Abstract

The history of laser refractive surgery is reviewed, followed by an overview of the current state of the field as well as a look at promising future developments.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. A. Gordon and P. B. Donzis, “Refractive development of the human eye,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 103, 785–789(1985).
  2. S. Vitale, R. D. Sperduto, and F. L. Ferris III , “Increased prevalence of myopia in the United States between 1971–1972 and 1999–2004,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 127, 1632–1639(2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. Fernández-Sánchez, M. E. Ponce, F. Lara, R. Montés-Micó, J. F. Castejón-Mochón, and N. López-Gil, “Effect of 3rd-order aberrations on human vision,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34, 1339–1344 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. R. Chalita, S. Chavala, M. Xu, and R. R. Krueger, “Wavefront analysis in post-LASIK eyes and its correlation with visual symptoms, refraction, and topography,” Ophthalmology annual 111, 447–453 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Sharma, B. S. Wachler, and C. C. Chan, “Higher order aberrations and relative risk of symptoms after LASIK,” J. Refract. Surg. 23, 252–256 (2007).
    [PubMed]
  6. A. Glasser and P. L. Kaufman, “Accommodation and presbyopia,” in Adler’s Physiology of the Eye: Clinical Application, P.L.Kaufman and A.Alm, eds., 10th ed. (St. Mosby, 2003), pp. 197–233.
  7. R. L. Epstein and M. A. Gurgos, “Presbyopia treatment by monocular peripheral presbyLASIK,” J. Refract. Surg. 25, 516–523 (2009).
    [PubMed]
  8. O. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract. Refract. Surg. 34, 1921–1927 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Covert, C. Henry, and S. B. Koenig, “Intraocular lens power selection in the second eye of patients undergoing bilateral, sequential cataract extraction,” Ophthalmology annual 117, 49–54 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. A. Sandstedt, S. H. Chang, R. H. Grubbs, and D. M. Schwartz, “Light-adjustable lens: customizing correction for multifocality and higher-order aberrations,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 104, 29–39 (2006).
  11. M. Lipner, “Out of the corneal box: the femtosecond laser extends its reach,” EyeWorld , Dec. 2009, pp. 26–27.
  12. Z. Sacks, R. Kurtz, T. Juhasz, G. Spooner, and G. Mouroua, “Subsurface photodisruption in human sclera: wavelength dependence,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging. 34, 104–113(2003).
    [PubMed]
  13. C. N. J. McGhee, H. R. Taylor, D. S. Gartry, and S. L. Trokel, Excimer Lasers in Ophthalmology: Principles and Practice (Martin Duntz, 1997).
  14. J. J. Machat, Excimer Laser Refractive Surgery (Slack, 1996).
  15. G. Yoon, S. MacRae, D. R. Williams, and I. G. Cox, “Causes of spherical aberration induced by laser refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31, 127–135 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Visx Star S4 Users Training Manual (Abbott Laboratories, 2009).
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  19. G. A. Peyman, B. Larson, M. Raichand, and A. H. Andrews, “Modification of rabbit corneal curvature with use of carbon dioxide laser burns,” Ophthalmic Surg. 11, 325–329 (1980).
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  20. J. Taboada and C. J. Archibald, “An extreme sensitivity in the corneal epithelium to far UV ArF excimer laser pulses,” presented at Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association, San Antonio, Texas, 1981.
  21. S. L. Trokel, R. Srinivasan, and B. Braren, “Excimer laser surgery of the cornea,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 710–715(1983).
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  22. T. Seiler, G. Kahle, and M. Kriegerowski, “Excimer laser (193nm) myopic keratomileusis in sighted and blind human eyes,” Refract. Corneal Surg, 6, 383–385 (1990).
  23. C. R. Munnerlyn, S. J. Koons, and J. Marshall, “Photorefractive keratectomy:a technique for laser refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 14, 46–52 (1988).
    [PubMed]
  24. M. B. McDonald, R. Beuerman, W. Falzoni, L. Rivera, and H. E. Kaufman, “Refractive surgery with the excimer laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 469 (1987).
    [PubMed]
  25. M. B. McDonald, J. M. Frantz, S. D. Klyce, B. Salmeron, R. W. Beuerman, C. R. Munnerlyn, T. N. Clapham, S. J. Koons, and H. E. Kaufman, “One-year refractive results of central photorefractive keratectomy for myopia in the nonhuman primate cornea,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 108, 40–47 (1990).
  26. I. Pallikaris, M. Papatsanaki, E. Stathi, O. Frenschock, and A. Georgiadis, “Laser in situ keratomileusis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 463–468 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. M. Wang, LASIK Vision Correction (Med World, 2000).
  28. A. Sugar, C. J. Rapuano, W. W. Culbertson, D. Huang, G. A. Varley, P. J. Agapitos, V. P. de Luise, and D. D. Koch, “Laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia and astigmatism: safety and efficacy: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology Annual 109, 175–187 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. R. Chalita, M. Xu, and R. R. Krueger, “Correlation of aberrations with visual symptoms using wavefront analysis in eyes after laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, S682–S686 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  30. S. C. Schallhorn, A. Farjo, D. Huang, B. S. Boxer Wachler, W. B. Trattler, D. J. Tanzer, P. A. Majmudar, and A. Sugar, “Wavefront-guided LASIK for the correction of primary myopia and astigmatism: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology annual 115, 1249–1261(2008).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. Holladay, “Fewer high order aberrations yields better visual performance,” EyeWorld Supplement , May 2008.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. P. Padmanabhan, M. Mrochen, S. Basuthkar, D. Viswanathan, and R. Joseph, “Wavefront-guided versus wavefront-optimized fewer in situ keratomileusis: contralateral comparative study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34, 389–397 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. K. G. Stonecipher and G. M. Kezirian, “Wavefront-optimized versus wavefront-guided LASIK for myopic astigmatism with the ALLEGRETTTO WAVE: three-month results of a prospective FDA trial,” J. Refrac. Surg. 24, S424–S430 (2008).
  35. A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, “Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883–3886(1999).
    [CrossRef]
  36. T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, Ch. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, “Corneal refractive surgery with femtosecond lasers,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 902–910(1999).
    [CrossRef]
  37. D. Stern, R. W. Schoenlein, C. A. Puliafito, E. T. Dobi, R. Birngruber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Corneal ablation by nanosecond, picosecond, and femtosecond lasers at 532 and 625nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 107, 587–592 (1989).
  38. M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terrawatt to petawatt class sub picosecond lasers,” Science 264, 917–924 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. R. M. Kurz, X. Liu, V. M. Elner, J. A. Squier, D. Du, and G. A. Mourou, “Plasma-mediated ablation in human cornea as a function of laser pulse width,” J. Refract. Surg. 13, 653–658 (1997).
  40. H. Soong and J. Malta, “Femtosecond lasers in ophthalmology,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 147, 189–197 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  41. I. Ratkay-Traub, I. E. Ferincz, T. Juhasz, R. M. Kurtz, and R. R. Krueger, “First clinical results with the femtosecond neodynium-glass laser in refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, 94–103 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  42. B. Sonigo, V. Iordanidou, D. Chong-Sit, F. Auclin, J. M. Ancel, A. Labbé, and C. Baudouin, “In vivo corneal confocal microscopy comparison of Intralase femtosecond laser and mechanical microkeratome for laser in situ keratomileusis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2803–2811 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  43. J. H. Talamo, J. Meltzer, and J. Gardner, “Reproducibility of flap thickness with IntraLase FS and Moria LSK-1 and M2 microkeratomes,” J. Refract. Surg. 22, 556–561(2006).
    [PubMed]
  44. G. M. Kezirian and K. G. Stonecipher, “Comparison of the IntraLase femtosecond laser and mechanical keratomes for laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 804–811 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. J. L. Alió and D. P. Pinero, “Very high-frequency digital ultrasound measurement of the LASIK flap thickness profile using the IntraLase femtosecond laser and M2 and Carriazo–Pendular microkeratomes,” J. Refract. Surg. 24, 12–23 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  46. M. Wevill, “Plasma vs steel; results of more than 20,000 cases,” presented at Abbott Medical Optics Inc. sponsored symposia, ESCRS Annual Meeting, Barcelona, Spain, 12–16 Sept. 2009.
  47. M. Tanna, S. C. Schallhorn, and K. A. Hettinger, “Femtosecond laser versus microkeratome: a retrospective comparison of visual outcomes at 3 months,” J. Refract. Surg. 25 (7 Suppl), S668–S671 (2009).
    [PubMed]
  48. B. Wachler and M. Wevill, “Mechanical microkeratome versus femtosecond laser,” Cataract and Refractive Surgery Today Europe, Jan. 2010, pp. 28–33.
  49. FTN Equity Capital Markets Corp.,“LASIK report,” 15 Jan. 2010.
  50. MarketScope, “Comprehensive report on the global refractive surgery market,” 2006.
  51. L. Buzzonetti, G. Petrocelli, A. Laborante, E. Mazzilli, M. Gaspari, and P. Valente, “Arcuate keratotomy for high postoperative keratoplasty astigmatism performed with the IntraLase femtosecond laser,” J. Refract. Surg. 25, 709–714 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  52. L. A. Ruiz, L. M. Cepeda, and V. C. Fuentes, “Intrastromal correction of presbyopia using a femtosecond laser system,” J. Refract. Surg. 25, 847–854 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  53. M. Wang, Corneal Topography in the Wavefront Era: a Guide for Clinical Application (Slack, 2006).
  54. M. Wang, “Future direction: technological development and treating the problem at its source,” in Irregular Astigmatism: Diagnosis and Treatment, M.Wang, ed. (Slack, 2008), pp 279–284.
  55. N. Alpins and G. Stamatelatos, “Clinical outcomes of laser in situ keratomileusis using combined topography and refractive wavefront treatments for myopic astigmatism,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34, 1250–1259 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  56. N. Alpins, “Astigmatism analysis by the Alpins method,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 27, 31–49 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  57. K. D. Solomon, L. E. Fernández de Castro, H. P. Sandoval, J. M. Biber, B. Groat, K. D. Neff, M. S. Ying, J. W. French, E. D. Donnenfeld, and R. L. Lindstrom, “LASIK world literature review: quality of life and patient satisfaction,” Ophthalmology annual 116, 691–701 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

