Agarwal, R. Chen, G. A. Keeler, N. C. Helman, H. Thienpont, and D. A. B. Miller, “Receiver-less optical clock injection for clock distribution networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 400–409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Keeler, B. E. Nelson, D. Agarwal, C. Debaes, N. C. Helman, A. Bhatnagar, and D. A. B. Miller, “The benefits of ultrashort optical pulses in optically-interconnected systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 477–485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bierhoff, T.

R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, J. J. Caswell, A. Gauthier, J. Jahns, M. Jarczynski, P. Lukowicz, J. Oksman, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, J. F. Snowdon, O. Stübbe, G. Troster, and M. Wirz, “Design and construction of the high-speed optoelectronic memory system demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 47, 3500–3512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the Holms system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624–635(2003).

Bogaerts, W.

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Sevaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer with high reflective Bragg reflector facets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 309–311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

Boyd, A. R.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, M. G. Forbes, S. J. Fancey, G. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. A. B. Dines, C. R. Stanley, G. Pennelli, A. R. Boyd, P. Horan, D. Byrne, J. Hegarty, S. Eitel, H. P. Gauggel, K. H. Gulden, A. Gauthier, P. Benabes, J. L. Gutzwiller, M. Goetz, and M. P. Y. Desmulliez, “Design and construction of an optoelectronic crossbar switch containing a terabit per second free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 236–249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

K. W. Goossen, G. D. Boyd, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and R. M. Lum, “GaAs-AlGaAs multiquantum well reflection modulators grown on GaAs and silicon substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 1, 304–306(1989).
[CrossRef]

Brenner, K.-H.

N. Streibl, K.-H. Brenner, A. Huang, J. Jahns, J. Jewell, A. W. Lohmann, D. A. B. Miller, M. Murdocca, M. E. Prise, and T. Sizer, “Digital optics,” Proc. IEEE 77, 1954–1969 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brouckaert, J.

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Sevaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer with high reflective Bragg reflector facets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 309–311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brubaker, J. L.

Budd, R.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160Gb/s Bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Advanced Packaging 32, 345–359 (2009).

Buller, G. S.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, M. G. Forbes, S. J. Fancey, G. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. A. B. Dines, C. R. Stanley, G. Pennelli, A. R. Boyd, P. Horan, D. Byrne, J. Hegarty, S. Eitel, H. P. Gauggel, K. H. Gulden, A. Gauthier, P. Benabes, J. L. Gutzwiller, M. Goetz, and M. P. Y. Desmulliez, “Design and construction of an optoelectronic crossbar switch containing a terabit per second free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 236–249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, E. C.

Burrus, C. A.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32, 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, D.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, M. G. Forbes, S. J. Fancey, G. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. A. B. Dines, C. R. Stanley, G. Pennelli, A. R. Boyd, P. Horan, D. Byrne, J. Hegarty, S. Eitel, H. P. Gauggel, K. H. Gulden, A. Gauthier, P. Benabes, J. L. Gutzwiller, M. Goetz, and M. P. Y. Desmulliez, “Design and construction of an optoelectronic crossbar switch containing a terabit per second free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 236–249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Camacho-Aguilera, R.

Campbell, J. C.

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “21GHz-Bandwidth germanium-on-silicon photodiode using thin SiGe buffer layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1450–1454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carloni, L. P.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246–1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Caswell, J. J.

Centanni, J. C.

Chandramani, P.

Charlet, G.

Chemla, D. S.

K. W. Goossen, G. D. Boyd, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and R. M. Lum, “GaAs-AlGaAs multiquantum well reflection modulators grown on GaAs and silicon substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 1, 304–306(1989).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Relation between electroabsorption in bulk semiconductors and in quantum wells: the quantum-confined Franz–Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 6976–6982 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32, 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

