Abstract

Energy dependence of the optical constants of boron carbide in the short period Ru/B4C and Mo/B4C multilayers (MLs) are evaluated from complete reflectivity scans across the boron K edge using the energy-resolved photon-in–photon-out method. Differences between the refractive indices of the B4C material inside and close to the surface are obtained from the peak profile of the first order ML Bragg peak and the reflection profile near the critical angle of total external reflection close to the surface. Where a Mo/B4C ML with narrow barrier layers appears as a homogeneous ML at all energies, a Ru/B4C ML exhibits another chemical nature of boron at the surface compared to the bulk. From evaluation of the critical angle of total external reflection in the energy range between 184 and 186eV, we found an enriched concentration of metallic boron inside the Ru-rich layer at the surface, which is not visible in other energy ranges.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. G. S. Lodha, M. Nayak, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Study of optical response near the absorption edge using vacuum ultraviolet/soft x-ray reflectivity beamline on Indus-1,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 80, 012031 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Monaco, D. Garoli, R. Frison, V. Mattarello, P. Nicolosi, M. G. Pelizzo, V. Rigato, L. Armelao, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Optical constants in the EUV soft x-ray (5÷152 nm) spectral range of B4C thin films deposited by different deposition techniques,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 631712(2006).
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  16. C. Borel, C. Morawe, E. Ziegler, T. Bigault, J.-Y. Massonnat, J.-C. Peffen, and E. Debourg, “In situ study of multilayer reflectivity upon heat treatment under synchrotron radiation,” Proc. SPIE 5918, 591801 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. F. Jankowskia and P. L. Perrya, “Characterization of Mo/B4C multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 206, 365–368 (1991).
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2009

2008

2007

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, M. Vidal-Dasilva, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, R. Soufli, and J. L. G. Fierro, “Optical constants of electron-beam evaporated boron films in the 6.8–900 eV photon energy range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3800–3807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Hau-Riege, H. N. Chapman, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, S. Bajt, R. A. London, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, R. Nietubyc, L. Juha, J. Kuba, E. Spiller, S. Baker, R. Bionta, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, B. Kjornrattanawanich, E. Gullikson, E. Plönjes, S. Toleikis, and T. Tschentscher, “Subnanometer-scale measurements of the interaction of ultrafast soft x-ray free-electron-laser pulses with matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 145502 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Lodha, M. Nayak, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Study of optical response near the absorption edge using vacuum ultraviolet/soft x-ray reflectivity beamline on Indus-1,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 80, 012031 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

G. Monaco, D. Garoli, R. Frison, V. Mattarello, P. Nicolosi, M. G. Pelizzo, V. Rigato, L. Armelao, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Optical constants in the EUV soft x-ray (5÷152 nm) spectral range of B4C thin films deposited by different deposition techniques,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 631712(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

C. Borel, C. Morawe, E. Ziegler, T. Bigault, J.-Y. Massonnat, J.-C. Peffen, and E. Debourg, “In situ study of multilayer reflectivity upon heat treatment under synchrotron radiation,” Proc. SPIE 5918, 591801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. S. Andreev, M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, K. A. Prokhorov, N. N. Salashchenko, M. V. Zorina, F. Schafers, and L. A. Shmaenok, “Short-period multilayer x-ray mirrors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 10, 358–360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge University Press, 2000).

1999

I. Jiménez, L. J. Terminello, F. J. Himpsel, M. Grush, and T. A. Callcott, “Photoemission, x-ray absorption and x-ray emission study of boron carbides,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 101–103, 611–615 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. Windt, “IMD—Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli and E. M. Gullikson, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of molybdenum in the range 60–930 eV for optical constant determination,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1713–1719 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Sève, J. M. Tonnerre, and D. Raoux, “Determination of the anomalous scattering factors in the soft-x-ray range using diffraction from a multilayer,” J. Appl. Cryst. 31, 700–707 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

C. Braun, Parratt32 program for reflectivity analysis (HMI, 1997).

1991

A. F. Jankowskia and P. L. Perrya, “Characterization of Mo/B4C multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 206, 365–368 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

Andreev, S. S.

S. S. Andreev, M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, K. A. Prokhorov, N. N. Salashchenko, M. V. Zorina, F. Schafers, and L. A. Shmaenok, “Short-period multilayer x-ray mirrors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 10, 358–360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aquila, A.