D. Covert, C. Henry, and S. B. Koenig, “Intraocular lens power selection in the second eye of patients undergoing bilateral, sequential cataract extraction,” Ophthalmology annual 117, 49–54 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Green and R. Aguilar, Technical Services, Alcon Manufacturing, Ltd., 15800 Alton Parkway, Irvine, Calif. 92618 (personal communication, 2010).

B. Wachler and M. Wevill, “Mechanical microkeratome versus femtosecond laser,” Cataract and Refractive Surgery Today Europe, Jan. 2010, pp. 28–33.

2009 (10)

H. Soong and J. Malta, “Femtosecond lasers in ophthalmology,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 147, 189–197 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Buzzonetti, G. Petrocelli, A. Laborante, E. Mazzilli, M. Gaspari, and P. Valente, “Arcuate keratotomy for high postoperative keratoplasty astigmatism performed with the IntraLase femtosecond laser,” J. Refract. Surg. 25, 709–714 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Ruiz, L. M. Cepeda, and V. C. Fuentes, “Intrastromal correction of presbyopia using a femtosecond laser system,” J. Refract. Surg. 25, 847–854 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tanna, S. C. Schallhorn, and K. A. Hettinger, “Femtosecond laser versus microkeratome: a retrospective comparison of visual outcomes at 3 months,” J. Refract. Surg. 25 (7 Suppl), S668–S671 (2009).
[PubMed]

K. D. Solomon, L. E. Fernández de Castro, H. P. Sandoval, J. M. Biber, B. Groat, K. D. Neff, M. S. Ying, J. W. French, E. D. Donnenfeld, and R. L. Lindstrom, “LASIK world literature review: quality of life and patient satisfaction,” Ophthalmology annual 116, 691–701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Lipner, “Out of the corneal box: the femtosecond laser extends its reach,” EyeWorld , Dec. 2009, pp. 26–27.

R. L. Epstein and M. A. Gurgos, “Presbyopia treatment by monocular peripheral presbyLASIK,” J. Refract. Surg. 25, 516–523 (2009).
[PubMed]

S. Vitale, R. D. Sperduto, and F. L. Ferris III , “Increased prevalence of myopia in the United States between 1971–1972 and 1999–2004,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 127, 1632–1639(2009).
[CrossRef]

Visx Star S4 Users Training Manual (Abbott Laboratories, 2009).

E. H. Myrowitz and R. S. Chuck, “A comparison of wavefront-optimized and wavefront-guided ablations,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 20, 247–250 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (8)

P. Padmanabhan, M. Mrochen, S. Basuthkar, D. Viswanathan, and R. Joseph, “Wavefront-guided versus wavefront-optimized fewer in situ keratomileusis: contralateral comparative study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34, 389–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Stonecipher and G. M. Kezirian, “Wavefront-optimized versus wavefront-guided LASIK for myopic astigmatism with the ALLEGRETTTO WAVE: three-month results of a prospective FDA trial,” J. Refrac. Surg. 24, S424–S430 (2008).

S. C. Schallhorn, A. Farjo, D. Huang, B. S. Boxer Wachler, W. B. Trattler, D. J. Tanzer, P. A. Majmudar, and A. Sugar, “Wavefront-guided LASIK for the correction of primary myopia and astigmatism: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology annual 115, 1249–1261(2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Fernández-Sánchez, M. E. Ponce, F. Lara, R. Montés-Micó, J. F. Castejón-Mochón, and N. López-Gil, “Effect of 3rd-order aberrations on human vision,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34, 1339–1344 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract. Refract. Surg. 34, 1921–1927 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wang, “Future direction: technological development and treating the problem at its source,” in Irregular Astigmatism: Diagnosis and Treatment, M.Wang, ed. (Slack, 2008), pp 279–284.

N. Alpins and G. Stamatelatos, “Clinical outcomes of laser in situ keratomileusis using combined topography and refractive wavefront treatments for myopic astigmatism,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34, 1250–1259 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Alió and D. P. Pinero, “Very high-frequency digital ultrasound measurement of the LASIK flap thickness profile using the IntraLase femtosecond laser and M2 and Carriazo–Pendular microkeratomes,” J. Refract. Surg. 24, 12–23 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. Sharma, B. S. Wachler, and C. C. Chan, “Higher order aberrations and relative risk of symptoms after LASIK,” J. Refract. Surg. 23, 252–256 (2007).
[PubMed]

2006 (5)

C. A. Sandstedt, S. H. Chang, R. H. Grubbs, and D. M. Schwartz, “Light-adjustable lens: customizing correction for multifocality and higher-order aberrations,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 104, 29–39 (2006).

MarketScope, “Comprehensive report on the global refractive surgery market,” 2006.

