Abstract

Gas heating has been widely used in the process of fused biconical tapering. However, as the instability and asymmetric flame temperature of gas heating exist, the performance of the optical devices fabricated by this method was affected. To overcome the problems resulting from gas combustion, an electric heater is designed and manufactured using a metal-ceramic (MoSi2) as a heating material. Our experimental data show that the fused-taper machine with an electric heater has improved the performance of optical devices by increasing the consistency of the extinction ratio, excess loss, and the splitting ratio over that of the previous gas heating mode. Microcrystallizations and microcracks were observed at the fused region of the polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber coupler and at the taper region with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy respectively. The distribution of the microcrystallizations and microcracks are nonuniform along the fiber with gas heating, while their distribution is rather uniform with electric heating. These findings show that the novel optical fiber coupler with an electric heater has improved the performance of optical fiber devices by affecting the consistency of the optical parameters and micromorphology of the surface of PM fiber.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. P. Pal, P. R. Chaudhuri, and M. R. Shenoy, “Fabrication and modeling of fused biconical tapered fiber couplers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 22, 97–117 (2003).
  2. H. Guo, F. Pang, X. Zeng, N. Chen, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, “Temperature sensor using an optical fiber coupler with a thin film,” Appl. Opt. 47, 3530–3534 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Wang and H. Liu, “The comparison of two methods to manufacture fused biconical tapered optical fiber coupler,” Proc. SPIE 7514, 751418 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. R. Chaudhuri and B. P. Pal, “Understanding coupling mechanism in fused fiber coupler-based components: role of core and cladding modes,” Proc. SPIE 4417, 403–408 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Chen and L. Wang, “Investigation on optical parameter of fused and tapered all-fiber coupler,” Proc. SPIE 6841, 68410Q (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Nagata, “Chemical properties of fused fiber coupler surface,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 324–328 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. B. Eom, J. Kim, and D. Seung Moon, “Single-mode propagation in a photonic crystal fiber coupler,” in Seventh Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (IEICE, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 498–507.
  8. C. J. Shuai, J. A. Duan, and J. Zhong, “Technical sensitiveness in the rheological manufacture progress of fused taper coupler,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 13, 40–44 (2005).
  9. Y. Takeuchi, M. Hirayama, S. Sumida, and O. Kobayashi, “Characteristics of ceramic microheater for fiber coupler fabrication,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3665–3668 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. S. Kwang, I. K. Hwang, and S. H. Yun, “High performance fused-type mode selective coupler for two-mode fiber devices,” in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 37 of Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 32–36.
  11. C. Shuai, S. Peng, and X. Wen, “The micro-torsion mechanism of polarization axis during fabrication of polarization maintaining fiber devices,” Adv. Mater. Res. 97–101, 1177–1180(2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. S. Hsieh, T. L. Wu, and W. H. Cheng, “An optimum approach for fabrication of low loss fused fiber couplers,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 69, 199–203 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Shuai, J. Duan, and J. Zhong, “Effect of technological parameters on optical performance of fiber coupler,” J. Cent. South Univ. Technol. 14, 370–373 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Shuai, J. Duan, and J. Zhong, “Relationship between rheological manufacturing process and performance of optical fiber coupler,” J. Cent. South Univ. Technol. 13, 175–179(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Shuai, J. Duan, and J. Zhong, “Experimental measurement and numerical analysis of fused taper shape for optical fiber coupler,” J. Cent. South Univ. Technol. 14, 251–254(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. F. McMillan and G. H. Wolf, “Vibrational spectroscopy of silicate liquids,” Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 32247–315 (1995).
  17. A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, “Correlation of silica glass properties with the infrared spectra,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 209, 166–174 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Duan, G. Cai, and C. Shuai, “Research on the correlation between IR characteristic peak and microstructure of fiberglass,” J. Cent. South Univ. Technol. 11, 231–241(2006).