Aquila, A. L.

Armelao, L.

G. Monaco, D. Garoli, R. Frison, V. Mattarello, P. Nicolosi, M. G. Pelizzo, V. Rigato, L. Armelao, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Optical constants in the EUV soft x-ray (5÷152 nm) spectral range of B4C thin films deposited by different deposition techniques,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 631712(2006).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D.

D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge University Press, 2000).

Aznárez, J. A.

Bajt, S.

S. P. Hau-Riege, H. N. Chapman, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, S. Bajt, R. A. London, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, R. Nietubyc, L. Juha, J. Kuba, E. Spiller, S. Baker, R. Bionta, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, B. Kjornrattanawanich, E. Gullikson, E. Plönjes, S. Toleikis, and T. Tschentscher, “Subnanometer-scale measurements of the interaction of ultrafast soft x-ray free-electron-laser pulses with matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 145502 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, S.

S. P. Hau-Riege, H. N. Chapman, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, S. Bajt, R. A. London, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, R. Nietubyc, L. Juha, J. Kuba, E. Spiller, S. Baker, R. Bionta, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, B. Kjornrattanawanich, E. Gullikson, E. Plönjes, S. Toleikis, and T. Tschentscher, “Subnanometer-scale measurements of the interaction of ultrafast soft x-ray free-electron-laser pulses with matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 145502 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergh, M.

S. P. Hau-Riege, H. N. Chapman, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, S. Bajt, R. A. London, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, R. Nietubyc, L. Juha, J. Kuba, E. Spiller, S. Baker, R. Bionta, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, B. Kjornrattanawanich, E. Gullikson, E. Plönjes, S. Toleikis, and T. Tschentscher, “Subnanometer-scale measurements of the interaction of ultrafast soft x-ray free-electron-laser pulses with matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 145502 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bibishkin, M. S.

S. S. Andreev, M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, K. A. Prokhorov, N. N. Salashchenko, M. V. Zorina, F. Schafers, and L. A. Shmaenok, “Short-period multilayer x-ray mirrors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 10, 358–360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigault, T.

C. Borel, C. Morawe, E. Ziegler, T. Bigault, J.-Y. Massonnat, J.-C. Peffen, and E. Debourg, “In situ study of multilayer reflectivity upon heat treatment under synchrotron radiation,” Proc. SPIE 5918, 591801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bionta, R.

S. P. Hau-Riege, H. N. Chapman, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, S. Bajt, R. A. London, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, R. Nietubyc, L. Juha, J. Kuba, E. Spiller, S. Baker, R. Bionta, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, B. Kjornrattanawanich, E. Gullikson, E. Plönjes, S. Toleikis, and T. Tschentscher, “Subnanometer-scale measurements of the interaction of ultrafast soft x-ray free-electron-laser pulses with matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 145502 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borel, C.

C. Borel, C. Morawe, E. Ziegler, T. Bigault, J.-Y. Massonnat, J.-C. Peffen, and E. Debourg, “In situ study of multilayer reflectivity upon heat treatment under synchrotron radiation,” Proc. SPIE 5918, 591801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Braun, C.

C. Braun, Parratt32 program for reflectivity analysis (HMI, 1997).

Caleman, C.

S. P. Hau-Riege, H. N. Chapman, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, S. Bajt, R. A. London, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, R. Nietubyc, L. Juha, J. Kuba, E. Spiller, S. Baker, R. Bionta, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, B. Kjornrattanawanich, E. Gullikson, E. Plönjes, S. Toleikis, and T. Tschentscher, “Subnanometer-scale measurements of the interaction of ultrafast soft x-ray free-electron-laser pulses with matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 145502 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Callcott, T. A.

I. Jiménez, L. J. Terminello, F. J. Himpsel, M. Grush, and T. A. Callcott, “Photoemission, x-ray absorption and x-ray emission study of boron carbides,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 101–103, 611–615 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H. N.

S. P. Hau-Riege, H. N. Chapman, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, S. Bajt, R. A. London, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, R. Nietubyc, L. Juha, J. Kuba, E. Spiller, S. Baker, R. Bionta, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, B. Kjornrattanawanich, E. Gullikson, E. Plönjes, S. Toleikis, and T. Tschentscher, “Subnanometer-scale measurements of the interaction of ultrafast soft x-ray free-electron-laser pulses with matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 145502 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chkhalo, N. I.