B. Sonigo, V. Iordanidou, D. Chong-Sit, F. Auclin, J. M. Ancel, A. Labbé, and C. Baudouin, “In vivo corneal confocal microscopy comparison of Intralase femtosecond laser and mechanical microkeratome for laser in situ keratomileusis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2803–2811 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Talamo, J. Meltzer, and J. Gardner, “Reproducibility of flap thickness with IntraLase FS and Moria LSK-1 and M2 microkeratomes,” J. Refract. Surg. 22, 556–561(2006).
[PubMed]

M. Wang, Corneal Topography in the Wavefront Era: a Guide for Clinical Application (Slack, 2006).

2005 (1)

G. Yoon, S. MacRae, D. R. Williams, and I. G. Cox, “Causes of spherical aberration induced by laser refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31, 127–135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

M. R. Chalita, S. Chavala, M. Xu, and R. R. Krueger, “Wavefront analysis in post-LASIK eyes and its correlation with visual symptoms, refraction, and topography,” Ophthalmology annual 111, 447–453 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Kezirian and K. G. Stonecipher, “Comparison of the IntraLase femtosecond laser and mechanical keratomes for laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 804–811 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

I. Ratkay-Traub, I. E. Ferincz, T. Juhasz, R. M. Kurtz, and R. R. Krueger, “First clinical results with the femtosecond neodynium-glass laser in refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, 94–103 (2003).
[PubMed]

A. Glasser and P. L. Kaufman, “Accommodation and presbyopia,” in Adler’s Physiology of the Eye: Clinical Application, P.L.Kaufman and A.Alm, eds., 10th ed. (St. Mosby, 2003), pp. 197–233.

Z. Sacks, R. Kurtz, T. Juhasz, G. Spooner, and G. Mouroua, “Subsurface photodisruption in human sclera: wavelength dependence,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging. 34, 104–113(2003).
[PubMed]

M. R. Chalita, M. Xu, and R. R. Krueger, “Correlation of aberrations with visual symptoms using wavefront analysis in eyes after laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, S682–S686 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. Sugar, C. J. Rapuano, W. W. Culbertson, D. Huang, G. A. Varley, P. J. Agapitos, V. P. de Luise, and D. D. Koch, “Laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia and astigmatism: safety and efficacy: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology Annual 109, 175–187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

N. Alpins, “Astigmatism analysis by the Alpins method,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 27, 31–49 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Wang, LASIK Vision Correction (Med World, 2000).

1999 (2)

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, “Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883–3886(1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, Ch. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, “Corneal refractive surgery with femtosecond lasers,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 902–910(1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

C. N. J. McGhee, H. R. Taylor, D. S. Gartry, and S. L. Trokel, Excimer Lasers in Ophthalmology: Principles and Practice (Martin Duntz, 1997).

R. M. Kurz, X. Liu, V. M. Elner, J. A. Squier, D. Du, and G. A. Mourou, “Plasma-mediated ablation in human cornea as a function of laser pulse width,” J. Refract. Surg. 13, 653–658 (1997).

1996 (1)

J. J. Machat, Excimer Laser Refractive Surgery (Slack, 1996).

1994 (1)

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terrawatt to petawatt class sub picosecond lasers,” Science 264, 917–924 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (3)

M. B. McDonald, J. M. Frantz, S. D. Klyce, B. Salmeron, R. W. Beuerman, C. R. Munnerlyn, T. N. Clapham, S. J. Koons, and H. E. Kaufman, “One-year refractive results of central photorefractive keratectomy for myopia in the nonhuman primate cornea,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 108, 40–47 (1990).

I. Pallikaris, M. Papatsanaki, E. Stathi, O. Frenschock, and A. Georgiadis, “Laser in situ keratomileusis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 463–468 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Seiler, G. Kahle, and M. Kriegerowski, “Excimer laser (193nm) myopic keratomileusis in sighted and blind human eyes,” Refract. Corneal Surg, 6, 383–385 (1990).

1989 (1)

D. Stern, R. W. Schoenlein, C. A. Puliafito, E. T. Dobi, R. Birngruber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Corneal ablation by nanosecond, picosecond, and femtosecond lasers at 532 and 625nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 107, 587–592 (1989).

1988 (1)

C. R. Munnerlyn, S. J. Koons, and J. Marshall, “Photorefractive keratectomy:a technique for laser refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 14, 46–52 (1988).
[PubMed]

1987 (1)

M. B. McDonald, R. Beuerman, W. Falzoni, L. Rivera, and H. E. Kaufman, “Refractive surgery with the excimer laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 469 (1987).
[PubMed]

1985 (1)

R. A. Gordon and P. B. Donzis, “Refractive development of the human eye,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 103, 785–789(1985).

1983 (1)

S. L. Trokel, R. Srinivasan, and B. Braren, “Excimer laser surgery of the cornea,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 710–715(1983).
[PubMed]

1981 (1)

J. Taboada and C. J. Archibald, “An extreme sensitivity in the corneal epithelium to far UV ArF excimer laser pulses,” presented at Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association, San Antonio, Texas, 1981.

1980 (1)

G. A. Peyman, B. Larson, M. Raichand, and A. H. Andrews, “Modification of rabbit corneal curvature with use of carbon dioxide laser burns,” Ophthalmic Surg. 11, 325–329 (1980).
[PubMed]

Agapitos, P. J.

A. Sugar, C. J. Rapuano, W. W. Culbertson, D. Huang, G. A. Varley, P. J. Agapitos, V. P. de Luise, and D. D. Koch, “Laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia and astigmatism: safety and efficacy: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology Annual 109, 175–187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Agca, A.

O. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract. Refract. Surg. 34, 1921–1927 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aguilar, R.

B. Green and R. Aguilar, Technical Services, Alcon Manufacturing, Ltd., 15800 Alton Parkway, Irvine, Calif. 92618 (personal communication, 2010).

Alió, J. L.

J. L. Alió and D. P. Pinero, “Very high-frequency digital ultrasound measurement of the LASIK flap thickness profile using the IntraLase femtosecond laser and M2 and Carriazo–Pendular microkeratomes,” J. Refract. Surg. 24, 12–23 (2008).
[PubMed]

Alpins, N.

N. Alpins and G. Stamatelatos, “Clinical outcomes of laser in situ keratomileusis using combined topography and refractive wavefront treatments for myopic astigmatism,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34, 1250–1259 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Alpins, “Astigmatism analysis by the Alpins method,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 27, 31–49 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ancel, J. M.

B. Sonigo, V. Iordanidou, D. Chong-Sit, F. Auclin, J. M. Ancel, A. Labbé, and C. Baudouin, “In vivo corneal confocal microscopy comparison of Intralase femtosecond laser and mechanical microkeratome for laser in situ keratomileusis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2803–2811 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, A. H.

