Abstract

The backscattering linear depolarization ratios of major types of tropospheric aerosol particles (Asian and Saharan mineral dust, sea salt, and ammonium sulfate) were measured using a laboratory chamber for interpreting the polarization lidar measurement of tropospheric aerosols. The values obtained from Asian and Saharan mineral particles were 0.39±0.04 to 0.05 (mean±standard deviation) for a high number of concentrations in the supermicrometer range and 0.17±0.03 to 0.14±0.03 in the submicrometer range. The values were 0.08±0.01 for sea-salt crystals, 0.04±0.003 for ammonium sulfate crystals, and 0.01±0.001 for both liquid droplets in the submicrometer range. These values can serve as a reference for estimating aerosol type using lidar measurement.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  29. V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B 61, 165–179 (2009), doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2008.00396.x.
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    [CrossRef]
  32. M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, V. Freudenthaler, and S. Gross, “Vertically resolved separation of dust and smoke over Cape Verde using multiwavelength Raman and polarization lidars during Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment 2008,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D13202 (2009), doi:10.1029/2009JD011862.
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2009 (3)

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B 61, 165–179 (2009), doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2008.00396.x.
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, V. Freudenthaler, and S. Gross, “Vertically resolved separation of dust and smoke over Cape Verde using multiwavelength Raman and polarization lidars during Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment 2008,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D13202 (2009), doi:10.1029/2009JD011862.
[CrossRef]

X. Cao, G. Roy, N. Roy, and R. Bernier, “Comparison of the relationships between lidar integrated backscattered light and accumulated depolarization ratios for linear and circular polarization for water droplets, fog oil, and dust,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4130–4141 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

T. Nishizawa, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, B. Tatarov, and H. Okamoto, “Algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical properties from high spectral resolution lidar and polarization Mie-scattering lidar measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 4094–4103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, A. Omar, M. Vaughan, J. Hair, C. Kittaka, Y. Hu, K. Powell, C. Trepte, D. Winker, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, and R. Pierce, “CALIPSO lidar observations of the optical properties of Saharan dust: a case study of long-range transport,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07207 (2008), doi: 10.1029/2007JD008878.
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, D. Liu, J. Huang, M. Vaughan, I. Uno, N. Sugimoto, C. Kittaka, C. Trepte, Z. Wang, C. Hostetler, and D. Winker, “Airborne dust distributions over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas derived from the first year of CALIPSO lidar observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 5045–5060 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, B. M. Morley, and E. Loew, “Polarization lidar at 1.54 microns and observations of plumes from aerosol generators,” Opt. Eng. 46, 096201 (2007), doi: 0.1117/12.781902.
[CrossRef]

T. Nishizawa, H. Okamoto, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, and K. Aoki, “An algorithm that retrieves aerosol properties from dual-wavelength polarized lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D06212 (2007), doi: 10.1029/2006JD007435.
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

Te. Aoki, M. Mikami, A. Yamazaki, S. Yabuki, Y. Yamada, M. Ishizuka, F. Zeng, W. Gao, J. Sun, L. Liu, and M. Zhou, “Spectral albedo of desert surfaces measured in western and central China,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 83A, 315–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D19S17 (2004), doi: 10.1029/2002JD003253.
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. Maxwell-Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, “An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8651–8669 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2002JD003259.
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, Y. Iwasaka, G. Shi, J. Zang, A. Matsuki, and D. Trochkine, “Mixture state and size of Asian dust particles collected at southwestern Japan in spring 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4760–4771 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2003JD003869.
[CrossRef]

N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, M. Nishikawa, A. Shimizu, I. Matsui, X. Dong, Y. Chen, and H. Quan, “Record heavy Asian dust in Beijing in 2002: observations and model analysis of recent events,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1640–1643 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2002GL016349.
[CrossRef]

T. Sakai, T. Nagai, M. Nakazato, Y. Mano, and T. Matsumura, “Ice clouds and Asian dust studied with lidar measurements of particle extinction-to-backscatter ratio, particle depolarization, and water vapor mixing ratio over Tsukuba,” Appl. Opt. 42, 7103–7116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