S. S. Andreev, M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, K. A. Prokhorov, N. N. Salashchenko, M. V. Zorina, F. Schafers, and L. A. Shmaenok, “Short-period multilayer x-ray mirrors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 10, 358–360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Debourg, E.

C. Borel, C. Morawe, E. Ziegler, T. Bigault, J.-Y. Massonnat, J.-C. Peffen, and E. Debourg, “In situ study of multilayer reflectivity upon heat treatment under synchrotron radiation,” Proc. SPIE 5918, 591801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fernández-Perea, M.

Fierro, J. L. G.

Frison, R.

G. Monaco, D. Garoli, R. Frison, V. Mattarello, P. Nicolosi, M. G. Pelizzo, V. Rigato, L. Armelao, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Optical constants in the EUV soft x-ray (5÷152 nm) spectral range of B4C thin films deposited by different deposition techniques,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 631712(2006).
[CrossRef]

Garoli, D.

G. Monaco, D. Garoli, R. Frison, V. Mattarello, P. Nicolosi, M. G. Pelizzo, V. Rigato, L. Armelao, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Optical constants in the EUV soft x-ray (5÷152 nm) spectral range of B4C thin films deposited by different deposition techniques,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 631712(2006).
[CrossRef]

Giglia, A.

G. Monaco, D. Garoli, R. Frison, V. Mattarello, P. Nicolosi, M. G. Pelizzo, V. Rigato, L. Armelao, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Optical constants in the EUV soft x-ray (5÷152 nm) spectral range of B4C thin films deposited by different deposition techniques,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 631712(2006).
[CrossRef]

Grush, M.

I. Jiménez, L. J. Terminello, F. J. Himpsel, M. Grush, and T. A. Callcott, “Photoemission, x-ray absorption and x-ray emission study of boron carbides,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 101–103, 611–615 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E.

S. P. Hau-Riege, H. N. Chapman, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, S. Bajt, R. A. London, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, R. Nietubyc, L. Juha, J. Kuba, E. Spiller, S. Baker, R. Bionta, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, B. Kjornrattanawanich, E. Gullikson, E. Plönjes, S. Toleikis, and T. Tschentscher, “Subnanometer-scale measurements of the interaction of ultrafast soft x-ray free-electron-laser pulses with matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 145502 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, M. Vidal-Dasilva, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, R. Soufli, and J. L. G. Fierro, “Optical constants of electron-beam evaporated boron films in the 6.8–900 eV photon energy range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3800–3807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

Hau-Riege, S. P.

S. P. Hau-Riege, H. N. Chapman, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, S. Bajt, R. A. London, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, R. Nietubyc, L. Juha, J. Kuba, E. Spiller, S. Baker, R. Bionta, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, B. Kjornrattanawanich, E. Gullikson, E. Plönjes, S. Toleikis, and T. Tschentscher, “Subnanometer-scale measurements of the interaction of ultrafast soft x-ray free-electron-laser pulses with matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 145502 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Himpsel, F. J.

I. Jiménez, L. J. Terminello, F. J. Himpsel, M. Grush, and T. A. Callcott, “Photoemission, x-ray absorption and x-ray emission study of boron carbides,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 101–103, 611–615 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jankowskia, A. F.

A. F. Jankowskia and P. L. Perrya, “Characterization of Mo/B4C multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 206, 365–368 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jiménez, I.

I. Jiménez, L. J. Terminello, F. J. Himpsel, M. Grush, and T. A. Callcott, “Photoemission, x-ray absorption and x-ray emission study of boron carbides,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 101–103, 611–615 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Juha, L.

S. P. Hau-Riege, H. N. Chapman, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, S. Bajt, R. A. London, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, R. Nietubyc, L. Juha, J. Kuba, E. Spiller, S. Baker, R. Bionta, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, B. Kjornrattanawanich, E. Gullikson, E. Plönjes, S. Toleikis, and T. Tschentscher, “Subnanometer-scale measurements of the interaction of ultrafast soft x-ray free-electron-laser pulses with matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 145502 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kjornrattanawanich, B.