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B. Sonigo, V. Iordanidou, D. Chong-Sit, F. Auclin, J. M. Ancel, A. Labbé, and C. Baudouin, “In vivo corneal confocal microscopy comparison of Intralase femtosecond laser and mechanical microkeratome for laser in situ keratomileusis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2803–2811 (2006).
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K. D. Solomon, L. E. Fernández de Castro, H. P. Sandoval, J. M. Biber, B. Groat, K. D. Neff, M. S. Ying, J. W. French, E. D. Donnenfeld, and R. L. Lindstrom, “LASIK world literature review: quality of life and patient satisfaction,” Ophthalmology annual 116, 691–701 (2009).
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T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, Ch. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, “Corneal refractive surgery with femtosecond lasers,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 902–910(1999).
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S. C. Schallhorn, A. Farjo, D. Huang, B. S. Boxer Wachler, W. B. Trattler, D. J. Tanzer, P. A. Majmudar, and A. Sugar, “Wavefront-guided LASIK for the correction of primary myopia and astigmatism: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology annual 115, 1249–1261(2008).
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L. Buzzonetti, G. Petrocelli, A. Laborante, E. Mazzilli, M. Gaspari, and P. Valente, “Arcuate keratotomy for high postoperative keratoplasty astigmatism performed with the IntraLase femtosecond laser,” J. Refract. Surg. 25, 709–714 (2009).
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M. R. Chalita, S. Chavala, M. Xu, and R. R. Krueger, “Wavefront analysis in post-LASIK eyes and its correlation with visual symptoms, refraction, and topography,” Ophthalmology annual 111, 447–453 (2004).
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M. R. Chalita, S. Chavala, M. Xu, and R. R. Krueger, “Wavefront analysis in post-LASIK eyes and its correlation with visual symptoms, refraction, and topography,” Ophthalmology annual 111, 447–453 (2004).
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A. Sugar, C. J. Rapuano, W. W. Culbertson, D. Huang, G. A. Varley, P. J. Agapitos, V. P. de Luise, and D. D. Koch, “Laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia and astigmatism: safety and efficacy: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology Annual 109, 175–187 (2002).
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D. Stern, R. W. Schoenlein, C. A. Puliafito, E. T. Dobi, R. Birngruber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Corneal ablation by nanosecond, picosecond, and femtosecond lasers at 532 and 625nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 107, 587–592 (1989).

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K. D. Solomon, L. E. Fernández de Castro, H. P. Sandoval, J. M. Biber, B. Groat, K. D. Neff, M. S. Ying, J. W. French, E. D. Donnenfeld, and R. L. Lindstrom, “LASIK world literature review: quality of life and patient satisfaction,” Ophthalmology annual 116, 691–701 (2009).
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Elner, V. M.

R. M. Kurz, X. Liu, V. M. Elner, J. A. Squier, D. Du, and G. A. Mourou, “Plasma-mediated ablation in human cornea as a function of laser pulse width,” J. Refract. Surg. 13, 653–658 (1997).

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M. B. McDonald, R. Beuerman, W. Falzoni, L. Rivera, and H. E. Kaufman, “Refractive surgery with the excimer laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 469 (1987).
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S. C. Schallhorn, A. Farjo, D. Huang, B. S. Boxer Wachler, W. B. Trattler, D. J. Tanzer, P. A. Majmudar, and A. Sugar, “Wavefront-guided LASIK for the correction of primary myopia and astigmatism: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology annual 115, 1249–1261(2008).
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I. Ratkay-Traub, I. E. Ferincz, T. Juhasz, R. M. Kurtz, and R. R. Krueger, “First clinical results with the femtosecond neodynium-glass laser in refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, 94–103 (2003).
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K. D. Solomon, L. E. Fernández de Castro, H. P. Sandoval, J. M. Biber, B. Groat, K. D. Neff, M. S. Ying, J. W. French, E. D. Donnenfeld, and R. L. Lindstrom, “LASIK world literature review: quality of life and patient satisfaction,” Ophthalmology annual 116, 691–701 (2009).
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V. Fernández-Sánchez, M. E. Ponce, F. Lara, R. Montés-Micó, J. F. Castejón-Mochón, and N. López-Gil, “Effect of 3rd-order aberrations on human vision,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34, 1339–1344 (2008).
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M. B. McDonald, J. M. Frantz, S. D. Klyce, B. Salmeron, R. W. Beuerman, C. R. Munnerlyn, T. N. Clapham, S. J. Koons, and H. E. Kaufman, “One-year refractive results of central photorefractive keratectomy for myopia in the nonhuman primate cornea,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 108, 40–47 (1990).

French, J. W.

K. D. Solomon, L. E. Fernández de Castro, H. P. Sandoval, J. M. Biber, B. Groat, K. D. Neff, M. S. Ying, J. W. French, E. D. Donnenfeld, and R. L. Lindstrom, “LASIK world literature review: quality of life and patient satisfaction,” Ophthalmology annual 116, 691–701 (2009).
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I. Pallikaris, M. Papatsanaki, E. Stathi, O. Frenschock, and A. Georgiadis, “Laser in situ keratomileusis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 463–468 (1990).
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L. A. Ruiz, L. M. Cepeda, and V. C. Fuentes, “Intrastromal correction of presbyopia using a femtosecond laser system,” J. Refract. Surg. 25, 847–854 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Stern, R. W. Schoenlein, C. A. Puliafito, E. T. Dobi, R. Birngruber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Corneal ablation by nanosecond, picosecond, and femtosecond lasers at 532 and 625nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 107, 587–592 (1989).

Gardner, J.

J. H. Talamo, J. Meltzer, and J. Gardner, “Reproducibility of flap thickness with IntraLase FS and Moria LSK-1 and M2 microkeratomes,” J. Refract. Surg. 22, 556–561(2006).
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Gaspari, M.

L. Buzzonetti, G. Petrocelli, A. Laborante, E. Mazzilli, M. Gaspari, and P. Valente, “Arcuate keratotomy for high postoperative keratoplasty astigmatism performed with the IntraLase femtosecond laser,” J. Refract. Surg. 25, 709–714 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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I. Pallikaris, M. Papatsanaki, E. Stathi, O. Frenschock, and A. Georgiadis, “Laser in situ keratomileusis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 463–468 (1990).
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R. A. Gordon and P. B. Donzis, “Refractive development of the human eye,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 103, 785–789(1985).

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B. Green and R. Aguilar, Technical Services, Alcon Manufacturing, Ltd., 15800 Alton Parkway, Irvine, Calif. 92618 (personal communication, 2010).

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K. D. Solomon, L. E. Fernández de Castro, H. P. Sandoval, J. M. Biber, B. Groat, K. D. Neff, M. S. Ying, J. W. French, E. D. Donnenfeld, and R. L. Lindstrom, “LASIK world literature review: quality of life and patient satisfaction,” Ophthalmology annual 116, 691–701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grubbs, R. H.

C. A. Sandstedt, S. H. Chang, R. H. Grubbs, and D. M. Schwartz, “Light-adjustable lens: customizing correction for multifocality and higher-order aberrations,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 104, 29–39 (2006).

Gurgos, M. A.

R. L. Epstein and M. A. Gurgos, “Presbyopia treatment by monocular peripheral presbyLASIK,” J. Refract. Surg. 25, 516–523 (2009).
[PubMed]

Henry, C.

D. Covert, C. Henry, and S. B. Koenig, “Intraocular lens power selection in the second eye of patients undergoing bilateral, sequential cataract extraction,” Ophthalmology annual 117, 49–54 (2010).
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M. Tanna, S. C. Schallhorn, and K. A. Hettinger, “Femtosecond laser versus microkeratome: a retrospective comparison of visual outcomes at 3 months,” J. Refract. Surg. 25 (7 Suppl), S668–S671 (2009).
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T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, Ch. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, “Corneal refractive surgery with femtosecond lasers,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 902–910(1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

S. C. Schallhorn, A. Farjo, D. Huang, B. S. Boxer Wachler, W. B. Trattler, D. J. Tanzer, P. A. Majmudar, and A. Sugar, “Wavefront-guided LASIK for the correction of primary myopia and astigmatism: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology annual 115, 1249–1261(2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Sugar, C. J. Rapuano, W. W. Culbertson, D. Huang, G. A. Varley, P. J. Agapitos, V. P. de Luise, and D. D. Koch, “Laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia and astigmatism: safety and efficacy: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology Annual 109, 175–187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iordanidou, V.