K. Okada, J. Heintzenberg, K. Kai, and Y. Qin, “Shape of atmospheric mineral particles collected in three Chinese arid-regions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3123–3126 (2001), doi: 10.1029/2000GL012798.
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen and S. Benson, “A midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing: II. Microphysical properties derived from lidar depolarization,” J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 2103–2112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (5)

K. Sassen, “Lidar backscatter depolarization technique for cloud and aerosol research,” in Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Geophysical Applications, M.L.Mishchenko, J.W.Hovenier, and L.D.Travis, eds. (Academic, 2000), pp. 393–416.
[CrossRef]

T. Sakai, T. Shibata, S. A. Kwon, Y. S. Kim, K. Tamura, and Y. Iwasaka, “Free tropospheric aerosol backscatter, depolarization ratio and relative humidity measured with the Raman lidar at Nagoya in 1994–1997: contributions of aerosols from the Asian continent and the Pacific Ocean,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 431–442 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, M. I. Mishchenko, and B. G. Gao, “Efficient finite-difference time-domain scheme for light scattering by dielectric particles: application to aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3727–3737 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mano, “Exact solution of electromagnetic scattering by a three-dimensional hexagonal ice column obtained with the boundary-element method,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5541–5546 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Nishikawa, Q. Hao, and M. Morita, “Preparation and evaluation of Certified Reference Materials for Asian mineral dust,” Global Environ. Res. 4, 103–113 (2000).

1999 (1)

T. Murayama, H. Okamoto, N. Kaneyasu, H. Kamataki, and K. Miura, “Application of lidar depolarization measurement in the atmospheric boundary layer: effects of dust and sea-salt particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31781–31792 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324(1998).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko and K. Sassen, “Depolarization of lidar returns by small ice crystals: an application to contrails,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 309–312 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Tsuchiya, T. Kasai, M. Hayashi, Y. Iwasaka, and K. Takami, “Development of aerosol counter for balloon observation,” Keisoku Jidou Seigyo Gakkai Ronbunshu 32, 290–296 (1996) (in Japanese).

1994 (2)

I. N. Tang and H. R. Munkelwitz, “Water activities, densities, and refractive indices of aqueous sulfates and sodium nitrate droplets of atmospheric importance,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 18801–18808 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Drain and P. J. Flatau, “The discrete-dipole approximation for scattering calculations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1491–1499 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

K. Okada, H. Naruse, T. Tanaka, O. Nemoto, Y. Iwasaka, P. Wu, A. Ono, R. Duce, M. Uematsu, J. Merrill, and K. Arao, “X-ray spectrometry of individual Asian dust-storm particles over the Japanese islands and the North Pacific Ocean,” Atmos. Environ. 24A, 1369–1378 (1990).

1989 (2)

K. Sassen, H. Zhao, and B.-K. Yu, “Backscatter laser depolarization studies of simulated stratospheric aerosols: crystallized sulfuric acid droplets,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3024–3029 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamato and A. Ono, “Chemical and physical properties of stratospheric aerosol particles in the vicinity of tropopause folding,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 147–166 (1989).

1983 (1)

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

1982 (1)

T. Takeda and N. Kuba, “Numerical study of the effect of CCN on the size distribution of cloud droplets. Part I. Cloud droplets in the stage of condensation growth,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 60, 978–993 (1982).

1981 (1)

1974 (2)

D. W. Cooper, J. W. Davis, and R. L. Byers, “Measurements of depolarization by dry and humidified salt aerosols using lidar analogue,” J. Aerosol Sci. 5, 117–123 (1974).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Liou and H. Lahore, “Laser sensing of cloud composition: a backscattered depolarization technique,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 257–263 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, and R. J. Stone, “Observations by lidar of linear depolarization ratios by hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011–1017 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Abo, M.

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. Maxwell-Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, “An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8651–8669 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2002JD003259.
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, T. P.

Althausen, D.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B 61, 165–179 (2009), doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2008.00396.x.
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, V. Freudenthaler, and S. Gross, “Vertically resolved separation of dust and smoke over Cape Verde using multiwavelength Raman and polarization lidars during Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment 2008,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D13202 (2009), doi:10.1029/2009JD011862.
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T. L.