S. P. Hau-Riege, H. N. Chapman, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, S. Bajt, R. A. London, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, R. Nietubyc, L. Juha, J. Kuba, E. Spiller, S. Baker, R. Bionta, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, B. Kjornrattanawanich, E. Gullikson, E. Plönjes, S. Toleikis, and T. Tschentscher, “Subnanometer-scale measurements of the interaction of ultrafast soft x-ray free-electron-laser pulses with matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 145502 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kluenkov, E. B.

S. S. Andreev, M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, K. A. Prokhorov, N. N. Salashchenko, M. V. Zorina, F. Schafers, and L. A. Shmaenok, “Short-period multilayer x-ray mirrors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 10, 358–360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krzywinski, J.

S. P. Hau-Riege, H. N. Chapman, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, S. Bajt, R. A. London, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, R. Nietubyc, L. Juha, J. Kuba, E. Spiller, S. Baker, R. Bionta, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, B. Kjornrattanawanich, E. Gullikson, E. Plönjes, S. Toleikis, and T. Tschentscher, “Subnanometer-scale measurements of the interaction of ultrafast soft x-ray free-electron-laser pulses with matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 145502 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ksenzov, D.

Kuba, J.

S. P. Hau-Riege, H. N. Chapman, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, S. Bajt, R. A. London, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, R. Nietubyc, L. Juha, J. Kuba, E. Spiller, S. Baker, R. Bionta, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, B. Kjornrattanawanich, E. Gullikson, E. Plönjes, S. Toleikis, and T. Tschentscher, “Subnanometer-scale measurements of the interaction of ultrafast soft x-ray free-electron-laser pulses with matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 145502 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larruquert, J. I.

Lodha, G. S.

G. S. Lodha, M. Nayak, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Study of optical response near the absorption edge using vacuum ultraviolet/soft x-ray reflectivity beamline on Indus-1,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 80, 012031 (2007).
[CrossRef]

London, R. A.

S. P. Hau-Riege, H. N. Chapman, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, S. Bajt, R. A. London, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, R. Nietubyc, L. Juha, J. Kuba, E. Spiller, S. Baker, R. Bionta, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, B. Kjornrattanawanich, E. Gullikson, E. Plönjes, S. Toleikis, and T. Tschentscher, “Subnanometer-scale measurements of the interaction of ultrafast soft x-ray free-electron-laser pulses with matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 145502 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massonnat, J.-Y.

C. Borel, C. Morawe, E. Ziegler, T. Bigault, J.-Y. Massonnat, J.-C. Peffen, and E. Debourg, “In situ study of multilayer reflectivity upon heat treatment under synchrotron radiation,” Proc. SPIE 5918, 591801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mattarello, V.

G. Monaco, D. Garoli, R. Frison, V. Mattarello, P. Nicolosi, M. G. Pelizzo, V. Rigato, L. Armelao, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Optical constants in the EUV soft x-ray (5÷152 nm) spectral range of B4C thin films deposited by different deposition techniques,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 631712(2006).
[CrossRef]

Méndez, J. A.

Modi, M. H.

G. S. Lodha, M. Nayak, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Study of optical response near the absorption edge using vacuum ultraviolet/soft x-ray reflectivity beamline on Indus-1,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 80, 012031 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Monaco, G.

G. Monaco, D. Garoli, R. Frison, V. Mattarello, P. Nicolosi, M. G. Pelizzo, V. Rigato, L. Armelao, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Optical constants in the EUV soft x-ray (5÷152 nm) spectral range of B4C thin films deposited by different deposition techniques,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 631712(2006).
[CrossRef]

Morawe, C.

D. Ksenzov, T. Panzner, C. Schlemper, C. Morawe, and U. Pietsch, “Optical properties of boron carbide near the boron K edge evaluated by soft-x-ray reflectometry from a Ru/B4C multilayer,” Appl. Opt. 48, 6684–6691 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Borel, C. Morawe, E. Ziegler, T. Bigault, J.-Y. Massonnat, J.-C. Peffen, and E. Debourg, “In situ study of multilayer reflectivity upon heat treatment under synchrotron radiation,” Proc. SPIE 5918, 591801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nandedkar, R. V.

G. S. Lodha, M. Nayak, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Study of optical response near the absorption edge using vacuum ultraviolet/soft x-ray reflectivity beamline on Indus-1,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 80, 012031 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nannarone, S.