B. Sonigo, V. Iordanidou, D. Chong-Sit, F. Auclin, J. M. Ancel, A. Labbé, and C. Baudouin, “In vivo corneal confocal microscopy comparison of Intralase femtosecond laser and mechanical microkeratome for laser in situ keratomileusis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2803–2811 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, R.

P. Padmanabhan, M. Mrochen, S. Basuthkar, D. Viswanathan, and R. Joseph, “Wavefront-guided versus wavefront-optimized fewer in situ keratomileusis: contralateral comparative study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34, 389–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juhasz, T.

Z. Sacks, R. Kurtz, T. Juhasz, G. Spooner, and G. Mouroua, “Subsurface photodisruption in human sclera: wavelength dependence,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging. 34, 104–113(2003).
[PubMed]

I. Ratkay-Traub, I. E. Ferincz, T. Juhasz, R. M. Kurtz, and R. R. Krueger, “First clinical results with the femtosecond neodynium-glass laser in refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, 94–103 (2003).
[PubMed]

T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, Ch. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, “Corneal refractive surgery with femtosecond lasers,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 902–910(1999).
[CrossRef]

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T. Seiler, G. Kahle, and M. Kriegerowski, “Excimer laser (193nm) myopic keratomileusis in sighted and blind human eyes,” Refract. Corneal Surg, 6, 383–385 (1990).

Kapteyn, H.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, “Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883–3886(1999).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, H. E.

M. B. McDonald, J. M. Frantz, S. D. Klyce, B. Salmeron, R. W. Beuerman, C. R. Munnerlyn, T. N. Clapham, S. J. Koons, and H. E. Kaufman, “One-year refractive results of central photorefractive keratectomy for myopia in the nonhuman primate cornea,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 108, 40–47 (1990).

M. B. McDonald, R. Beuerman, W. Falzoni, L. Rivera, and H. E. Kaufman, “Refractive surgery with the excimer laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 469 (1987).
[PubMed]

Kaufman, P. L.

A. Glasser and P. L. Kaufman, “Accommodation and presbyopia,” in Adler’s Physiology of the Eye: Clinical Application, P.L.Kaufman and A.Alm, eds., 10th ed. (St. Mosby, 2003), pp. 197–233.

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K. G. Stonecipher and G. M. Kezirian, “Wavefront-optimized versus wavefront-guided LASIK for myopic astigmatism with the ALLEGRETTTO WAVE: three-month results of a prospective FDA trial,” J. Refrac. Surg. 24, S424–S430 (2008).

G. M. Kezirian and K. G. Stonecipher, “Comparison of the IntraLase femtosecond laser and mechanical keratomes for laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 804–811 (2004).
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Klyce, S. D.

M. B. McDonald, J. M. Frantz, S. D. Klyce, B. Salmeron, R. W. Beuerman, C. R. Munnerlyn, T. N. Clapham, S. J. Koons, and H. E. Kaufman, “One-year refractive results of central photorefractive keratectomy for myopia in the nonhuman primate cornea,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 108, 40–47 (1990).

Koch, D. D.

A. Sugar, C. J. Rapuano, W. W. Culbertson, D. Huang, G. A. Varley, P. J. Agapitos, V. P. de Luise, and D. D. Koch, “Laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia and astigmatism: safety and efficacy: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology Annual 109, 175–187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koenig, S. B.

D. Covert, C. Henry, and S. B. Koenig, “Intraocular lens power selection in the second eye of patients undergoing bilateral, sequential cataract extraction,” Ophthalmology annual 117, 49–54 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koons, S. J.

M. B. McDonald, J. M. Frantz, S. D. Klyce, B. Salmeron, R. W. Beuerman, C. R. Munnerlyn, T. N. Clapham, S. J. Koons, and H. E. Kaufman, “One-year refractive results of central photorefractive keratectomy for myopia in the nonhuman primate cornea,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 108, 40–47 (1990).

C. R. Munnerlyn, S. J. Koons, and J. Marshall, “Photorefractive keratectomy:a technique for laser refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 14, 46–52 (1988).
[PubMed]

Kriegerowski, M.

T. Seiler, G. Kahle, and M. Kriegerowski, “Excimer laser (193nm) myopic keratomileusis in sighted and blind human eyes,” Refract. Corneal Surg, 6, 383–385 (1990).

Krueger, R. R.

M. R. Chalita, S. Chavala, M. Xu, and R. R. Krueger, “Wavefront analysis in post-LASIK eyes and its correlation with visual symptoms, refraction, and topography,” Ophthalmology annual 111, 447–453 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chalita, M. Xu, and R. R. Krueger, “Correlation of aberrations with visual symptoms using wavefront analysis in eyes after laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, S682–S686 (2003).
[PubMed]

I. Ratkay-Traub, I. E. Ferincz, T. Juhasz, R. M. Kurtz, and R. R. Krueger, “First clinical results with the femtosecond neodynium-glass laser in refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, 94–103 (2003).
[PubMed]

Kurtz, R.

Z. Sacks, R. Kurtz, T. Juhasz, G. Spooner, and G. Mouroua, “Subsurface photodisruption in human sclera: wavelength dependence,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging. 34, 104–113(2003).
[PubMed]

Kurtz, R. M.

I. Ratkay-Traub, I. E. Ferincz, T. Juhasz, R. M. Kurtz, and R. R. Krueger, “First clinical results with the femtosecond neodynium-glass laser in refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, 94–103 (2003).
[PubMed]

T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, Ch. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, “Corneal refractive surgery with femtosecond lasers,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 902–910(1999).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, R. M.

R. M. Kurz, X. Liu, V. M. Elner, J. A. Squier, D. Du, and G. A. Mourou, “Plasma-mediated ablation in human cornea as a function of laser pulse width,” J. Refract. Surg. 13, 653–658 (1997).

Labbé, A.

B. Sonigo, V. Iordanidou, D. Chong-Sit, F. Auclin, J. M. Ancel, A. Labbé, and C. Baudouin, “In vivo corneal confocal microscopy comparison of Intralase femtosecond laser and mechanical microkeratome for laser in situ keratomileusis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2803–2811 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laborante, A.

L. Buzzonetti, G. Petrocelli, A. Laborante, E. Mazzilli, M. Gaspari, and P. Valente, “Arcuate keratotomy for high postoperative keratoplasty astigmatism performed with the IntraLase femtosecond laser,” J. Refract. Surg. 25, 709–714 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lara, F.

V. Fernández-Sánchez, M. E. Ponce, F. Lara, R. Montés-Micó, J. F. Castejón-Mochón, and N. López-Gil, “Effect of 3rd-order aberrations on human vision,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34, 1339–1344 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larson, B.

G. A. Peyman, B. Larson, M. Raichand, and A. H. Andrews, “Modification of rabbit corneal curvature with use of carbon dioxide laser burns,” Ophthalmic Surg. 11, 325–329 (1980).
[PubMed]

Lindstrom, R. L.

K. D. Solomon, L. E. Fernández de Castro, H. P. Sandoval, J. M. Biber, B. Groat, K. D. Neff, M. S. Ying, J. W. French, E. D. Donnenfeld, and R. L. Lindstrom, “LASIK world literature review: quality of life and patient satisfaction,” Ophthalmology annual 116, 691–701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lipner, M.

M. Lipner, “Out of the corneal box: the femtosecond laser extends its reach,” EyeWorld , Dec. 2009, pp. 26–27.

Liu, X.