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. Maxwell-Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, “An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8651–8669 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2002JD003259.
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, A.

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, V. Freudenthaler, and S. Gross, “Vertically resolved separation of dust and smoke over Cape Verde using multiwavelength Raman and polarization lidars during Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment 2008,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D13202 (2009), doi:10.1029/2009JD011862.
[CrossRef]

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B 61, 165–179 (2009), doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2008.00396.x.
[CrossRef]

Aoki, K.

T. Nishizawa, H. Okamoto, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, and K. Aoki, “An algorithm that retrieves aerosol properties from dual-wavelength polarized lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D06212 (2007), doi: 10.1029/2006JD007435.
[CrossRef]

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D19S17 (2004), doi: 10.1029/2002JD003253.
[CrossRef]

Aoki, Te.

Te. Aoki, M. Mikami, A. Yamazaki, S. Yabuki, Y. Yamada, M. Ishizuka, F. Zeng, W. Gao, J. Sun, L. Liu, and M. Zhou, “Spectral albedo of desert surfaces measured in western and central China,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 83A, 315–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arao, K.

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D19S17 (2004), doi: 10.1029/2002JD003253.
[CrossRef]

K. Okada, H. Naruse, T. Tanaka, O. Nemoto, Y. Iwasaka, P. Wu, A. Ono, R. Duce, M. Uematsu, J. Merrill, and K. Arao, “X-ray spectrometry of individual Asian dust-storm particles over the Japanese islands and the North Pacific Ocean,” Atmos. Environ. 24A, 1369–1378 (1990).

Bandy, A.

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. Maxwell-Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, “An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8651–8669 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2002JD003259.
[CrossRef]

Benson, S.

K. Sassen and S. Benson, “A midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing: II. Microphysical properties derived from lidar depolarization,” J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 2103–2112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bernier, R.

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T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. Maxwell-Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, “An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8651–8669 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2002JD003259.
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V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B 61, 165–179 (2009), doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2008.00396.x.
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Freudenthaler, V.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B 61, 165–179 (2009), doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2008.00396.x.
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V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B 61, 165–179 (2009), doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2008.00396.x.
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V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B 61, 165–179 (2009), doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2008.00396.x.
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M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, V. Freudenthaler, and S. Gross, “Vertically resolved separation of dust and smoke over Cape Verde using multiwavelength Raman and polarization lidars during Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment 2008,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D13202 (2009), doi:10.1029/2009JD011862.
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V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B 61, 165–179 (2009), doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2008.00396.x.
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Z. Liu, A. Omar, M. Vaughan, J. Hair, C. Kittaka, Y. Hu, K. Powell, C. Trepte, D. Winker, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, and R. Pierce, “CALIPSO lidar observations of the optical properties of Saharan dust: a case study of long-range transport,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07207 (2008), doi: 10.1029/2007JD008878.
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T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. Maxwell-Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, “An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8651–8669 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2002JD003259.
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K. Okada, H. Naruse, T. Tanaka, O. Nemoto, Y. Iwasaka, P. Wu, A. Ono, R. Duce, M. Uematsu, J. Merrill, and K. Arao, “X-ray spectrometry of individual Asian dust-storm particles over the Japanese islands and the North Pacific Ocean,” Atmos. Environ. 24A, 1369–1378 (1990).