2010

C. Shuai, S. Peng, and X. Wen, “The micro-torsion mechanism of polarization axis during fabrication of polarization maintaining fiber devices,” Adv. Mater. Res. 97–101, 1177–1180(2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

Y. Wang and H. Liu, “The comparison of two methods to manufacture fused biconical tapered optical fiber coupler,” Proc. SPIE 7514, 751418 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

C. Shuai, J. Duan, and J. Zhong, “Effect of technological parameters on optical performance of fiber coupler,” J. Cent. South Univ. Technol. 14, 370–373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Shuai, J. Duan, and J. Zhong, “Experimental measurement and numerical analysis of fused taper shape for optical fiber coupler,” J. Cent. South Univ. Technol. 14, 251–254(2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen and L. Wang, “Investigation on optical parameter of fused and tapered all-fiber coupler,” Proc. SPIE 6841, 68410Q (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

C. Shuai, J. Duan, and J. Zhong, “Relationship between rheological manufacturing process and performance of optical fiber coupler,” J. Cent. South Univ. Technol. 13, 175–179(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Duan, G. Cai, and C. Shuai, “Research on the correlation between IR characteristic peak and microstructure of fiberglass,” J. Cent. South Univ. Technol. 11, 231–241(2006).

2005

C. J. Shuai, J. A. Duan, and J. Zhong, “Technical sensitiveness in the rheological manufacture progress of fused taper coupler,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 13, 40–44 (2005).

2003

B. P. Pal, P. R. Chaudhuri, and M. R. Shenoy, “Fabrication and modeling of fused biconical tapered fiber couplers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 22, 97–117 (2003).

2001

C. S. Hsieh, T. L. Wu, and W. H. Cheng, “An optimum approach for fabrication of low loss fused fiber couplers,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 69, 199–203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Chaudhuri and B. P. Pal, “Understanding coupling mechanism in fused fiber coupler-based components: role of core and cladding modes,” Proc. SPIE 4417, 403–408 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. Nagata, “Chemical properties of fused fiber coupler surface,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 324–328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

Y. Takeuchi, M. Hirayama, S. Sumida, and O. Kobayashi, “Characteristics of ceramic microheater for fiber coupler fabrication,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3665–3668 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, “Correlation of silica glass properties with the infrared spectra,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 209, 166–174 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

P. F. McMillan and G. H. Wolf, “Vibrational spectroscopy of silicate liquids,” Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 32247–315 (1995).

Agarwal, A.

A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, “Correlation of silica glass properties with the infrared spectra,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 209, 166–174 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cai, G.

J. Duan, G. Cai, and C. Shuai, “Research on the correlation between IR characteristic peak and microstructure of fiberglass,” J. Cent. South Univ. Technol. 11, 231–241(2006).

Chaudhuri, P. R.

B. P. Pal, P. R. Chaudhuri, and M. R. Shenoy, “Fabrication and modeling of fused biconical tapered fiber couplers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 22, 97–117 (2003).

P. R. Chaudhuri and B. P. Pal, “Understanding coupling mechanism in fused fiber coupler-based components: role of core and cladding modes,” Proc. SPIE 4417, 403–408 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen and L. Wang, “Investigation on optical parameter of fused and tapered all-fiber coupler,” Proc. SPIE 6841, 68410Q (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, N.

Chen, Z.

Cheng, W. H.

C. S. Hsieh, T. L. Wu, and W. H. Cheng, “An optimum approach for fabrication of low loss fused fiber couplers,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 69, 199–203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Duan, J.

C. Shuai, J. Duan, and J. Zhong, “Effect of technological parameters on optical performance of fiber coupler,” J. Cent. South Univ. Technol. 14, 370–373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Shuai, J. Duan, and J. Zhong, “Experimental measurement and numerical analysis of fused taper shape for optical fiber coupler,” J. Cent. South Univ. Technol. 14, 251–254(2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Duan, G. Cai, and C. Shuai, “Research on the correlation between IR characteristic peak and microstructure of fiberglass,” J. Cent. South Univ. Technol. 11, 231–241(2006).