S. Zheng, H. Chen, and A. W. Poon, “Microring-resonator cross-connect filters in silicon nitride: rib waveguide dimensions dependence,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1380–1387 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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G. A. Keeler, B. E. Nelson, D. Agarwal, C. Debaes, N. C. Helman, A. Bhatnagar, and D. A. B. Miller, “The benefits of ultrashort optical pulses in optically-interconnected systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 477–485 (2003).
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A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, and L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self-electro-optic effect device: optical set-reset latch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1419–1421 (1988).
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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibenguth, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, and L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
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N. Streibl, K.-H. Brenner, A. Huang, J. Jahns, J. Jewell, A. W. Lohmann, D. A. B. Miller, M. Murdocca, M. E. Prise, and T. Sizer, “Digital optics,” Proc. IEEE 77, 1954–1969 (1989).
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K. W. Goossen, G. D. Boyd, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and R. M. Lum, “GaAs-AlGaAs multiquantum well reflection modulators grown on GaAs and silicon substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 1, 304–306(1989).
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R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, J. J. Caswell, A. Gauthier, J. Jahns, M. Jarczynski, P. Lukowicz, J. Oksman, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, J. F. Snowdon, O. Stübbe, G. Troster, and M. Wirz, “Design and construction of the high-speed optoelectronic memory system demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 47, 3500–3512 (2008).
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P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the Holms system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624–635(2003).

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N. Streibl, K.-H. Brenner, A. Huang, J. Jahns, J. Jewell, A. W. Lohmann, D. A. B. Miller, M. Murdocca, M. E. Prise, and T. Sizer, “Digital optics,” Proc. IEEE 77, 1954–1969 (1989).
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J. L. Jewell, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, Y. H. Lee, S. Walker, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, “Low-threshold electrically pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting microlasers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1123–1124 (1989).
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Y.-H. Kuo, Y.-K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437, 1334–1336 (2005).

Kapur, P.

H. Cho, K.-H. Koo, P. Kapur, and D. C. Saraswat, “Performance comparisons between Cu/low-κ, carbon-nanotube, and optics for future on-chip interconnects,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 122–124 (2008).
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Kawanishi, T.

Keeler, G. A.

B. E. Nelson, G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, N. C. Helman, and D. A. B. Miller, “Wavelength division multiplexed optical interconnect using short pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 486–491 (2003).
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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1337–1361 (2009).

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Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “21GHz-Bandwidth germanium-on-silicon photodiode using thin SiGe buffer layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1450–1454 (2006).
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K. Iga, F. Koyama, and S. Konoshita, “Surface emitting semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1845–1855(1988).
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H. Cho, K.-H. Koo, P. Kapur, and D. C. Saraswat, “Performance comparisons between Cu/low-κ, carbon-nanotube, and optics for future on-chip interconnects,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 122–124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Koo, H. Cho, P. Kapur, and K. C. Saraswat, “Performance comparisons between carbon nanotubes, optical, and Cu for future high-performance on-chip interconnect applications,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 3206–3215 (2007).
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K. Iga, F. Koyama, and S. Konoshita, “Surface emitting semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1845–1855(1988).
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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1337–1361 (2009).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibenguth, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, and L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
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A. V. Krishnamoorthy and K. W. Goossen, “Optoelectronic-VLSI: photonics integrated with VLSI circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 899–912 (1998).
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Krishnamoorthy, V.

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J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15, 5851–5859 (2007).
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Y.-H. Kuo, Y.-K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437, 1334–1336 (2005).

Kuzum, D.

A. K. Okyay, D. Kuzum, S. Latif, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “Silicon germanium CMOS optoelectronic switching device: bringing light to latch,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 3252–3259 (2007).
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LaMarche, R. E.

Laprise, E.

M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, P.-O Laprise, J. Eduardo, A. Lugo, and D. V. Plant, “Design and test of an optoelectronic-vlsi chip with 540-element receiver-transmitter arrays using differential optical signaling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 361–379 (2003).
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Laprise, P.-O

M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, P.-O Laprise, J. Eduardo, A. Lugo, and D. V. Plant, “Design and test of an optoelectronic-vlsi chip with 540-element receiver-transmitter arrays using differential optical signaling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 361–379 (2003).
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L. Tang, S. Latif, and D. A. B. Miller, “Plasmonic device in silicon CMOS,” Electron. Lett. 45, 706–708 (2009).
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L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photon. 2, 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Okyay, D. Kuzum, S. Latif, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “Silicon germanium CMOS optoelectronic switching device: bringing light to latch,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 3252–3259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

Lee, Y. H.

J. L. Jewell, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, Y. H. Lee, S. Walker, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, “Low-threshold electrically pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting microlasers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1123–1124 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-K.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y.-K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437, 1334–1336 (2005).