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A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D19S17 (2004), doi: 10.1029/2002JD003253.
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K. Okada, J. Heintzenberg, K. Kai, and Y. Qin, “Shape of atmospheric mineral particles collected in three Chinese arid-regions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3123–3126 (2001), doi: 10.1029/2000GL012798.
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Z. Liu, A. Omar, M. Vaughan, J. Hair, C. Kittaka, Y. Hu, K. Powell, C. Trepte, D. Winker, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, and R. Pierce, “CALIPSO lidar observations of the optical properties of Saharan dust: a case study of long-range transport,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07207 (2008), doi: 10.1029/2007JD008878.
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V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B 61, 165–179 (2009), doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2008.00396.x.
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T. Sakai, T. Shibata, S. A. Kwon, Y. S. Kim, K. Tamura, and Y. Iwasaka, “Free tropospheric aerosol backscatter, depolarization ratio and relative humidity measured with the Raman lidar at Nagoya in 1994–1997: contributions of aerosols from the Asian continent and the Pacific Ocean,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 431–442 (2000).
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Z. Liu, D. Liu, J. Huang, M. Vaughan, I. Uno, N. Sugimoto, C. Kittaka, C. Trepte, Z. Wang, C. Hostetler, and D. Winker, “Airborne dust distributions over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas derived from the first year of CALIPSO lidar observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 5045–5060 (2008).
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Te. Aoki, M. Mikami, A. Yamazaki, S. Yabuki, Y. Yamada, M. Ishizuka, F. Zeng, W. Gao, J. Sun, L. Liu, and M. Zhou, “Spectral albedo of desert surfaces measured in western and central China,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 83A, 315–331 (2005).
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Z. Liu, A. Omar, M. Vaughan, J. Hair, C. Kittaka, Y. Hu, K. Powell, C. Trepte, D. Winker, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, and R. Pierce, “CALIPSO lidar observations of the optical properties of Saharan dust: a case study of long-range transport,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07207 (2008), doi: 10.1029/2007JD008878.
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Z. Liu, D. Liu, J. Huang, M. Vaughan, I. Uno, N. Sugimoto, C. Kittaka, C. Trepte, Z. Wang, C. Hostetler, and D. Winker, “Airborne dust distributions over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas derived from the first year of CALIPSO lidar observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 5045–5060 (2008).
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T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. Maxwell-Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, “An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8651–8669 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2002JD003259.
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Masonis, S. J.

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. Maxwell-Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, “An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8651–8669 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2002JD003259.
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D. Zhang, Y. Iwasaka, G. Shi, J. Zang, A. Matsuki, and D. Trochkine, “Mixture state and size of Asian dust particles collected at southwestern Japan in spring 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4760–4771 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2003JD003869.
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Matsumura, T.

Maxwell-Meier, K.

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. Maxwell-Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, “An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8651–8669 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2002JD003259.
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S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, B. M. Morley, and E. Loew, “Polarization lidar at 1.54 microns and observations of plumes from aerosol generators,” Opt. Eng. 46, 096201 (2007), doi: 0.1117/12.781902.
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T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. Maxwell-Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, “An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8651–8669 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2002JD003259.
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Mikami, M.

Te. Aoki, M. Mikami, A. Yamazaki, S. Yabuki, Y. Yamada, M. Ishizuka, F. Zeng, W. Gao, J. Sun, L. Liu, and M. Zhou, “Spectral albedo of desert surfaces measured in western and central China,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 83A, 315–331 (2005).
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P. Yang, K. N. Liou, M. I. Mishchenko, and B. G. Gao, “Efficient finite-difference time-domain scheme for light scattering by dielectric particles: application to aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3727–3737 (2000).
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M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324(1998).
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M. I. Mishchenko and K. Sassen, “Depolarization of lidar returns by small ice crystals: an application to contrails,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 309–312 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

T. Murayama, H. Okamoto, N. Kaneyasu, H. Kamataki, and K. Miura, “Application of lidar depolarization measurement in the atmospheric boundary layer: effects of dust and sea-salt particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31781–31792 (1999).
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M. Nishikawa, Q. Hao, and M. Morita, “Preparation and evaluation of Certified Reference Materials for Asian mineral dust,” Global Environ. Res. 4, 103–113 (2000).

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S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, B. M. Morley, and E. Loew, “Polarization lidar at 1.54 microns and observations of plumes from aerosol generators,” Opt. Eng. 46, 096201 (2007), doi: 0.1117/12.781902.
[CrossRef]

Müller, D.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B 61, 165–179 (2009), doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2008.00396.x.
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M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, V. Freudenthaler, and S. Gross, “Vertically resolved separation of dust and smoke over Cape Verde using multiwavelength Raman and polarization lidars during Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment 2008,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D13202 (2009), doi:10.1029/2009JD011862.
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I. N. Tang and H. R. Munkelwitz, “Water activities, densities, and refractive indices of aqueous sulfates and sodium nitrate droplets of atmospheric importance,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 18801–18808 (1994).
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A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D19S17 (2004), doi: 10.1029/2002JD003253.
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. Maxwell-Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, “An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8651–8669 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2002JD003259.
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T. Murayama, H. Okamoto, N. Kaneyasu, H. Kamataki, and K. Miura, “Application of lidar depolarization measurement in the atmospheric boundary layer: effects of dust and sea-salt particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31781–31792 (1999).
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Nakazato, M.