R. M. Kurz, X. Liu, V. M. Elner, J. A. Squier, D. Du, and G. A. Mourou, “Plasma-mediated ablation in human cornea as a function of laser pulse width,” J. Refract. Surg. 13, 653–658 (1997).

Loesel, F. H.

T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, Ch. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, “Corneal refractive surgery with femtosecond lasers,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 902–910(1999).
[CrossRef]

López-Gil, N.

V. Fernández-Sánchez, M. E. Ponce, F. Lara, R. Montés-Micó, J. F. Castejón-Mochón, and N. López-Gil, “Effect of 3rd-order aberrations on human vision,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34, 1339–1344 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Machat, J. J.

J. J. Machat, Excimer Laser Refractive Surgery (Slack, 1996).

MacRae, S.

G. Yoon, S. MacRae, D. R. Williams, and I. G. Cox, “Causes of spherical aberration induced by laser refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31, 127–135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Majmudar, P. A.

S. C. Schallhorn, A. Farjo, D. Huang, B. S. Boxer Wachler, W. B. Trattler, D. J. Tanzer, P. A. Majmudar, and A. Sugar, “Wavefront-guided LASIK for the correction of primary myopia and astigmatism: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology annual 115, 1249–1261(2008).
[CrossRef]

Malta, J.

H. Soong and J. Malta, “Femtosecond lasers in ophthalmology,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 147, 189–197 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, J.

C. R. Munnerlyn, S. J. Koons, and J. Marshall, “Photorefractive keratectomy:a technique for laser refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 14, 46–52 (1988).
[PubMed]

Mazzilli, E.

L. Buzzonetti, G. Petrocelli, A. Laborante, E. Mazzilli, M. Gaspari, and P. Valente, “Arcuate keratotomy for high postoperative keratoplasty astigmatism performed with the IntraLase femtosecond laser,” J. Refract. Surg. 25, 709–714 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDonald, M. B.

O. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract. Refract. Surg. 34, 1921–1927 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. McDonald, J. M. Frantz, S. D. Klyce, B. Salmeron, R. W. Beuerman, C. R. Munnerlyn, T. N. Clapham, S. J. Koons, and H. E. Kaufman, “One-year refractive results of central photorefractive keratectomy for myopia in the nonhuman primate cornea,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 108, 40–47 (1990).

M. B. McDonald, R. Beuerman, W. Falzoni, L. Rivera, and H. E. Kaufman, “Refractive surgery with the excimer laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 469 (1987).
[PubMed]

McGhee, C. N. J.

C. N. J. McGhee, H. R. Taylor, D. S. Gartry, and S. L. Trokel, Excimer Lasers in Ophthalmology: Principles and Practice (Martin Duntz, 1997).

Meltzer, J.

J. H. Talamo, J. Meltzer, and J. Gardner, “Reproducibility of flap thickness with IntraLase FS and Moria LSK-1 and M2 microkeratomes,” J. Refract. Surg. 22, 556–561(2006).
[PubMed]

Montés-Micó, R.

V. Fernández-Sánchez, M. E. Ponce, F. Lara, R. Montés-Micó, J. F. Castejón-Mochón, and N. López-Gil, “Effect of 3rd-order aberrations on human vision,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34, 1339–1344 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourou, G.

T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, Ch. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, “Corneal refractive surgery with femtosecond lasers,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 902–910(1999).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, “Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883–3886(1999).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terrawatt to petawatt class sub picosecond lasers,” Science 264, 917–924 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourou, G. A.

R. M. Kurz, X. Liu, V. M. Elner, J. A. Squier, D. Du, and G. A. Mourou, “Plasma-mediated ablation in human cornea as a function of laser pulse width,” J. Refract. Surg. 13, 653–658 (1997).

Mouroua, G.

Z. Sacks, R. Kurtz, T. Juhasz, G. Spooner, and G. Mouroua, “Subsurface photodisruption in human sclera: wavelength dependence,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging. 34, 104–113(2003).
[PubMed]

Mrochen, M.

P. Padmanabhan, M. Mrochen, S. Basuthkar, D. Viswanathan, and R. Joseph, “Wavefront-guided versus wavefront-optimized fewer in situ keratomileusis: contralateral comparative study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34, 389–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munnerlyn, C. R.

M. B. McDonald, J. M. Frantz, S. D. Klyce, B. Salmeron, R. W. Beuerman, C. R. Munnerlyn, T. N. Clapham, S. J. Koons, and H. E. Kaufman, “One-year refractive results of central photorefractive keratectomy for myopia in the nonhuman primate cornea,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 108, 40–47 (1990).

C. R. Munnerlyn, S. J. Koons, and J. Marshall, “Photorefractive keratectomy:a technique for laser refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 14, 46–52 (1988).
[PubMed]

Murnane, M.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, “Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883–3886(1999).
[CrossRef]

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E. H. Myrowitz and R. S. Chuck, “A comparison of wavefront-optimized and wavefront-guided ablations,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 20, 247–250 (2009).
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K. D. Solomon, L. E. Fernández de Castro, H. P. Sandoval, J. M. Biber, B. Groat, K. D. Neff, M. S. Ying, J. W. French, E. D. Donnenfeld, and R. L. Lindstrom, “LASIK world literature review: quality of life and patient satisfaction,” Ophthalmology annual 116, 691–701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Padmanabhan, P.

P. Padmanabhan, M. Mrochen, S. Basuthkar, D. Viswanathan, and R. Joseph, “Wavefront-guided versus wavefront-optimized fewer in situ keratomileusis: contralateral comparative study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34, 389–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pallikaris, I.

I. Pallikaris, M. Papatsanaki, E. Stathi, O. Frenschock, and A. Georgiadis, “Laser in situ keratomileusis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 463–468 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papatsanaki, M.

I. Pallikaris, M. Papatsanaki, E. Stathi, O. Frenschock, and A. Georgiadis, “Laser in situ keratomileusis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 463–468 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perry, M. D.

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terrawatt to petawatt class sub picosecond lasers,” Science 264, 917–924 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrocelli, G.

L. Buzzonetti, G. Petrocelli, A. Laborante, E. Mazzilli, M. Gaspari, and P. Valente, “Arcuate keratotomy for high postoperative keratoplasty astigmatism performed with the IntraLase femtosecond laser,” J. Refract. Surg. 25, 709–714 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. A. Peyman, B. Larson, M. Raichand, and A. H. Andrews, “Modification of rabbit corneal curvature with use of carbon dioxide laser burns,” Ophthalmic Surg. 11, 325–329 (1980).
[PubMed]

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J. L. Alió and D. P. Pinero, “Very high-frequency digital ultrasound measurement of the LASIK flap thickness profile using the IntraLase femtosecond laser and M2 and Carriazo–Pendular microkeratomes,” J. Refract. Surg. 24, 12–23 (2008).
[PubMed]

Ponce, M. E.

V. Fernández-Sánchez, M. E. Ponce, F. Lara, R. Montés-Micó, J. F. Castejón-Mochón, and N. López-Gil, “Effect of 3rd-order aberrations on human vision,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34, 1339–1344 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Stern, R. W. Schoenlein, C. A. Puliafito, E. T. Dobi, R. Birngruber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Corneal ablation by nanosecond, picosecond, and femtosecond lasers at 532 and 625nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 107, 587–592 (1989).

Raichand, M.