Leibenguth, R. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibenguth, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, and L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
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A. L. Lentine and D. A. B. Miller, “Evolution of the SEED technology: bistable logic gates to optoelectronic smart pixels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 655–669 (1993).
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F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, and E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
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A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, and L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self-electro-optic effect device: optical set-reset latch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1419–1421 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Leonberger, F. J.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, and R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lexau, J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1337–1361 (2009).

Li, G. L.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1337–1361 (2009).

Liao, L.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 064001 (2008).
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F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160Gb/s Bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Advanced Packaging 32, 345–359 (2009).

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A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Liu, M.

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “21GHz-Bandwidth germanium-on-silicon photodiode using thin SiGe buffer layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1450–1454 (2006).
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N. Streibl, K.-H. Brenner, A. Huang, J. Jahns, J. Jewell, A. W. Lohmann, D. A. B. Miller, M. Murdocca, M. E. Prise, and T. Sizer, “Digital optics,” Proc. IEEE 77, 1954–1969 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lopata, J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibenguth, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, and L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lugo, A.

M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, P.-O Laprise, J. Eduardo, A. Lugo, and D. V. Plant, “Design and test of an optoelectronic-vlsi chip with 540-element receiver-transmitter arrays using differential optical signaling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 361–379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lukowicz, P.

R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, J. J. Caswell, A. Gauthier, J. Jahns, M. Jarczynski, P. Lukowicz, J. Oksman, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, J. F. Snowdon, O. Stübbe, G. Troster, and M. Wirz, “Design and construction of the high-speed optoelectronic memory system demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 47, 3500–3512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the Holms system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624–635(2003).

Lum, R. M.

K. W. Goossen, G. D. Boyd, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and R. M. Lum, “GaAs-AlGaAs multiquantum well reflection modulators grown on GaAs and silicon substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 1, 304–306(1989).
[CrossRef]

Ly-Gagnon, D.-S.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photon. 2, 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mai, K. W.

R. Ho, K. W. Mai, and M. A. Horowitz, “The future of wires,” Proc. IEEE 89, 490–504 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marchand, P. J.

McCall, S. L.

J. L. Jewell, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, Y. H. Lee, S. Walker, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, “Low-threshold electrically pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting microlasers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1123–1124 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, T. N. C. Venkatesan, A. C. Gossard, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, “Optical bistability in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 451–453 (1979).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, F. B.

Meindl, J. D.

A. Naeemi, J. Xu, A. V. Mule, T. K. Gaylord, and J. D. Meindl, “Optical and electrical interconnect partition length based on chip-to-chip bandwidth maximization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1221–1223 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Messerschmitt, D. G.

D. E. Atkins, K. K. Droegemeier, S. I. Feldman, H. Garcia-Molina, M. L. Klein, D. G. Messerschmitt, P. Messina, J. P. Ostriker, and M. H. Wright, Final Report of the NSF Blue Ribbon Advisory Panel on Cyberinfrastructure: Revolutionizing Science and Engineering Through Cyberinfrastructure (NSF, January 2003), http://www.nsf.gov/cise/sci/reports/atkins.pdf.

Messina, P.

D. E. Atkins, K. K. Droegemeier, S. I. Feldman, H. Garcia-Molina, M. L. Klein, D. G. Messerschmitt, P. Messina, J. P. Ostriker, and M. H. Wright, Final Report of the NSF Blue Ribbon Advisory Panel on Cyberinfrastructure: Revolutionizing Science and Engineering Through Cyberinfrastructure (NSF, January 2003), http://www.nsf.gov/cise/sci/reports/atkins.pdf.

Michel, J.

Mick, S.

W. R. Davis, J. Wilson, S. Mick, J. Xu, H. Hua, C. Mineo, A. M. Sule, M. Steer, and P. D. Franzon, “Demystifying 3D ICs: the pros and cons of going vertical,” IEEE Design Test Comput. 22, 498–510 (2005).

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Are optical transistors the next logical step?,” Nat. Photon. 4, 3–5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1166–1185 (2009).