Naruse, H.

K. Okada, H. Naruse, T. Tanaka, O. Nemoto, Y. Iwasaka, P. Wu, A. Ono, R. Duce, M. Uematsu, J. Merrill, and K. Arao, “X-ray spectrometry of individual Asian dust-storm particles over the Japanese islands and the North Pacific Ocean,” Atmos. Environ. 24A, 1369–1378 (1990).

Nemoto, O.

K. Okada, H. Naruse, T. Tanaka, O. Nemoto, Y. Iwasaka, P. Wu, A. Ono, R. Duce, M. Uematsu, J. Merrill, and K. Arao, “X-ray spectrometry of individual Asian dust-storm particles over the Japanese islands and the North Pacific Ocean,” Atmos. Environ. 24A, 1369–1378 (1990).

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N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, M. Nishikawa, A. Shimizu, I. Matsui, X. Dong, Y. Chen, and H. Quan, “Record heavy Asian dust in Beijing in 2002: observations and model analysis of recent events,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1640–1643 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2002GL016349.
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M. Nishikawa, Q. Hao, and M. Morita, “Preparation and evaluation of Certified Reference Materials for Asian mineral dust,” Global Environ. Res. 4, 103–113 (2000).

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T. Nishizawa, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, B. Tatarov, and H. Okamoto, “Algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical properties from high spectral resolution lidar and polarization Mie-scattering lidar measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 4094–4103 (2008).
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T. Nishizawa, H. Okamoto, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, and K. Aoki, “An algorithm that retrieves aerosol properties from dual-wavelength polarized lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D06212 (2007), doi: 10.1029/2006JD007435.
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K. Okada, J. Heintzenberg, K. Kai, and Y. Qin, “Shape of atmospheric mineral particles collected in three Chinese arid-regions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3123–3126 (2001), doi: 10.1029/2000GL012798.
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K. Okada, H. Naruse, T. Tanaka, O. Nemoto, Y. Iwasaka, P. Wu, A. Ono, R. Duce, M. Uematsu, J. Merrill, and K. Arao, “X-ray spectrometry of individual Asian dust-storm particles over the Japanese islands and the North Pacific Ocean,” Atmos. Environ. 24A, 1369–1378 (1990).

Okamoto, H.

T. Nishizawa, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, B. Tatarov, and H. Okamoto, “Algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical properties from high spectral resolution lidar and polarization Mie-scattering lidar measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 4094–4103 (2008).
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T. Nishizawa, H. Okamoto, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, and K. Aoki, “An algorithm that retrieves aerosol properties from dual-wavelength polarized lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D06212 (2007), doi: 10.1029/2006JD007435.
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T. Murayama, H. Okamoto, N. Kaneyasu, H. Kamataki, and K. Miura, “Application of lidar depolarization measurement in the atmospheric boundary layer: effects of dust and sea-salt particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31781–31792 (1999).
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Z. Liu, A. Omar, M. Vaughan, J. Hair, C. Kittaka, Y. Hu, K. Powell, C. Trepte, D. Winker, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, and R. Pierce, “CALIPSO lidar observations of the optical properties of Saharan dust: a case study of long-range transport,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07207 (2008), doi: 10.1029/2007JD008878.
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K. Okada, H. Naruse, T. Tanaka, O. Nemoto, Y. Iwasaka, P. Wu, A. Ono, R. Duce, M. Uematsu, J. Merrill, and K. Arao, “X-ray spectrometry of individual Asian dust-storm particles over the Japanese islands and the North Pacific Ocean,” Atmos. Environ. 24A, 1369–1378 (1990).