C. Shuai, J. Duan, and J. Zhong, “Relationship between rheological manufacturing process and performance of optical fiber coupler,” J. Cent. South Univ. Technol. 13, 175–179(2006).
[CrossRef]

Duan, J. A.

C. J. Shuai, J. A. Duan, and J. Zhong, “Technical sensitiveness in the rheological manufacture progress of fused taper coupler,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 13, 40–44 (2005).

Eom, J. B.

J. B. Eom, J. Kim, and D. Seung Moon, “Single-mode propagation in a photonic crystal fiber coupler,” in Seventh Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (IEICE, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 498–507.

Guo, H.

Hirayama, M.

Y. Takeuchi, M. Hirayama, S. Sumida, and O. Kobayashi, “Characteristics of ceramic microheater for fiber coupler fabrication,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3665–3668 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C. S.

C. S. Hsieh, T. L. Wu, and W. H. Cheng, “An optimum approach for fabrication of low loss fused fiber couplers,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 69, 199–203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, I. K.

Y. S. Kwang, I. K. Hwang, and S. H. Yun, “High performance fused-type mode selective coupler for two-mode fiber devices,” in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 37 of Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 32–36.

Kim, J.

J. B. Eom, J. Kim, and D. Seung Moon, “Single-mode propagation in a photonic crystal fiber coupler,” in Seventh Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (IEICE, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 498–507.

Kobayashi, O.

Y. Takeuchi, M. Hirayama, S. Sumida, and O. Kobayashi, “Characteristics of ceramic microheater for fiber coupler fabrication,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3665–3668 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kwang, Y. S.

Y. S. Kwang, I. K. Hwang, and S. H. Yun, “High performance fused-type mode selective coupler for two-mode fiber devices,” in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 37 of Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 32–36.

Liu, H.

Y. Wang and H. Liu, “The comparison of two methods to manufacture fused biconical tapered optical fiber coupler,” Proc. SPIE 7514, 751418 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McMillan, P. F.

P. F. McMillan and G. H. Wolf, “Vibrational spectroscopy of silicate liquids,” Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 32247–315 (1995).

Moon, D. Seung

J. B. Eom, J. Kim, and D. Seung Moon, “Single-mode propagation in a photonic crystal fiber coupler,” in Seventh Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (IEICE, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 498–507.

Nagata, H.

H. Nagata, “Chemical properties of fused fiber coupler surface,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 324–328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pal, B. P.

B. P. Pal, P. R. Chaudhuri, and M. R. Shenoy, “Fabrication and modeling of fused biconical tapered fiber couplers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 22, 97–117 (2003).

P. R. Chaudhuri and B. P. Pal, “Understanding coupling mechanism in fused fiber coupler-based components: role of core and cladding modes,” Proc. SPIE 4417, 403–408 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pang, F.

Peng, S.

C. Shuai, S. Peng, and X. Wen, “The micro-torsion mechanism of polarization axis during fabrication of polarization maintaining fiber devices,” Adv. Mater. Res. 97–101, 1177–1180(2010).
[CrossRef]

Shenoy, M. R.

B. P. Pal, P. R. Chaudhuri, and M. R. Shenoy, “Fabrication and modeling of fused biconical tapered fiber couplers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 22, 97–117 (2003).

Shuai, C.

C. Shuai, S. Peng, and X. Wen, “The micro-torsion mechanism of polarization axis during fabrication of polarization maintaining fiber devices,” Adv. Mater. Res. 97–101, 1177–1180(2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Shuai, J. Duan, and J. Zhong, “Effect of technological parameters on optical performance of fiber coupler,” J. Cent. South Univ. Technol. 14, 370–373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Shuai, J. Duan, and J. Zhong, “Experimental measurement and numerical analysis of fused taper shape for optical fiber coupler,” J. Cent. South Univ. Technol. 14, 251–254(2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Shuai, J. Duan, and J. Zhong, “Relationship between rheological manufacturing process and performance of optical fiber coupler,” J. Cent. South Univ. Technol. 13, 175–179(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Duan, G. Cai, and C. Shuai, “Research on the correlation between IR characteristic peak and microstructure of fiberglass,” J. Cent. South Univ. Technol. 11, 231–241(2006).