G. Monaco, D. Garoli, R. Frison, V. Mattarello, P. Nicolosi, M. G. Pelizzo, V. Rigato, L. Armelao, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Optical constants in the EUV soft x-ray (5÷152 nm) spectral range of B4C thin films deposited by different deposition techniques,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 631712(2006).
[CrossRef]

Nayak, M.

G. S. Lodha, M. Nayak, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Study of optical response near the absorption edge using vacuum ultraviolet/soft x-ray reflectivity beamline on Indus-1,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 80, 012031 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nicolosi, P.

G. Monaco, D. Garoli, R. Frison, V. Mattarello, P. Nicolosi, M. G. Pelizzo, V. Rigato, L. Armelao, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Optical constants in the EUV soft x-ray (5÷152 nm) spectral range of B4C thin films deposited by different deposition techniques,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 631712(2006).
[CrossRef]

Nietubyc, R.

S. P. Hau-Riege, H. N. Chapman, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, S. Bajt, R. A. London, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, R. Nietubyc, L. Juha, J. Kuba, E. Spiller, S. Baker, R. Bionta, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, B. Kjornrattanawanich, E. Gullikson, E. Plönjes, S. Toleikis, and T. Tschentscher, “Subnanometer-scale measurements of the interaction of ultrafast soft x-ray free-electron-laser pulses with matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 145502 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panzner, T.

Peffen, J.-C.

C. Borel, C. Morawe, E. Ziegler, T. Bigault, J.-Y. Massonnat, J.-C. Peffen, and E. Debourg, “In situ study of multilayer reflectivity upon heat treatment under synchrotron radiation,” Proc. SPIE 5918, 591801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pelizzo, M. G.

G. Monaco, D. Garoli, R. Frison, V. Mattarello, P. Nicolosi, M. G. Pelizzo, V. Rigato, L. Armelao, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Optical constants in the EUV soft x-ray (5÷152 nm) spectral range of B4C thin films deposited by different deposition techniques,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 631712(2006).
[CrossRef]

Perrya, P. L.

A. F. Jankowskia and P. L. Perrya, “Characterization of Mo/B4C multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 206, 365–368 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pietsch, U.

Plönjes, E.

S. P. Hau-Riege, H. N. Chapman, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, S. Bajt, R. A. London, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, R. Nietubyc, L. Juha, J. Kuba, E. Spiller, S. Baker, R. Bionta, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, B. Kjornrattanawanich, E. Gullikson, E. Plönjes, S. Toleikis, and T. Tschentscher, “Subnanometer-scale measurements of the interaction of ultrafast soft x-ray free-electron-laser pulses with matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 145502 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prokhorov, K. A.

S. S. Andreev, M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, K. A. Prokhorov, N. N. Salashchenko, M. V. Zorina, F. Schafers, and L. A. Shmaenok, “Short-period multilayer x-ray mirrors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 10, 358–360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raoux, D.

L. Sève, J. M. Tonnerre, and D. Raoux, “Determination of the anomalous scattering factors in the soft-x-ray range using diffraction from a multilayer,” J. Appl. Cryst. 31, 700–707 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rigato, V.

G. Monaco, D. Garoli, R. Frison, V. Mattarello, P. Nicolosi, M. G. Pelizzo, V. Rigato, L. Armelao, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Optical constants in the EUV soft x-ray (5÷152 nm) spectral range of B4C thin films deposited by different deposition techniques,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 631712(2006).
[CrossRef]

Salashchenko, N. N.

S. S. Andreev, M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, K. A. Prokhorov, N. N. Salashchenko, M. V. Zorina, F. Schafers, and L. A. Shmaenok, “Short-period multilayer x-ray mirrors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 10, 358–360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salmassi, F.

Schafers, F.

S. S. Andreev, M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, K. A. Prokhorov, N. N. Salashchenko, M. V. Zorina, F. Schafers, and L. A. Shmaenok, “Short-period multilayer x-ray mirrors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 10, 358–360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlemper, C.

Sève, L.

L. Sève, J. M. Tonnerre, and D. Raoux, “Determination of the anomalous scattering factors in the soft-x-ray range using diffraction from a multilayer,” J. Appl. Cryst. 31, 700–707 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shmaenok, L. A.

S. S. Andreev, M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, K. A. Prokhorov, N. N. Salashchenko, M. V. Zorina, F. Schafers, and L. A. Shmaenok, “Short-period multilayer x-ray mirrors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 10, 358–360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sinha, A. K.