L. Tang, S. Latif, and D. A. B. Miller, “Plasmonic device in silicon CMOS,” Electron. Lett. 45, 706–708 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photon. 2, 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15, 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Okyay, D. Kuzum, S. Latif, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “Silicon germanium CMOS optoelectronic switching device: bringing light to latch,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 3252–3259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, A. Bhatnagar, S. Palermo, A. Emami-Neyestanak, and M. A. Horowitz, “Opportunities for optics in integrated circuits applications,” International Solid State Circuits Conference, 2005 (IEEE, 2005), paper 4.6, pp. 86–87.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y.-K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437, 1334–1336 (2005).

M. Gerken and D. A. B. Miller, “Limits to the performance of dispersive thin-film stacks,” Appl. Opt. 44, 3349–3357 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Gerken and D. A. B. Miller, “Multilayer thin-film stacks With steplike spatial beam shifting,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 612–618 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Nelson, G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, N. C. Helman, and D. A. B. Miller, “Wavelength division multiplexed optical interconnect using short pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 486–491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Debaes, A. Bhatnagar, D. Agarwal, R. Chen, G. A. Keeler, N. C. Helman, H. Thienpont, and D. A. B. Miller, “Receiver-less optical clock injection for clock distribution networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 400–409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Keeler, B. E. Nelson, D. Agarwal, C. Debaes, N. C. Helman, A. Bhatnagar, and D. A. B. Miller, “The benefits of ultrashort optical pulses in optically-interconnected systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 477–485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88, 728–749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1312–1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Nelson, M. Gerken, D. A. B. Miller, R. Piestun, C.-C. Lin, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Use of a dielectric stack as a one-dimensional photonic crystal for wavelength demultiplexing by beam shifting,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1502–1504 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Physical reasons for optical interconnection,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 11(3), 155–168 (1997).

D. A. B. Miller and H. M. Ozaktas, “Limit to the bit-rate capacity of electrical interconnects from the aspect ratio of the system architecture,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 42–52(1997).

A V. Krishnamoorthy and D. A. B. Miller, “Scaling optoelectronic-VLSI circuits into the 21st century: a technology roadmap,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 55–76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine and D. A. B. Miller, “Evolution of the SEED technology: bistable logic gates to optoelectronic smart pixels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 655–669 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Quantum-well self-electro-optic effect devices,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S61–S98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for digital optical processing,” in Digital Optical Computing, R.A.Athale, ed., SPIE Critical Reviews of Optical Science and Technology (SPIE, 1990), Vol. CR35, pp. 68–76.

D. A. B. Miller, “Optics for low-energy communication inside digital processors: quantum detectors, sources, and modulators as efficient impedance converters,” Opt. Lett. 14, 146–148 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, G. D. Boyd, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and R. M. Lum, “GaAs-AlGaAs multiquantum well reflection modulators grown on GaAs and silicon substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 1, 304–306(1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Streibl, K.-H. Brenner, A. Huang, J. Jahns, J. Jewell, A. W. Lohmann, D. A. B. Miller, M. Murdocca, M. E. Prise, and T. Sizer, “Digital optics,” Proc. IEEE 77, 1954–1969 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, and L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self-electro-optic effect device: optical set-reset latch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1419–1421 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Relation between electroabsorption in bulk semiconductors and in quantum wells: the quantum-confined Franz–Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 6976–6982 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32, 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, S. D. Smith, and A. Johnston, “Optical bistability and signal amplification in a semiconductor crystal. Application of new low-power nonlinear effects in InSb,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 658–660 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Milojkovic, P.

Mineo, C.

W. R. Davis, J. Wilson, S. Mick, J. Xu, H. Hua, C. Mineo, A. M. Sule, M. Steer, and P. D. Franzon, “Demystifying 3D ICs: the pros and cons of going vertical,” IEEE Design Test Comput. 22, 498–510 (2005).

Mohammadi, F.

K. C. Saraswat and F. Mohammadi, “Effect of scaling of interconnections on the time delay of VLSI circuits,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 29, 645–650 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, R. L.

Mule, A. V.

A. Naeemi, J. Xu, A. V. Mule, T. K. Gaylord, and J. D. Meindl, “Optical and electrical interconnect partition length based on chip-to-chip bandwidth maximization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1221–1223 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Murdocca, M.

