Abstract

There has been very little work done in the past to extend the wavelength range of fiber image bundles to the IR range. This is due, in part, to the lack of IR transmissive fibers with optical and mechanical properties analogous to the oxide glass fibers currently employed in the visible fiber bundles. Our research is aimed at developing high-resolution hollow-core coherent IR fiber bundles for transendoscopic infrared imaging. We employ the hollow glass waveguide (HGW) technology that was used successfully to make single-HGWs with Ag/AgI thin film coatings to form coherent bundles for IR imaging. We examine the possibility of developing endoscopic systems to capture thermal images using hollow waveguide fiber bundles adjusted to the 810μm spectral range and investigate the applicability of such systems. We carried out a series of measurements in order to characterize the optical properties of the fiber bundles. These included the attenuation, resolution, and temperature response. We developed theoretical models and simulation tools that calculate the light propagation through HGW bundles, and which can be used to calculate the optical properties of the fiber bundles. Finally, the HGW fiber bundles were used to transmit thermal images of various heated objects; the results were compared with simulation results. The experimental results are encouraging, show an improvement in the resolution and thermal response of the HGW fiber bundles, and are consistent with the theoretical results. Nonetheless, additional improvements in the attenuation of the bundles are required in order to be able to use this technology for medical applications.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Hecht, Understanding Fiber Optics (Prentice-Hall, 2002).
  2. J. Harrington, Infrared Fiber Optics and Their Applications (SPIE Press, 2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Nishii, S. Morimoto, I. Inagawa, R. Iizuka, T. Yamashita, and T. Yamagishi, “Recent advances and trends in chalcogenide glass fiber technology: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 199–208 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Nishii, T. Yamashita, T. Yamagishi, C. Tanaka, and H. Sone, “Coherent infrared fiber image bundle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2639–2641 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. R. Hilton, Sr., “Infrared imaging bundles with good image resolution,” Proc. SPIE 4253, 28–36 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Rave and A. Katzir, “Ordered bundles of infrared transmitting silver halide fibers: attenuation, resolution and cross talk in long and flexible bundles,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1467–1468(2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Rave, L. Nagli, and A. Katzir, “Ordered bundles of infrared-transmitting AgClBr fibers: optical characterization of individual fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1237–1239 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Rave, D. Shemesh, and A. Katzir, “Thermal imaging through ordered bundles of infrared-transmitting silver-halide fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1795–1797 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. Gannot, “Thermal imaging bundle—A potential tool to enhance minimally invasive medical procedures,” IEEE Circuits Devices 21, 28–33 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Croitoru, J. Dror, and I. Gannot, “Characterization of hollow fibers for the transmission of infrared radiation,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1805–1809 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. V. Gopal, J. A. Harrington, A. Goren, and I. Gannot, “Coherent hollow-core waveguide bundles for infrared imaging,” Opt. Eng. 43, 1195–1199 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Matsuura, T. Abel, and J. A. Harrington, “Optical properties of small-bore hollow glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 34 , 6842–6847 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. Jähne, Digital Image Processing, 6th ed. (Springer, 2005).
  14. H. Wong, “Effect of knife-edge skew on modulation transfer function measurement of charge-coupled device imagers employing a scanning knife edge,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1394–1398(1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. P. Tzannes and J. M. Mooney, “Measurement of the modulation transfer function of infrared cameras,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1808–1817 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. Gopal and J. A. Harrington, “Deposition and characterization of metal sulfide dielectric coatings for hollow glass waveguides,” Opt. Express 11, 3182–3187 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Y. Milstein, M. Tepper, M. Ben David, J. A. Harrington, and I. Gannot, “Photothermal bundle measurement of phantoms and blood as a proof of concept for oxygenation saturation measurement,” J. Biophoton. 3(10) (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

Y. Milstein, M. Tepper, M. Ben David, J. A. Harrington, and I. Gannot, “Photothermal bundle measurement of phantoms and blood as a proof of concept for oxygenation saturation measurement,” J. Biophoton. 3(10) (2010).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

B. Jähne, Digital Image Processing, 6th ed. (Springer, 2005).

I. Gannot, “Thermal imaging bundle—A potential tool to enhance minimally invasive medical procedures,” IEEE Circuits Devices 21, 28–33 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

V. Gopal, J. A. Harrington, A. Goren, and I. Gannot, “Coherent hollow-core waveguide bundles for infrared imaging,” Opt. Eng. 43, 1195–1199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Harrington, Infrared Fiber Optics and Their Applications (SPIE Press, 2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