G. S. Lodha, M. Nayak, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Study of optical response near the absorption edge using vacuum ultraviolet/soft x-ray reflectivity beamline on Indus-1,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 80, 012031 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sobierajski, R.

S. P. Hau-Riege, H. N. Chapman, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, S. Bajt, R. A. London, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, R. Nietubyc, L. Juha, J. Kuba, E. Spiller, S. Baker, R. Bionta, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, B. Kjornrattanawanich, E. Gullikson, E. Plönjes, S. Toleikis, and T. Tschentscher, “Subnanometer-scale measurements of the interaction of ultrafast soft x-ray free-electron-laser pulses with matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 145502 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

S. P. Hau-Riege, H. N. Chapman, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, S. Bajt, R. A. London, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, R. Nietubyc, L. Juha, J. Kuba, E. Spiller, S. Baker, R. Bionta, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, B. Kjornrattanawanich, E. Gullikson, E. Plönjes, S. Toleikis, and T. Tschentscher, “Subnanometer-scale measurements of the interaction of ultrafast soft x-ray free-electron-laser pulses with matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 145502 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soufli, R.

Spiller, E.

S. P. Hau-Riege, H. N. Chapman, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, S. Bajt, R. A. London, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, R. Nietubyc, L. Juha, J. Kuba, E. Spiller, S. Baker, R. Bionta, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, B. Kjornrattanawanich, E. Gullikson, E. Plönjes, S. Toleikis, and T. Tschentscher, “Subnanometer-scale measurements of the interaction of ultrafast soft x-ray free-electron-laser pulses with matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 145502 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Spiller, “Refractive index of amorphous carbon near its K edge,” Appl. Opt. 29, 19–23 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stojanovic, N.

S. P. Hau-Riege, H. N. Chapman, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, S. Bajt, R. A. London, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, R. Nietubyc, L. Juha, J. Kuba, E. Spiller, S. Baker, R. Bionta, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, B. Kjornrattanawanich, E. Gullikson, E. Plönjes, S. Toleikis, and T. Tschentscher, “Subnanometer-scale measurements of the interaction of ultrafast soft x-ray free-electron-laser pulses with matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 145502 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terminello, L. J.

I. Jiménez, L. J. Terminello, F. J. Himpsel, M. Grush, and T. A. Callcott, “Photoemission, x-ray absorption and x-ray emission study of boron carbides,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 101–103, 611–615 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Toleikis, S.

S. P. Hau-Riege, H. N. Chapman, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, S. Bajt, R. A. London, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, R. Nietubyc, L. Juha, J. Kuba, E. Spiller, S. Baker, R. Bionta, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, B. Kjornrattanawanich, E. Gullikson, E. Plönjes, S. Toleikis, and T. Tschentscher, “Subnanometer-scale measurements of the interaction of ultrafast soft x-ray free-electron-laser pulses with matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 145502 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tonnerre, J. M.

L. Sève, J. M. Tonnerre, and D. Raoux, “Determination of the anomalous scattering factors in the soft-x-ray range using diffraction from a multilayer,” J. Appl. Cryst. 31, 700–707 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tschentscher, T.

S. P. Hau-Riege, H. N. Chapman, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, S. Bajt, R. A. London, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, R. Nietubyc, L. Juha, J. Kuba, E. Spiller, S. Baker, R. Bionta, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, B. Kjornrattanawanich, E. Gullikson, E. Plönjes, S. Toleikis, and T. Tschentscher, “Subnanometer-scale measurements of the interaction of ultrafast soft x-ray free-electron-laser pulses with matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 145502 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vidal-Dasilva, M.

Windt, D.

D. Windt, “IMD—Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, E.

C. Borel, C. Morawe, E. Ziegler, T. Bigault, J.-Y. Massonnat, J.-C. Peffen, and E. Debourg, “In situ study of multilayer reflectivity upon heat treatment under synchrotron radiation,” Proc. SPIE 5918, 591801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zorina, M. V.

S. S. Andreev, M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, K. A. Prokhorov, N. N. Salashchenko, M. V. Zorina, F. Schafers, and L. A. Shmaenok, “Short-period multilayer x-ray mirrors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 10, 358–360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Comput. Phys.

D. Windt, “IMD—Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Cryst.

L. Sève, J. M. Tonnerre, and D. Raoux, “Determination of the anomalous scattering factors in the soft-x-ray range using diffraction from a multilayer,” J. Appl. Cryst. 31, 700–707 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.