N. Streibl, K.-H. Brenner, A. Huang, J. Jahns, J. Jewell, A. W. Lohmann, D. A. B. Miller, M. Murdocca, M. E. Prise, and T. Sizer, “Digital optics,” Proc. IEEE 77, 1954–1969 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Murdocca, M. J.

Naeemi, A.

A. Naeemi, J. Xu, A. V. Mule, T. K. Gaylord, and J. D. Meindl, “Optical and electrical interconnect partition length based on chip-to-chip bandwidth maximization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1221–1223 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, M.

T. Baba and M. Nakamura, “Photonic crystal light deflection devices using the superprism effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 909–914 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, B. E.

B. E. Nelson, G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, N. C. Helman, and D. A. B. Miller, “Wavelength division multiplexed optical interconnect using short pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 486–491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Keeler, B. E. Nelson, D. Agarwal, C. Debaes, N. C. Helman, A. Bhatnagar, and D. A. B. Miller, “The benefits of ultrashort optical pulses in optically-interconnected systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 477–485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Nelson, M. Gerken, D. A. B. Miller, R. Piestun, C.-C. Lin, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Use of a dielectric stack as a one-dimensional photonic crystal for wavelength demultiplexing by beam shifting,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1502–1504 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, R. A.

Offrein, B. J.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160Gb/s Bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Advanced Packaging 32, 345–359 (2009).

F. Horst, W. M. J. Green, B. J. Offrein, and Y. Vlasov, “Echelle grating WDM (de-)multiplexers in SOI technology based on a design with two stigmatic points,” Proc. SPIE 6996, 69960R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oksman, J.

Okyay, A. K.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photon. 2, 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Okyay, D. Kuzum, S. Latif, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “Silicon germanium CMOS optoelectronic switching device: bringing light to latch,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 3252–3259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ostriker, J. P.

D. E. Atkins, K. K. Droegemeier, S. I. Feldman, H. Garcia-Molina, M. L. Klein, D. G. Messerschmitt, P. Messina, J. P. Ostriker, and M. H. Wright, Final Report of the NSF Blue Ribbon Advisory Panel on Cyberinfrastructure: Revolutionizing Science and Engineering Through Cyberinfrastructure (NSF, January 2003), http://www.nsf.gov/cise/sci/reports/atkins.pdf.

Ozaktas, H. M.

D. A. B. Miller and H. M. Ozaktas, “Limit to the bit-rate capacity of electrical interconnects from the aspect ratio of the system architecture,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 42–52(1997).

Palermo, S.

D. A. B. Miller, A. Bhatnagar, S. Palermo, A. Emami-Neyestanak, and M. A. Horowitz, “Opportunities for optics in integrated circuits applications,” International Solid State Circuits Conference, 2005 (IEEE, 2005), paper 4.6, pp. 86–87.

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M. J.

Park, H.

Passner, A.

H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, T. N. C. Venkatesan, A. C. Gossard, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, “Optical bistability in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 451–453 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pennelli, G.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, M. G. Forbes, S. J. Fancey, G. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. A. B. Dines, C. R. Stanley, G. Pennelli, A. R. Boyd, P. Horan, D. Byrne, J. Hegarty, S. Eitel, H. P. Gauggel, K. H. Gulden, A. Gauthier, P. Benabes, J. L. Gutzwiller, M. Goetz, and M. P. Y. Desmulliez, “Design and construction of an optoelectronic crossbar switch containing a terabit per second free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 236–249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pepeljugoski, P.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160Gb/s Bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Advanced Packaging 32, 345–359 (2009).

Petroff, P.

I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stolz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320, 769–772 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Piestun, R.

Plant, D. V.

M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, P.-O Laprise, J. Eduardo, A. Lugo, and D. V. Plant, “Design and test of an optoelectronic-vlsi chip with 540-element receiver-transmitter arrays using differential optical signaling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 361–379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pomerene, A.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photon. 2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Poon, A. W.

S. Zheng, H. Chen, and A. W. Poon, “Microring-resonator cross-connect filters in silicon nitride: rib waveguide dimensions dependence,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1380–1387 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prise, M. E.

M. E. Prise, N. C. Craft, M. M. Downs, R. E. LaMarche, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, and M. J. Murdocca, “Optical digital processor using arrays of symmetric self-electrooptic effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2287–2296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. Streibl, K.-H. Brenner, A. Huang, J. Jahns, J. Jewell, A. W. Lohmann, D. A. B. Miller, M. Murdocca, M. E. Prise, and T. Sizer, “Digital optics,” Proc. IEEE 77, 1954–1969 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics (Wiley, 2004).