J. Hecht, Understanding Fiber Optics (Prentice-Hall, 2002).

E. Rave and A. Katzir, “Ordered bundles of infrared transmitting silver halide fibers: attenuation, resolution and cross talk in long and flexible bundles,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1467–1468(2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. R. Hilton, Sr., “Infrared imaging bundles with good image resolution,” Proc. SPIE 4253, 28–36 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

E. Rave, D. Shemesh, and A. Katzir, “Thermal imaging through ordered bundles of infrared-transmitting silver-halide fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1795–1797 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Rave, L. Nagli, and A. Katzir, “Ordered bundles of infrared-transmitting AgClBr fibers: optical characterization of individual fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1237–1239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

A. P. Tzannes and J. M. Mooney, “Measurement of the modulation transfer function of infrared cameras,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1808–1817 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuura, T. Abel, and J. A. Harrington, “Optical properties of small-bore hollow glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 34 , 6842–6847 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

J. Nishii, S. Morimoto, I. Inagawa, R. Iizuka, T. Yamashita, and T. Yamagishi, “Recent advances and trends in chalcogenide glass fiber technology: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 199–208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

J. Nishii, T. Yamashita, T. Yamagishi, C. Tanaka, and H. Sone, “Coherent infrared fiber image bundle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2639–2641 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. Wong, “Effect of knife-edge skew on modulation transfer function measurement of charge-coupled device imagers employing a scanning knife edge,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1394–1398(1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

Abel, T.

Ben David, M.

Y. Milstein, M. Tepper, M. Ben David, J. A. Harrington, and I. Gannot, “Photothermal bundle measurement of phantoms and blood as a proof of concept for oxygenation saturation measurement,” J. Biophoton. 3(10) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Croitoru, N.

Dror, J.

Gannot, I.

Y. Milstein, M. Tepper, M. Ben David, J. A. Harrington, and I. Gannot, “Photothermal bundle measurement of phantoms and blood as a proof of concept for oxygenation saturation measurement,” J. Biophoton. 3(10) (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Gannot, “Thermal imaging bundle—A potential tool to enhance minimally invasive medical procedures,” IEEE Circuits Devices 21, 28–33 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Gopal, J. A. Harrington, A. Goren, and I. Gannot, “Coherent hollow-core waveguide bundles for infrared imaging,” Opt. Eng. 43, 1195–1199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Croitoru, J. Dror, and I. Gannot, “Characterization of hollow fibers for the transmission of infrared radiation,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1805–1809 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gopal, V.

V. Gopal, J. A. Harrington, A. Goren, and I. Gannot, “Coherent hollow-core waveguide bundles for infrared imaging,” Opt. Eng. 43, 1195–1199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Gopal and J. A. Harrington, “Deposition and characterization of metal sulfide dielectric coatings for hollow glass waveguides,” Opt. Express 11, 3182–3187 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goren, A.

V. Gopal, J. A. Harrington, A. Goren, and I. Gannot, “Coherent hollow-core waveguide bundles for infrared imaging,” Opt. Eng. 43, 1195–1199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Harrington, J.

J. Harrington, Infrared Fiber Optics and Their Applications (SPIE Press, 2004).
[CrossRef]

Harrington, J. A.

Y. Milstein, M. Tepper, M. Ben David, J. A. Harrington, and I. Gannot, “Photothermal bundle measurement of phantoms and blood as a proof of concept for oxygenation saturation measurement,” J. Biophoton. 3(10) (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Gopal, J. A. Harrington, A. Goren, and I. Gannot, “Coherent hollow-core waveguide bundles for infrared imaging,” Opt. Eng. 43, 1195–1199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Gopal and J. A. Harrington, “Deposition and characterization of metal sulfide dielectric coatings for hollow glass waveguides,” Opt. Express 11, 3182–3187 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Matsuura, T. Abel, and J. A. Harrington, “Optical properties of small-bore hollow glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 34 , 6842–6847 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, J.

J. Hecht, Understanding Fiber Optics (Prentice-Hall, 2002).

Hilton, A. R.

A. R. Hilton, Sr., “Infrared imaging bundles with good image resolution,” Proc. SPIE 4253, 28–36 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Iizuka, R.