Shuai, C. J.

C. J. Shuai, J. A. Duan, and J. Zhong, “Technical sensitiveness in the rheological manufacture progress of fused taper coupler,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 13, 40–44 (2005).

Sumida, S.

Y. Takeuchi, M. Hirayama, S. Sumida, and O. Kobayashi, “Characteristics of ceramic microheater for fiber coupler fabrication,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3665–3668 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, Y.

Y. Takeuchi, M. Hirayama, S. Sumida, and O. Kobayashi, “Characteristics of ceramic microheater for fiber coupler fabrication,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3665–3668 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tomozawa, M.

A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, “Correlation of silica glass properties with the infrared spectra,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 209, 166–174 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

J. Chen and L. Wang, “Investigation on optical parameter of fused and tapered all-fiber coupler,” Proc. SPIE 6841, 68410Q (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang and H. Liu, “The comparison of two methods to manufacture fused biconical tapered optical fiber coupler,” Proc. SPIE 7514, 751418 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wen, X.

C. Shuai, S. Peng, and X. Wen, “The micro-torsion mechanism of polarization axis during fabrication of polarization maintaining fiber devices,” Adv. Mater. Res. 97–101, 1177–1180(2010).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, G. H.

P. F. McMillan and G. H. Wolf, “Vibrational spectroscopy of silicate liquids,” Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 32247–315 (1995).

Wu, T. L.

C. S. Hsieh, T. L. Wu, and W. H. Cheng, “An optimum approach for fabrication of low loss fused fiber couplers,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 69, 199–203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yun, S. H.

Y. S. Kwang, I. K. Hwang, and S. H. Yun, “High performance fused-type mode selective coupler for two-mode fiber devices,” in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 37 of Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 32–36.

Zeng, X.

Zhong, J.

C. Shuai, J. Duan, and J. Zhong, “Effect of technological parameters on optical performance of fiber coupler,” J. Cent. South Univ. Technol. 14, 370–373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Shuai, J. Duan, and J. Zhong, “Experimental measurement and numerical analysis of fused taper shape for optical fiber coupler,” J. Cent. South Univ. Technol. 14, 251–254(2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Shuai, J. Duan, and J. Zhong, “Relationship between rheological manufacturing process and performance of optical fiber coupler,” J. Cent. South Univ. Technol. 13, 175–179(2006).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Shuai, J. A. Duan, and J. Zhong, “Technical sensitiveness in the rheological manufacture progress of fused taper coupler,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 13, 40–44 (2005).

Adv. Mater. Res.

C. Shuai, S. Peng, and X. Wen, “The micro-torsion mechanism of polarization axis during fabrication of polarization maintaining fiber devices,” Adv. Mater. Res. 97–101, 1177–1180(2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Fiber Integr. Opt.

B. P. Pal, P. R. Chaudhuri, and M. R. Shenoy, “Fabrication and modeling of fused biconical tapered fiber couplers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 22, 97–117 (2003).

J. Cent. South Univ. Technol.

J. Duan, G. Cai, and C. Shuai, “Research on the correlation between IR characteristic peak and microstructure of fiberglass,” J. Cent. South Univ. Technol. 11, 231–241(2006).