M. Yamato and A. Ono, “Chemical and physical properties of stratospheric aerosol particles in the vicinity of tropopause folding,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 147–166 (1989).

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T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. Maxwell-Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, “An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8651–8669 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2002JD003259.
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Pierce, R.

Z. Liu, A. Omar, M. Vaughan, J. Hair, C. Kittaka, Y. Hu, K. Powell, C. Trepte, D. Winker, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, and R. Pierce, “CALIPSO lidar observations of the optical properties of Saharan dust: a case study of long-range transport,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07207 (2008), doi: 10.1029/2007JD008878.
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Powell, K.

Z. Liu, A. Omar, M. Vaughan, J. Hair, C. Kittaka, Y. Hu, K. Powell, C. Trepte, D. Winker, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, and R. Pierce, “CALIPSO lidar observations of the optical properties of Saharan dust: a case study of long-range transport,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07207 (2008), doi: 10.1029/2007JD008878.
[CrossRef]

Qin, Y.

K. Okada, J. Heintzenberg, K. Kai, and Y. Qin, “Shape of atmospheric mineral particles collected in three Chinese arid-regions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3123–3126 (2001), doi: 10.1029/2000GL012798.
[CrossRef]

Quan, H.

N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, M. Nishikawa, A. Shimizu, I. Matsui, X. Dong, Y. Chen, and H. Quan, “Record heavy Asian dust in Beijing in 2002: observations and model analysis of recent events,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1640–1643 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2002GL016349.
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Redemann, J.

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. Maxwell-Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, “An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8651–8669 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2002JD003259.
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Roy, G.

Roy, N.

Russell, P. B.

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. Maxwell-Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, “An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8651–8669 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2002JD003259.
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T. Sakai, T. Nagai, M. Nakazato, Y. Mano, and T. Matsumura, “Ice clouds and Asian dust studied with lidar measurements of particle extinction-to-backscatter ratio, particle depolarization, and water vapor mixing ratio over Tsukuba,” Appl. Opt. 42, 7103–7116 (2003).
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T. Sakai, T. Shibata, S. A. Kwon, Y. S. Kim, K. Tamura, and Y. Iwasaka, “Free tropospheric aerosol backscatter, depolarization ratio and relative humidity measured with the Raman lidar at Nagoya in 1994–1997: contributions of aerosols from the Asian continent and the Pacific Ocean,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 431–442 (2000).
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Sansoni, P.

Sassen, K.

K. Sassen and S. Benson, “A midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing: II. Microphysical properties derived from lidar depolarization,” J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 2103–2112 (2001).
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K. Sassen, “Lidar backscatter depolarization technique for cloud and aerosol research,” in Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Geophysical Applications, M.L.Mishchenko, J.W.Hovenier, and L.D.Travis, eds. (Academic, 2000), pp. 393–416.
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M. I. Mishchenko and K. Sassen, “Depolarization of lidar returns by small ice crystals: an application to contrails,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 309–312 (1998).
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K. Sassen, H. Zhao, and B.-K. Yu, “Backscatter laser depolarization studies of simulated stratospheric aerosols: crystallized sulfuric acid droplets,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3024–3029 (1989).
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R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, and R. J. Stone, “Observations by lidar of linear depolarization ratios by hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011–1017 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, B.

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. Maxwell-Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, “An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8651–8669 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2002JD003259.
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Schotland, R. M.

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, and R. J. Stone, “Observations by lidar of linear depolarization ratios by hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011–1017 (1971).
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Seefeldner, M.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B 61, 165–179 (2009), doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2008.00396.x.
[CrossRef]

Shi, G.

D. Zhang, Y. Iwasaka, G. Shi, J. Zang, A. Matsuki, and D. Trochkine, “Mixture state and size of Asian dust particles collected at southwestern Japan in spring 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4760–4771 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2003JD003869.
[CrossRef]

Shibata, T.

T. Sakai, T. Shibata, S. A. Kwon, Y. S. Kim, K. Tamura, and Y. Iwasaka, “Free tropospheric aerosol backscatter, depolarization ratio and relative humidity measured with the Raman lidar at Nagoya in 1994–1997: contributions of aerosols from the Asian continent and the Pacific Ocean,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 431–442 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, A.