J. Nishii, S. Morimoto, I. Inagawa, R. Iizuka, T. Yamashita, and T. Yamagishi, “Recent advances and trends in chalcogenide glass fiber technology: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 199–208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Inagawa, I.

J. Nishii, S. Morimoto, I. Inagawa, R. Iizuka, T. Yamashita, and T. Yamagishi, “Recent advances and trends in chalcogenide glass fiber technology: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 199–208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jähne, B.

B. Jähne, Digital Image Processing, 6th ed. (Springer, 2005).

Katzir, A.

E. Rave and A. Katzir, “Ordered bundles of infrared transmitting silver halide fibers: attenuation, resolution and cross talk in long and flexible bundles,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1467–1468(2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Rave, D. Shemesh, and A. Katzir, “Thermal imaging through ordered bundles of infrared-transmitting silver-halide fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1795–1797 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Rave, L. Nagli, and A. Katzir, “Ordered bundles of infrared-transmitting AgClBr fibers: optical characterization of individual fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1237–1239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, Y.

Milstein, Y.

Y. Milstein, M. Tepper, M. Ben David, J. A. Harrington, and I. Gannot, “Photothermal bundle measurement of phantoms and blood as a proof of concept for oxygenation saturation measurement,” J. Biophoton. 3(10) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mooney, J. M.

A. P. Tzannes and J. M. Mooney, “Measurement of the modulation transfer function of infrared cameras,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1808–1817 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morimoto, S.

J. Nishii, S. Morimoto, I. Inagawa, R. Iizuka, T. Yamashita, and T. Yamagishi, “Recent advances and trends in chalcogenide glass fiber technology: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 199–208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nagli, L.

Nishii, J.

J. Nishii, S. Morimoto, I. Inagawa, R. Iizuka, T. Yamashita, and T. Yamagishi, “Recent advances and trends in chalcogenide glass fiber technology: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 199–208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishii, T. Yamashita, T. Yamagishi, C. Tanaka, and H. Sone, “Coherent infrared fiber image bundle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2639–2641 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rave, E.

E. Rave and A. Katzir, “Ordered bundles of infrared transmitting silver halide fibers: attenuation, resolution and cross talk in long and flexible bundles,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1467–1468(2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Rave, D. Shemesh, and A. Katzir, “Thermal imaging through ordered bundles of infrared-transmitting silver-halide fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1795–1797 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Rave, L. Nagli, and A. Katzir, “Ordered bundles of infrared-transmitting AgClBr fibers: optical characterization of individual fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1237–1239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shemesh, D.

E. Rave, D. Shemesh, and A. Katzir, “Thermal imaging through ordered bundles of infrared-transmitting silver-halide fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1795–1797 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sone, H.

J. Nishii, T. Yamashita, T. Yamagishi, C. Tanaka, and H. Sone, “Coherent infrared fiber image bundle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2639–2641 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, C.

J. Nishii, T. Yamashita, T. Yamagishi, C. Tanaka, and H. Sone, “Coherent infrared fiber image bundle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2639–2641 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tepper, M.

Y. Milstein, M. Tepper, M. Ben David, J. A. Harrington, and I. Gannot, “Photothermal bundle measurement of phantoms and blood as a proof of concept for oxygenation saturation measurement,” J. Biophoton. 3(10) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tzannes, A. P.

A. P. Tzannes and J. M. Mooney, “Measurement of the modulation transfer function of infrared cameras,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1808–1817 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wong, H.

H. Wong, “Effect of knife-edge skew on modulation transfer function measurement of charge-coupled device imagers employing a scanning knife edge,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1394–1398(1991).
[CrossRef]

Yamagishi, T.

J. Nishii, S. Morimoto, I. Inagawa, R. Iizuka, T. Yamashita, and T. Yamagishi, “Recent advances and trends in chalcogenide glass fiber technology: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 199–208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishii, T. Yamashita, T. Yamagishi, C. Tanaka, and H. Sone, “Coherent infrared fiber image bundle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2639–2641 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, T.