G. A. Peyman, B. Larson, M. Raichand, and A. H. Andrews, “Modification of rabbit corneal curvature with use of carbon dioxide laser burns,” Ophthalmic Surg. 11, 325–329 (1980).
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A. Sugar, C. J. Rapuano, W. W. Culbertson, D. Huang, G. A. Varley, P. J. Agapitos, V. P. de Luise, and D. D. Koch, “Laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia and astigmatism: safety and efficacy: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology Annual 109, 175–187 (2002).
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I. Ratkay-Traub, I. E. Ferincz, T. Juhasz, R. M. Kurtz, and R. R. Krueger, “First clinical results with the femtosecond neodynium-glass laser in refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, 94–103 (2003).
[PubMed]

Rivera, L.

M. B. McDonald, R. Beuerman, W. Falzoni, L. Rivera, and H. E. Kaufman, “Refractive surgery with the excimer laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 469 (1987).
[PubMed]

Ruiz, L. A.

L. A. Ruiz, L. M. Cepeda, and V. C. Fuentes, “Intrastromal correction of presbyopia using a femtosecond laser system,” J. Refract. Surg. 25, 847–854 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sacks, Z.

Z. Sacks, R. Kurtz, T. Juhasz, G. Spooner, and G. Mouroua, “Subsurface photodisruption in human sclera: wavelength dependence,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging. 34, 104–113(2003).
[PubMed]

Salmeron, B.

M. B. McDonald, J. M. Frantz, S. D. Klyce, B. Salmeron, R. W. Beuerman, C. R. Munnerlyn, T. N. Clapham, S. J. Koons, and H. E. Kaufman, “One-year refractive results of central photorefractive keratectomy for myopia in the nonhuman primate cornea,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 108, 40–47 (1990).

Sandoval, H. P.

K. D. Solomon, L. E. Fernández de Castro, H. P. Sandoval, J. M. Biber, B. Groat, K. D. Neff, M. S. Ying, J. W. French, E. D. Donnenfeld, and R. L. Lindstrom, “LASIK world literature review: quality of life and patient satisfaction,” Ophthalmology annual 116, 691–701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sandstedt, C. A.

C. A. Sandstedt, S. H. Chang, R. H. Grubbs, and D. M. Schwartz, “Light-adjustable lens: customizing correction for multifocality and higher-order aberrations,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 104, 29–39 (2006).

Schallhorn, S. C.

M. Tanna, S. C. Schallhorn, and K. A. Hettinger, “Femtosecond laser versus microkeratome: a retrospective comparison of visual outcomes at 3 months,” J. Refract. Surg. 25 (7 Suppl), S668–S671 (2009).
[PubMed]

S. C. Schallhorn, A. Farjo, D. Huang, B. S. Boxer Wachler, W. B. Trattler, D. J. Tanzer, P. A. Majmudar, and A. Sugar, “Wavefront-guided LASIK for the correction of primary myopia and astigmatism: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology annual 115, 1249–1261(2008).
[CrossRef]

Schoenlein, R. W.

D. Stern, R. W. Schoenlein, C. A. Puliafito, E. T. Dobi, R. Birngruber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Corneal ablation by nanosecond, picosecond, and femtosecond lasers at 532 and 625nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 107, 587–592 (1989).

Schwartz, D. M.

C. A. Sandstedt, S. H. Chang, R. H. Grubbs, and D. M. Schwartz, “Light-adjustable lens: customizing correction for multifocality and higher-order aberrations,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 104, 29–39 (2006).

Seiler, T.

T. Seiler, G. Kahle, and M. Kriegerowski, “Excimer laser (193nm) myopic keratomileusis in sighted and blind human eyes,” Refract. Corneal Surg, 6, 383–385 (1990).

Sharma, M.

M. Sharma, B. S. Wachler, and C. C. Chan, “Higher order aberrations and relative risk of symptoms after LASIK,” J. Refract. Surg. 23, 252–256 (2007).
[PubMed]

Solomon, K. D.

K. D. Solomon, L. E. Fernández de Castro, H. P. Sandoval, J. M. Biber, B. Groat, K. D. Neff, M. S. Ying, J. W. French, E. D. Donnenfeld, and R. L. Lindstrom, “LASIK world literature review: quality of life and patient satisfaction,” Ophthalmology annual 116, 691–701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sonigo, B.

B. Sonigo, V. Iordanidou, D. Chong-Sit, F. Auclin, J. M. Ancel, A. Labbé, and C. Baudouin, “In vivo corneal confocal microscopy comparison of Intralase femtosecond laser and mechanical microkeratome for laser in situ keratomileusis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2803–2811 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Soong, H.

H. Soong and J. Malta, “Femtosecond lasers in ophthalmology,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 147, 189–197 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sperduto, R. D.

S. Vitale, R. D. Sperduto, and F. L. Ferris III , “Increased prevalence of myopia in the United States between 1971–1972 and 1999–2004,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 127, 1632–1639(2009).
[CrossRef]

Spooner, G.

Z. Sacks, R. Kurtz, T. Juhasz, G. Spooner, and G. Mouroua, “Subsurface photodisruption in human sclera: wavelength dependence,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging. 34, 104–113(2003).
[PubMed]

Squier, J. A.

R. M. Kurz, X. Liu, V. M. Elner, J. A. Squier, D. Du, and G. A. Mourou, “Plasma-mediated ablation in human cornea as a function of laser pulse width,” J. Refract. Surg. 13, 653–658 (1997).

Srinivasan, R.

S. L. Trokel, R. Srinivasan, and B. Braren, “Excimer laser surgery of the cornea,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 710–715(1983).
[PubMed]

Stamatelatos, G.

N. Alpins and G. Stamatelatos, “Clinical outcomes of laser in situ keratomileusis using combined topography and refractive wavefront treatments for myopic astigmatism,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34, 1250–1259 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stathi, E.

I. Pallikaris, M. Papatsanaki, E. Stathi, O. Frenschock, and A. Georgiadis, “Laser in situ keratomileusis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 463–468 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stern, D.

D. Stern, R. W. Schoenlein, C. A. Puliafito, E. T. Dobi, R. Birngruber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Corneal ablation by nanosecond, picosecond, and femtosecond lasers at 532 and 625nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 107, 587–592 (1989).

Stonecipher, K. G.

K. G. Stonecipher and G. M. Kezirian, “Wavefront-optimized versus wavefront-guided LASIK for myopic astigmatism with the ALLEGRETTTO WAVE: three-month results of a prospective FDA trial,” J. Refrac. Surg. 24, S424–S430 (2008).

G. M. Kezirian and K. G. Stonecipher, “Comparison of the IntraLase femtosecond laser and mechanical keratomes for laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 804–811 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugar, A.

S. C. Schallhorn, A. Farjo, D. Huang, B. S. Boxer Wachler, W. B. Trattler, D. J. Tanzer, P. A. Majmudar, and A. Sugar, “Wavefront-guided LASIK for the correction of primary myopia and astigmatism: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology annual 115, 1249–1261(2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Sugar, C. J. Rapuano, W. W. Culbertson, D. Huang, G. A. Varley, P. J. Agapitos, V. P. de Luise, and D. D. Koch, “Laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia and astigmatism: safety and efficacy: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology Annual 109, 175–187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Taboada, J.

J. Taboada and C. J. Archibald, “An extreme sensitivity in the corneal epithelium to far UV ArF excimer laser pulses,” presented at Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association, San Antonio, Texas, 1981.

Talamo, J. H.

J. H. Talamo, J. Meltzer, and J. Gardner, “Reproducibility of flap thickness with IntraLase FS and Moria LSK-1 and M2 microkeratomes,” J. Refract. Surg. 22, 556–561(2006).
[PubMed]

Tanna, M.