Reif, R.

K.-N. Chen, M. J. Kobrinsky, B. C. Barnett, and R. Reif, “Comparisons of conventional, 3-D, optical, and RF interconnects for on-chip clock distribution,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 233–239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ren, S.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y.-K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437, 1334–1336 (2005).

Roth, J. E.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15, 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y.-K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437, 1334–1336 (2005).

Rozier, R.

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Russell, G. A.

R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, J. J. Caswell, A. Gauthier, J. Jahns, M. Jarczynski, P. Lukowicz, J. Oksman, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, J. F. Snowdon, O. Stübbe, G. Troster, and M. Wirz, “Design and construction of the high-speed optoelectronic memory system demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 47, 3500–3512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the Holms system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624–635(2003).

Sakamoto, T.

Saraswat, D. C.

H. Cho, K.-H. Koo, P. Kapur, and D. C. Saraswat, “Performance comparisons between Cu/low-κ, carbon-nanotube, and optics for future on-chip interconnects,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 122–124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saraswat, K. C.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photon. 2, 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Koo, H. Cho, P. Kapur, and K. C. Saraswat, “Performance comparisons between carbon nanotubes, optical, and Cu for future high-performance on-chip interconnect applications,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 3206–3215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Okyay, D. Kuzum, S. Latif, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “Silicon germanium CMOS optoelectronic switching device: bringing light to latch,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 3252–3259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Cho, P. Kapur, and K. C. Saraswat, “Power comparison between high-speed electrical and optical interconnects for interchip communication,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2021–2033 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Saraswat and F. Mohammadi, “Effect of scaling of interconnections on the time delay of VLSI circuits,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 29, 645–650 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sasian, J. M.

Schaevitz, R. K.

Schares, L.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160Gb/s Bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Advanced Packaging 32, 345–359 (2009).

Scherer, A.

J. L. Jewell, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, Y. H. Lee, S. Walker, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, “Low-threshold electrically pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting microlasers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1123–1124 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt-Rink, S.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Relation between electroabsorption in bulk semiconductors and in quantum wells: the quantum-confined Franz–Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 6976–6982 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Schow, C. L.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160Gb/s Bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Advanced Packaging 32, 345–359 (2009).

Schrage, J.

R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, J. J. Caswell, A. Gauthier, J. Jahns, M. Jarczynski, P. Lukowicz, J. Oksman, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, J. F. Snowdon, O. Stübbe, G. Troster, and M. Wirz, “Design and construction of the high-speed optoelectronic memory system demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 47, 3500–3512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the Holms system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624–635(2003).

Schwetman, H.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1337–1361 (2009).

Sevaraja, S.

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Sevaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer with high reflective Bragg reflector facets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 309–311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shacham, A.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246–1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shubin, I.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1337–1361 (2009).

Sizer, T.

N. Streibl, K.-H. Brenner, A. Huang, J. Jahns, J. Jewell, A. W. Lohmann, D. A. B. Miller, M. Murdocca, M. E. Prise, and T. Sizer, “Digital optics,” Proc. IEEE 77, 1954–1969 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. W.

P. W. Smith, “On the physical limits of digital optical switching and logic elements,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 61, 1975–1993 (1982).

Smith, S. D.

R. G. A. Craig, B. S. Wherrett, A. C. Walker, F. A. P. Tooley, and S. D. Smith, “Optical cellular logic image processor: implementation and programming of a single channel digital optical circuit,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2297–2308 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, S. D. Smith, and A. Johnston, “Optical bistability and signal amplification in a semiconductor crystal. Application of new low-power nonlinear effects in InSb,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 658–660 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Snider, G. S.

R. G. Beausoleil, P. J. Kuekes, G. S. Snider, S.-Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Nanoelectronic and nanophotonic interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 96, 230–247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Snowdon, J. F.