T. Nishizawa, H. Okamoto, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, and K. Aoki, “An algorithm that retrieves aerosol properties from dual-wavelength polarized lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D06212 (2007), doi: 10.1029/2006JD007435.
[CrossRef]

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D19S17 (2004), doi: 10.1029/2002JD003253.
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. Maxwell-Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, “An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8651–8669 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2002JD003259.
[CrossRef]

N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, M. Nishikawa, A. Shimizu, I. Matsui, X. Dong, Y. Chen, and H. Quan, “Record heavy Asian dust in Beijing in 2002: observations and model analysis of recent events,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1640–1643 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2002GL016349.
[CrossRef]

Spuler, S. M.

S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, B. M. Morley, and E. Loew, “Polarization lidar at 1.54 microns and observations of plumes from aerosol generators,” Opt. Eng. 46, 096201 (2007), doi: 0.1117/12.781902.
[CrossRef]

Stone, R. J.

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, and R. J. Stone, “Observations by lidar of linear depolarization ratios by hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011–1017 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Z. Liu, D. Liu, J. Huang, M. Vaughan, I. Uno, N. Sugimoto, C. Kittaka, C. Trepte, Z. Wang, C. Hostetler, and D. Winker, “Airborne dust distributions over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas derived from the first year of CALIPSO lidar observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 5045–5060 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishizawa, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, B. Tatarov, and H. Okamoto, “Algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical properties from high spectral resolution lidar and polarization Mie-scattering lidar measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 4094–4103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishizawa, H. Okamoto, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, and K. Aoki, “An algorithm that retrieves aerosol properties from dual-wavelength polarized lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D06212 (2007), doi: 10.1029/2006JD007435.
[CrossRef]

N. Sugimoto and C. H. Lee, “Characteristics of dust aerosols inferred from lidar depolarization measurements at two wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7468–7474 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D19S17 (2004), doi: 10.1029/2002JD003253.
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. Maxwell-Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, “An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8651–8669 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2002JD003259.
[CrossRef]

N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, M. Nishikawa, A. Shimizu, I. Matsui, X. Dong, Y. Chen, and H. Quan, “Record heavy Asian dust in Beijing in 2002: observations and model analysis of recent events,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1640–1643 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2002GL016349.
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

Te. Aoki, M. Mikami, A. Yamazaki, S. Yabuki, Y. Yamada, M. Ishizuka, F. Zeng, W. Gao, J. Sun, L. Liu, and M. Zhou, “Spectral albedo of desert surfaces measured in western and central China,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 83A, 315–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takami, K.

M. Tsuchiya, T. Kasai, M. Hayashi, Y. Iwasaka, and K. Takami, “Development of aerosol counter for balloon observation,” Keisoku Jidou Seigyo Gakkai Ronbunshu 32, 290–296 (1996) (in Japanese).

Takeda, T.

T. Takeda and N. Kuba, “Numerical study of the effect of CCN on the size distribution of cloud droplets. Part I. Cloud droplets in the stage of condensation growth,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 60, 978–993 (1982).

Tamura, K.

T. Sakai, T. Shibata, S. A. Kwon, Y. S. Kim, K. Tamura, and Y. Iwasaka, “Free tropospheric aerosol backscatter, depolarization ratio and relative humidity measured with the Raman lidar at Nagoya in 1994–1997: contributions of aerosols from the Asian continent and the Pacific Ocean,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 431–442 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

K. Okada, H. Naruse, T. Tanaka, O. Nemoto, Y. Iwasaka, P. Wu, A. Ono, R. Duce, M. Uematsu, J. Merrill, and K. Arao, “X-ray spectrometry of individual Asian dust-storm particles over the Japanese islands and the North Pacific Ocean,” Atmos. Environ. 24A, 1369–1378 (1990).

Tang, I. N.

I. N. Tang and H. R. Munkelwitz, “Water activities, densities, and refractive indices of aqueous sulfates and sodium nitrate droplets of atmospheric importance,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 18801–18808 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tatarov, B.