C. Shuai, J. Duan, and J. Zhong, “Effect of technological parameters on optical performance of fiber coupler,” J. Cent. South Univ. Technol. 14, 370–373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Shuai, J. Duan, and J. Zhong, “Relationship between rheological manufacturing process and performance of optical fiber coupler,” J. Cent. South Univ. Technol. 13, 175–179(2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Shuai, J. Duan, and J. Zhong, “Experimental measurement and numerical analysis of fused taper shape for optical fiber coupler,” J. Cent. South Univ. Technol. 14, 251–254(2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, “Correlation of silica glass properties with the infrared spectra,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 209, 166–174 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Takeuchi, M. Hirayama, S. Sumida, and O. Kobayashi, “Characteristics of ceramic microheater for fiber coupler fabrication,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3665–3668 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Chem. Phys.

C. S. Hsieh, T. L. Wu, and W. H. Cheng, “An optimum approach for fabrication of low loss fused fiber couplers,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 69, 199–203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol.

H. Nagata, “Chemical properties of fused fiber coupler surface,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 324–328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Precis. Eng.

C. J. Shuai, J. A. Duan, and J. Zhong, “Technical sensitiveness in the rheological manufacture progress of fused taper coupler,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 13, 40–44 (2005).

Proc. SPIE

Y. Wang and H. Liu, “The comparison of two methods to manufacture fused biconical tapered optical fiber coupler,” Proc. SPIE 7514, 751418 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Chaudhuri and B. P. Pal, “Understanding coupling mechanism in fused fiber coupler-based components: role of core and cladding modes,” Proc. SPIE 4417, 403–408 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen and L. Wang, “Investigation on optical parameter of fused and tapered all-fiber coupler,” Proc. SPIE 6841, 68410Q (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mineral. Geochem.

P. F. McMillan and G. H. Wolf, “Vibrational spectroscopy of silicate liquids,” Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 32247–315 (1995).

Other

J. B. Eom, J. Kim, and D. Seung Moon, “Single-mode propagation in a photonic crystal fiber coupler,” in Seventh Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (IEICE, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 498–507.

Y. S. Kwang, I. K. Hwang, and S. H. Yun, “High performance fused-type mode selective coupler for two-mode fiber devices,” in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 37 of Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 32–36.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of the heater: (a) structure chart and (b) physical picture. The cross-section groove holding fibers is designed as a cycle shape in order to ensure the axial symmetry of the temperature field. The electrode is long enough for the convenience of wiring and its surface is coated with a layer of aluminum to reduce the contact resistance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ceramic insulation of the heater: (a) the ceramic insulation, and (b) fixing of the electric heater.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Distribution curve of the temperature with the two heating modes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Manufacture flow chart of fiber coupler: the preset coupling ratio is 44, the t 1 is 18 s , and the t 2 is 1 s . The fiber coupler is fabricated with PM fiber under the same fusion condition.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sketch of fused-taper fiber coupler. Point A and point B are the testing points: point A is located in the center of fused region and point B is located in the taper region. The distance between A and B is about 10 mm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

AFM images of the surfaces of (a) the bare fiber, (b) the fused region, and (c) the taper region heated with gas. In (a), the Ra and rms are 2.824 nm and 3.240 nm , respectively. In (b), the Ra (roughness) and rms are 27.170 nm and 41.918 nm , respectively. (c) shows microcracks resulting from gas heating, and the Ra and rms are 11.552 nm and 17.084 nm , respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Microstructure of the fused region as imaged by SEM. (a) Initial surface of the bare fiber. (b) Crystalline particles from the fused region with gas heating. (c) shows that there are fewer crystalline particles on the surface of the fused region with electric heating.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Microstructure of the taper region as imaged by SEM. (a) Surface of taper region with gas heating; there are significant microcracks on the surface and they are asymmetric. (b) Microcracks are smaller and uniform on the surface of the taper region with electric heating.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Performance Parameters Between Electric Heating and Gas Heating

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of Microstructures between Electric Heating and Gas Heating

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Mo Si 2 + O 2 Mo O 3 + Si O 2 ,
Mo Si 2 + O 2 Mo 5 Si 3 + Si O 2 .

Metrics