J. Nishii, S. Morimoto, I. Inagawa, R. Iizuka, T. Yamashita, and T. Yamagishi, “Recent advances and trends in chalcogenide glass fiber technology: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 199–208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishii, T. Yamashita, T. Yamagishi, C. Tanaka, and H. Sone, “Coherent infrared fiber image bundle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2639–2641 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Nishii, T. Yamashita, T. Yamagishi, C. Tanaka, and H. Sone, “Coherent infrared fiber image bundle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2639–2641 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Rave, D. Shemesh, and A. Katzir, “Thermal imaging through ordered bundles of infrared-transmitting silver-halide fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1795–1797 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Circuits Devices (1)

I. Gannot, “Thermal imaging bundle—A potential tool to enhance minimally invasive medical procedures,” IEEE Circuits Devices 21, 28–33 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Biophoton. (1)

Y. Milstein, M. Tepper, M. Ben David, J. A. Harrington, and I. Gannot, “Photothermal bundle measurement of phantoms and blood as a proof of concept for oxygenation saturation measurement,” J. Biophoton. 3(10) (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

J. Nishii, S. Morimoto, I. Inagawa, R. Iizuka, T. Yamashita, and T. Yamagishi, “Recent advances and trends in chalcogenide glass fiber technology: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 199–208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (4)

E. Rave and A. Katzir, “Ordered bundles of infrared transmitting silver halide fibers: attenuation, resolution and cross talk in long and flexible bundles,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1467–1468(2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Wong, “Effect of knife-edge skew on modulation transfer function measurement of charge-coupled device imagers employing a scanning knife edge,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1394–1398(1991).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Tzannes and J. M. Mooney, “Measurement of the modulation transfer function of infrared cameras,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1808–1817 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. Gopal, J. A. Harrington, A. Goren, and I. Gannot, “Coherent hollow-core waveguide bundles for infrared imaging,” Opt. Eng. 43, 1195–1199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. R. Hilton, Sr., “Infrared imaging bundles with good image resolution,” Proc. SPIE 4253, 28–36 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. Hecht, Understanding Fiber Optics (Prentice-Hall, 2002).

J. Harrington, Infrared Fiber Optics and Their Applications (SPIE Press, 2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Jähne, Digital Image Processing, 6th ed. (Springer, 2005).

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of a Ag/AgI coated hollow glass waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wet-chemistry method for the deposition of Ag (left) and AgI (right) thin films inside silica tubing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross section of coherent bundle showing hexagonal shape of drawn tubing (left) and microphotograph of one capillary with Ag/AgI coating (right).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectra of progressively coated 100 μm bore waveguides as measured by Fourier transform infrared. From top to bottom, the waveguides are 60, 120, 180, and 240 min at the right side of the graph.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Correlation of position of first absorption peak with iodization time.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Light emitted from the source point will travel a different distance and enter each fiber in the bundle at different entrance angles.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Left: simulated bundle PSF for 100 μm core fiber bundle. Right: calculated MTF for 100 μm core fiber bundle.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Knife-edge response of the bundle and the ESF approximation.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

MTF of the 100 μm core fiber bundle.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Calculated (smooth) versus actual (jagged) MTF for 100 μm core fiber bundle.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Experimental setup for the thermal response of the fiber bundle.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Temperature sensitivity of the fiber bundle. The target temperature (blue–left y axis) versus the temperature via the fiber bundle (red–right y axis).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Experimental setup to measure the MRTD using the bar target method.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Right: bar target as seen directly by the thermal camera. Left: image transmitted through the HGW bundle.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Experimental arrangement for IR imaging of a hot wire through the 900 hole, 100 μm bore HGW bundle. The tungsten wire was electrically heated and placed 1 mm in front of the bundle’s left end. The image emitted from the bundle’s right end was magnified by a 2.5 cm IR lens and the IR camera’s close-up lens and recorded by the camera.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Thermal image of a tungsten wire and a lead rod heated by an electric current. The image was transmitted by a HGW fiber bundle (left) 0.5 mm lead rod at 190 ° C (right) hot wire at 230 ° C .

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Calculation of the entrance angle and light energy for one waveguide located at point 2 in the fiber bundle from a single light source located at point 1.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

2D simulation of the transferred image of the 0.5 mm lead rod through the HGW fiber bundle (left) versus the actual 0.5 mm lead rod image (right).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental Results of the Attenuation of Radiation through the Fiber Bundles Measured Using CO 2 Laser Radiation Transmitted through the Bundles

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A = 10 · log ( P out / P in ) L [ dB / m ] ,
| I | = P 4 π r 2 ,
P in i = ( X r i ) 2 · P in ,
P = | X 1 X 2 | 2 + | Y 1 Y 2 | 2 .
α = tan 1 ( P Z 1 ) .
L = Z 1 2 + P 2 .
Transmission = sum of output pixels no of bundle waveguides × sum of input pixels = 0.059.

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