T. Nishizawa, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, B. Tatarov, and H. Okamoto, “Algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical properties from high spectral resolution lidar and polarization Mie-scattering lidar measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 4094–4103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tesche, M.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B 61, 165–179 (2009), doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2008.00396.x.
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, V. Freudenthaler, and S. Gross, “Vertically resolved separation of dust and smoke over Cape Verde using multiwavelength Raman and polarization lidars during Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment 2008,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D13202 (2009), doi:10.1029/2009JD011862.
[CrossRef]

Thornton, D.

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. Maxwell-Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, “An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8651–8669 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2002JD003259.
[CrossRef]

Toledano, C.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B 61, 165–179 (2009), doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2008.00396.x.
[CrossRef]

Toon, O. B.

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324(1998).
[CrossRef]

Trepte, C.

Z. Liu, D. Liu, J. Huang, M. Vaughan, I. Uno, N. Sugimoto, C. Kittaka, C. Trepte, Z. Wang, C. Hostetler, and D. Winker, “Airborne dust distributions over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas derived from the first year of CALIPSO lidar observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 5045–5060 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, A. Omar, M. Vaughan, J. Hair, C. Kittaka, Y. Hu, K. Powell, C. Trepte, D. Winker, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, and R. Pierce, “CALIPSO lidar observations of the optical properties of Saharan dust: a case study of long-range transport,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07207 (2008), doi: 10.1029/2007JD008878.
[CrossRef]

Trochkine, D.

D. Zhang, Y. Iwasaka, G. Shi, J. Zang, A. Matsuki, and D. Trochkine, “Mixture state and size of Asian dust particles collected at southwestern Japan in spring 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4760–4771 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2003JD003869.
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, M.

M. Tsuchiya, T. Kasai, M. Hayashi, Y. Iwasaka, and K. Takami, “Development of aerosol counter for balloon observation,” Keisoku Jidou Seigyo Gakkai Ronbunshu 32, 290–296 (1996) (in Japanese).

Uchiyama, A.

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D19S17 (2004), doi: 10.1029/2002JD003253.
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the depolarization measurement system. The whole system is in a clean booth.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example of backscattering intensities and total linear volume depolarization ratio profiles for small Asian dust (Dust-b). The thick solid curve denotes the backscattering intensity of parallel ( β ) components, the dotted curve denotes that of perpendicular ( β ) components, and the thin solid curve denotes the total volume linear depolarization ratio ( δ t v ) when aerosols were introduced into the chamber. The gray lines indicate the values when clean air was introduced. The vertical dashed lines with arrows indicate the range of averaging for δ t v .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scatter diagram of relative particulate backscattering intensity (particulate to total) versus total volume depolarization ratio for estimating the particle depolarization ratio for small Asian dust (Dust-b). The solid diamonds denote the data points taken after introducing the aerosol into the chamber. The estimated δ t p is 0.15 and δ p = 0.17 . See Subsection 2E for details.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electron micrographs of (a) Asian dust and (b) Saharan dust collected on carbon-coated film.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized number–size distribution of Asian dust (gray curves with closed symbols) and Saharan dust (solid curves with open symbols) particles measured with the OPC.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Electron micrographs of sea-salt (a) crystals and (b) droplets collected on Ca-coated film. The rings around the droplets are from the reaction of liquid water with Ca.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized number–size distribution of sea-salt (thick solid curves), ammonium sulfate (gray solid curves), and NaCl (dotted curves) particles. The circles denote droplets, and the squares denote crystals.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Electron micrographs of ammonium sulfate (a) crystals and (b) droplets collected on carbon-coated film.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Electron micrograph of NaCl crystals collected on carbon-coated film.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Particle Linear Depolarization Ratios Determined in This Experiment

Equations (5)

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δ t v = β β = β , p + β , b g β p + β b g ,
δ t p = β , p β p .
δ p = β , p β , p = δ t p 1 δ t p .
δ t v = δ t p β p + δ b g β b g β .
δ t p = δ t v β δ b g β b g β p = δ t v β δ b g β b g β β b g .

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