M. Tanna, S. C. Schallhorn, and K. A. Hettinger, “Femtosecond laser versus microkeratome: a retrospective comparison of visual outcomes at 3 months,” J. Refract. Surg. 25 (7 Suppl), S668–S671 (2009).
[PubMed]

Tanzer, D. J.

S. C. Schallhorn, A. Farjo, D. Huang, B. S. Boxer Wachler, W. B. Trattler, D. J. Tanzer, P. A. Majmudar, and A. Sugar, “Wavefront-guided LASIK for the correction of primary myopia and astigmatism: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology annual 115, 1249–1261(2008).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, H. R.

C. N. J. McGhee, H. R. Taylor, D. S. Gartry, and S. L. Trokel, Excimer Lasers in Ophthalmology: Principles and Practice (Martin Duntz, 1997).

Tien, A. C.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, “Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883–3886(1999).
[CrossRef]

Trattler, W. B.

S. C. Schallhorn, A. Farjo, D. Huang, B. S. Boxer Wachler, W. B. Trattler, D. J. Tanzer, P. A. Majmudar, and A. Sugar, “Wavefront-guided LASIK for the correction of primary myopia and astigmatism: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology annual 115, 1249–1261(2008).
[CrossRef]

Trokel, S. L.

C. N. J. McGhee, H. R. Taylor, D. S. Gartry, and S. L. Trokel, Excimer Lasers in Ophthalmology: Principles and Practice (Martin Duntz, 1997).

S. L. Trokel, R. Srinivasan, and B. Braren, “Excimer laser surgery of the cornea,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 710–715(1983).
[PubMed]

Valente, P.

L. Buzzonetti, G. Petrocelli, A. Laborante, E. Mazzilli, M. Gaspari, and P. Valente, “Arcuate keratotomy for high postoperative keratoplasty astigmatism performed with the IntraLase femtosecond laser,” J. Refract. Surg. 25, 709–714 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van de Pol, C.

O. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract. Refract. Surg. 34, 1921–1927 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varley, G. A.

A. Sugar, C. J. Rapuano, W. W. Culbertson, D. Huang, G. A. Varley, P. J. Agapitos, V. P. de Luise, and D. D. Koch, “Laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia and astigmatism: safety and efficacy: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology Annual 109, 175–187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Viswanathan, D.

P. Padmanabhan, M. Mrochen, S. Basuthkar, D. Viswanathan, and R. Joseph, “Wavefront-guided versus wavefront-optimized fewer in situ keratomileusis: contralateral comparative study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34, 389–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vitale, S.

S. Vitale, R. D. Sperduto, and F. L. Ferris III , “Increased prevalence of myopia in the United States between 1971–1972 and 1999–2004,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 127, 1632–1639(2009).
[CrossRef]

Wachler, B.

B. Wachler and M. Wevill, “Mechanical microkeratome versus femtosecond laser,” Cataract and Refractive Surgery Today Europe, Jan. 2010, pp. 28–33.

Wachler, B. S.

M. Sharma, B. S. Wachler, and C. C. Chan, “Higher order aberrations and relative risk of symptoms after LASIK,” J. Refract. Surg. 23, 252–256 (2007).
[PubMed]

Wang, M.

M. Wang, “Future direction: technological development and treating the problem at its source,” in Irregular Astigmatism: Diagnosis and Treatment, M.Wang, ed. (Slack, 2008), pp 279–284.

M. Wang, Corneal Topography in the Wavefront Era: a Guide for Clinical Application (Slack, 2006).

M. Wang, LASIK Vision Correction (Med World, 2000).

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B. Wachler and M. Wevill, “Mechanical microkeratome versus femtosecond laser,” Cataract and Refractive Surgery Today Europe, Jan. 2010, pp. 28–33.

M. Wevill, “Plasma vs steel; results of more than 20,000 cases,” presented at Abbott Medical Optics Inc. sponsored symposia, ESCRS Annual Meeting, Barcelona, Spain, 12–16 Sept. 2009.

Williams, D. R.

G. Yoon, S. MacRae, D. R. Williams, and I. G. Cox, “Causes of spherical aberration induced by laser refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31, 127–135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, M.

M. R. Chalita, S. Chavala, M. Xu, and R. R. Krueger, “Wavefront analysis in post-LASIK eyes and its correlation with visual symptoms, refraction, and topography,” Ophthalmology annual 111, 447–453 (2004).
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M. R. Chalita, M. Xu, and R. R. Krueger, “Correlation of aberrations with visual symptoms using wavefront analysis in eyes after laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, S682–S686 (2003).
[PubMed]

Yilmaz, B.

O. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract. Refract. Surg. 34, 1921–1927 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yilmaz, O. F.

O. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract. Refract. Surg. 34, 1921–1927 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ying, M. S.

K. D. Solomon, L. E. Fernández de Castro, H. P. Sandoval, J. M. Biber, B. Groat, K. D. Neff, M. S. Ying, J. W. French, E. D. Donnenfeld, and R. L. Lindstrom, “LASIK world literature review: quality of life and patient satisfaction,” Ophthalmology annual 116, 691–701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, G.

G. Yoon, S. MacRae, D. R. Williams, and I. G. Cox, “Causes of spherical aberration induced by laser refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31, 127–135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (3)

S. L. Trokel, R. Srinivasan, and B. Braren, “Excimer laser surgery of the cornea,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 710–715(1983).
[PubMed]

M. B. McDonald, R. Beuerman, W. Falzoni, L. Rivera, and H. E. Kaufman, “Refractive surgery with the excimer laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 469 (1987).
[PubMed]

H. Soong and J. Malta, “Femtosecond lasers in ophthalmology,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 147, 189–197 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) (4)

D. Stern, R. W. Schoenlein, C. A. Puliafito, E. T. Dobi, R. Birngruber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Corneal ablation by nanosecond, picosecond, and femtosecond lasers at 532 and 625nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 107, 587–592 (1989).

M. B. McDonald, J. M. Frantz, S. D. Klyce, B. Salmeron, R. W. Beuerman, C. R. Munnerlyn, T. N. Clapham, S. J. Koons, and H. E. Kaufman, “One-year refractive results of central photorefractive keratectomy for myopia in the nonhuman primate cornea,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 108, 40–47 (1990).

R. A. Gordon and P. B. Donzis, “Refractive development of the human eye,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 103, 785–789(1985).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Emmetropia: cross-sectional diagram of relevant eye anatomy and the ideal refractive status of the eye. Myopia: the anterior cornea is flattened (exaggerated in this diagram for the purposes of illustration) by an excimer laser, thus moving the focal point to the fovea. Hyperopia: The cornea is steepened (exaggerated for the purposes of illustration) to focus the light rays on the fovea.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The Kamra Corneal Inlay shown here (top) is inserted into the corneal stroma (bottom) after a pocket is created by a femtosecond laser (photographs courtesy of Acufocus Inc., Irvine, California).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A femtosecond laser may be used to soften the lens and improve its ability to accommodate (photograph courtesy of LensAR, Winter Park, Florida).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Wavefront map.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The femtosecond laser is used to create a LASIK flap within the corneal stroma.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Topographic corneal map obtained with Placido disk imaging on the Zeiss ATLAS Topographer Carl Zeiss AG, Oberkochen, Germany). The color topographic maps are derived from the Placido rings image in the lower right-hand corner.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Scheimpflug image of the cornea obtained with a Pentacam HR (Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany). In this example 25 Scheimpflug images are interpolated by computer software into the color topographical maps shown in the lower panels.

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