R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, J. J. Caswell, A. Gauthier, J. Jahns, M. Jarczynski, P. Lukowicz, J. Oksman, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, J. F. Snowdon, O. Stübbe, G. Troster, and M. Wirz, “Design and construction of the high-speed optoelectronic memory system demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 47, 3500–3512 (2008).
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IEEE Trans. Advanced Packaging (1)

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160Gb/s Bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Advanced Packaging 32, 345–359 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246–1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (4)

A. K. Okyay, D. Kuzum, S. Latif, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “Silicon germanium CMOS optoelectronic switching device: bringing light to latch,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 3252–3259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K.-N. Chen, M. J. Kobrinsky, B. C. Barnett, and R. Reif, “Comparisons of conventional, 3-D, optical, and RF interconnects for on-chip clock distribution,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 233–239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Koo, H. Cho, P. Kapur, and K. C. Saraswat, “Performance comparisons between carbon nanotubes, optical, and Cu for future high-performance on-chip interconnect applications,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 3206–3215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Saraswat and F. Mohammadi, “Effect of scaling of interconnections on the time delay of VLSI circuits,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 29, 645–650 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Optoelectron. (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Physical reasons for optical interconnection,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 11(3), 155–168 (1997).

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. (1)

D. A. B. Miller and H. M. Ozaktas, “Limit to the bit-rate capacity of electrical interconnects from the aspect ratio of the system architecture,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 42–52(1997).

Nat. Photon. (3)

D. A. B. Miller, “Are optical transistors the next logical step?,” Nat. Photon. 4, 3–5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photon. 2, 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photon. 2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Y.-H. Kuo, Y.-K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437, 1334–1336 (2005).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Quantum-well self-electro-optic effect devices,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S61–S98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32, 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Relation between electroabsorption in bulk semiconductors and in quantum wells: the quantum-confined Franz–Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 6976–6982 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (7)

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, and R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88, 728–749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1166–1185 (2009).

R. Ho, K. W. Mai, and M. A. Horowitz, “The future of wires,” Proc. IEEE 89, 490–504 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Streibl, K.-H. Brenner, A. Huang, J. Jahns, J. Jewell, A. W. Lohmann, D. A. B. Miller, M. Murdocca, M. E. Prise, and T. Sizer, “Digital optics,” Proc. IEEE 77, 1954–1969 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Beausoleil, P. J. Kuekes, G. S. Snider, S.-Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Nanoelectronic and nanophotonic interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 96, 230–247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1337–1361 (2009).

Proc. SPIE (1)

F. Horst, W. M. J. Green, B. J. Offrein, and Y. Vlasov, “Echelle grating WDM (de-)multiplexers in SOI technology based on a design with two stigmatic points,” Proc. SPIE 6996, 69960R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stolz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320, 769–772 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

D. A. B. Miller, A. Bhatnagar, S. Palermo, A. Emami-Neyestanak, and M. A. Horowitz, “Opportunities for optics in integrated circuits applications,” International Solid State Circuits Conference, 2005 (IEEE, 2005), paper 4.6, pp. 86–87.

“International technology roadmap for semiconductors,” http://www.itrs.net/.

D. E. Atkins, K. K. Droegemeier, S. I. Feldman, H. Garcia-Molina, M. L. Klein, D. G. Messerschmitt, P. Messina, J. P. Ostriker, and M. H. Wright, Final Report of the NSF Blue Ribbon Advisory Panel on Cyberinfrastructure: Revolutionizing Science and Engineering Through Cyberinfrastructure (NSF, January 2003), http://www.nsf.gov/cise/sci/reports/atkins.pdf.

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for digital optical processing,” in Digital Optical Computing, R.A.Athale, ed., SPIE Critical Reviews of Optical Science and Technology (SPIE, 1990), Vol. CR35, pp. 68–76.

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics (Wiley, 2004).

L.Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, eds., Silicon Photonics (Springer-Verlag, 2004).

H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light (Academic, 1985).

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the Holms system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624–635(2003).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simple scaling of electrical wiring shows that the resistance × capacitance product would not change at all as the wire is scaled down in all three dimensions. Hence, for simple signaling where the resistance × capacitance time constant of the wire would set the shortest pulse that could readily be sent on the line, the bit rate capacity of the line is independent of the size scale of the line [3].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of quantum impedance conversion (a) for continuous beams and (b) for pulses.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Comparison of the Reasons and Requirements for the Use of Optics to Communicate over Long and Short Distances

Equations (1)

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