I. Jiménez, L. J. Terminello, F. J. Himpsel, M. Grush, and T. A. Callcott, “Photoemission, x-ray absorption and x-ray emission study of boron carbides,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 101–103, 611–615 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Phys. Conf. Ser.

G. S. Lodha, M. Nayak, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Study of optical response near the absorption edge using vacuum ultraviolet/soft x-ray reflectivity beamline on Indus-1,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 80, 012031 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Synchrotron Radiat.

S. S. Andreev, M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, K. A. Prokhorov, N. N. Salashchenko, M. V. Zorina, F. Schafers, and L. A. Shmaenok, “Short-period multilayer x-ray mirrors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 10, 358–360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. P. Hau-Riege, H. N. Chapman, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, S. Bajt, R. A. London, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, R. Nietubyc, L. Juha, J. Kuba, E. Spiller, S. Baker, R. Bionta, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, B. Kjornrattanawanich, E. Gullikson, E. Plönjes, S. Toleikis, and T. Tschentscher, “Subnanometer-scale measurements of the interaction of ultrafast soft x-ray free-electron-laser pulses with matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 145502 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

G. Monaco, D. Garoli, R. Frison, V. Mattarello, P. Nicolosi, M. G. Pelizzo, V. Rigato, L. Armelao, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Optical constants in the EUV soft x-ray (5÷152 nm) spectral range of B4C thin films deposited by different deposition techniques,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 631712(2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Borel, C. Morawe, E. Ziegler, T. Bigault, J.-Y. Massonnat, J.-C. Peffen, and E. Debourg, “In situ study of multilayer reflectivity upon heat treatment under synchrotron radiation,” Proc. SPIE 5918, 591801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

A. F. Jankowskia and P. L. Perrya, “Characterization of Mo/B4C multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 206, 365–368 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other

The website of Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO) http://henke.lbl.gov/optical_constants.

C. Braun, Parratt32 program for reflectivity analysis (HMI, 1997).

D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge University Press, 2000).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Tabulated refractive index decrement δ (left) and absorption index β (right) of Mo, Ru, boron, and boron carbide near the boron K edge [6]. To compare the calculated average, refractive indices of both MLs are presented, using preliminary data about these samples.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left: experimental reflectivity of the Mo / B 4 C ML with 20 periods via a function of incident energy (in eV) and the wave vector q z (in Å 1 ). Right: the experimental and fitted curves for two different energies, 182.5 and 186 eV , are presented using data from Table 1. The inset figures in the hand graphs show the typical periodic SLD profile for this structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Average refractive index δ = 1 n for the Mo / B 4 C ML based on the values of the critical angle (closed circles) and the position of the first order Bragg peak (open circles) using Eq. (1). The black line represents the tabulated δ values for Mo and boron carbide; the dashed line demonstrates the average values for this ML using structural parameters from Table 1 ( γ = 0.4 ).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental reflectivities of R u / B 4 C ML with 10 periods near the boron K edge via a function of incident energy (in eV) and wave vector q z (in Å 1 ).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Experimental (gray lines) and fitted (black lines) soft x-ray spectra for the Ru / B 4 C ML between 183 and 188 eV . The scattering length density profiles for three different energies from this range are (b) 183.0 , (c) 183.6 , and (d) 184.8 eV .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Surface (open circles) and bulk (closed circles) scattering length densities for the Ru / B 4 C ML with 10 periods below the boron K edge.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Refractive index δ = 1 n for boron carbide inside (i) Mo / B 4 C ML with 20 periods using data about the critical angle (green open circles) and from the first order Bragg peak (green closed circles) and (ii) Ru / B 4 C ML with 10 periods using data about the critical angle (red open squares) and from the first order Bragg peak (red closed squares) obtained from the measured data by the energy-resolved photon-in–photon-out method [9]. To compare: the black line shows the tabulated δ values for B 4 C from the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO) maintained data tables [6], and the blue dashed line with closed triangles shows the experimental data by the polarization measurements at reflectance mode [15].

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Calculated Structural Parameters of MLs

Equations (2)

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sin 2 θ p = ( λ p 2 d ) 2 + sin 2 θ cr ,
θ cr 2 δ eff + i 2 β eff .

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