Abstract

We examine the effect of photodarkening-induced pump light absorption on Yb-doped fiber thermal loading. In these experiments, the fiber is cladding pumped at 915nm, air cooled by natural convection, and monitored with a midinfrared thermal camera. The fiber temperature is found to correlate with progressive photodarkening. The maximum observed fiber temperature was 120°C, recorded at a pump power of 10.5W. The observed increase in fiber temperature can be explained by a model that takes into account the combined effects of the Yb-silica quantum defect, the temperature dependence of the Yb-absorption cross section, and photodarkening-induced loss at 915nm. We hypothesize that the latter effect results in the progressive activation of temperature-dependent photochemical processes (e.g., bleaching) and is an important consideration with regard to the accurate modeling of Yb-doped fiber photodarkening kinetics.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

2001 (1)

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffmann, “Thermal, stress, and thermo-optic effects in high average power double-clad silica fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 207–217(2001).
[CrossRef]

Basu, C.

S. Yoo, C. Basu, A. J. Boyland, C. Sones, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, and D. Payne, “Photodarkening in Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibers induced by 488nm irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1626–1628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Basu, S. Yoo, A. J. Boyland, A. S. Webb, C. L. Sones, and J. K. Sahu, “Influence of temperature on the post-irradiation temporal loss evolution in Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibers, photodarkened by 488nm CW irradiation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics-European Quantum Electronics Conference CLEO/EUROPE-EQEC (Optical Society of America2009), CJ1.2.
[PubMed]

Boyland, A. J.

S. Yoo, C. Basu, A. J. Boyland, C. Sones, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, and D. Payne, “Photodarkening in Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibers induced by 488nm irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1626–1628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Basu, S. Yoo, A. J. Boyland, A. S. Webb, C. L. Sones, and J. K. Sahu, “Influence of temperature on the post-irradiation temporal loss evolution in Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibers, photodarkened by 488nm CW irradiation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics-European Quantum Electronics Conference CLEO/EUROPE-EQEC (Optical Society of America2009), CJ1.2.
[PubMed]

Brown, D. C.

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffmann, “Thermal, stress, and thermo-optic effects in high average power double-clad silica fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 207–217(2001).
[CrossRef]

Bufetov, I. A.

A. V. Shubin, M. V. Yashkov, M. A. Melkumov, S. A. Smirnow, I. A. Bufetov, and E. M. Dianov, “Photodarkening of aluminosilicate and phosphosilicate Yb-doped fibers,” in Conference Digest of CLEO Europe-EQEC (Optical Society of America, 2007), CJ3–1-THU.

Dianov, E. M.

A. V. Shubin, M. V. Yashkov, M. A. Melkumov, S. A. Smirnow, I. A. Bufetov, and E. M. Dianov, “Photodarkening of aluminosilicate and phosphosilicate Yb-doped fibers,” in Conference Digest of CLEO Europe-EQEC (Optical Society of America, 2007), CJ3–1-THU.

Engholm, M.

Gavrielides, A.

T. C. Newell, P. Peterson, A. Gavrielides, and M. P. Sharma, “Temperature effects on the emission properties of Yb-doped optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 273, 256–259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, H. J.

Hoffmann, H. J.

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffmann, “Thermal, stress, and thermo-optic effects in high average power double-clad silica fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 207–217(2001).
[CrossRef]

Honkanen, S.

Hotoleanu, M.

Jetschke, S.

Kirchhof, J.

Kirchof, J.

Kliner, D. A.

Koplow, J. P.

Koponen, J. J.

Leich, M.

M. Leich, U. Röpke, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, V. Reichel, and J. Kirchhof, “Non-isothermal bleaching of photodarkened Yb-doped fibers,” Opt. Express 17, 12588–12593 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Leich, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, and V. Reichel, “Acceleration of photodarkening measurements in Yb-doped fibers by enhanced temperatures,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics-European Quantum Electronics Conference CLEO/EUROPE-EQEC (Optical Society of America, 2009), CE.P. 29.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melkumov, M. A.

A. V. Shubin, M. V. Yashkov, M. A. Melkumov, S. A. Smirnow, I. A. Bufetov, and E. M. Dianov, “Photodarkening of aluminosilicate and phosphosilicate Yb-doped fibers,” in Conference Digest of CLEO Europe-EQEC (Optical Society of America, 2007), CJ3–1-THU.

Montiel i Ponsoda, J. J.

Newell, T. C.

T. C. Newell, P. Peterson, A. Gavrielides, and M. P. Sharma, “Temperature effects on the emission properties of Yb-doped optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 273, 256–259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

Norin, L.

Payne, D.

Peterson, P.

T. C. Newell, P. Peterson, A. Gavrielides, and M. P. Sharma, “Temperature effects on the emission properties of Yb-doped optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 273, 256–259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reichel, V.

M. Leich, U. Röpke, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, V. Reichel, and J. Kirchhof, “Non-isothermal bleaching of photodarkened Yb-doped fibers,” Opt. Express 17, 12588–12593 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Leich, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, and V. Reichel, “Acceleration of photodarkening measurements in Yb-doped fibers by enhanced temperatures,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics-European Quantum Electronics Conference CLEO/EUROPE-EQEC (Optical Society of America, 2009), CE.P. 29.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Röpke, U.

Sahu, J. K.

S. Yoo, C. Basu, A. J. Boyland, C. Sones, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, and D. Payne, “Photodarkening in Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibers induced by 488nm irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1626–1628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Basu, S. Yoo, A. J. Boyland, A. S. Webb, C. L. Sones, and J. K. Sahu, “Influence of temperature on the post-irradiation temporal loss evolution in Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibers, photodarkened by 488nm CW irradiation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics-European Quantum Electronics Conference CLEO/EUROPE-EQEC (Optical Society of America2009), CJ1.2.
[PubMed]

Sharma, M. P.

T. C. Newell, P. Peterson, A. Gavrielides, and M. P. Sharma, “Temperature effects on the emission properties of Yb-doped optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 273, 256–259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shubin, A. V.

A. V. Shubin, M. V. Yashkov, M. A. Melkumov, S. A. Smirnow, I. A. Bufetov, and E. M. Dianov, “Photodarkening of aluminosilicate and phosphosilicate Yb-doped fibers,” in Conference Digest of CLEO Europe-EQEC (Optical Society of America, 2007), CJ3–1-THU.

Smirnow, S. A.

A. V. Shubin, M. V. Yashkov, M. A. Melkumov, S. A. Smirnow, I. A. Bufetov, and E. M. Dianov, “Photodarkening of aluminosilicate and phosphosilicate Yb-doped fibers,” in Conference Digest of CLEO Europe-EQEC (Optical Society of America, 2007), CJ3–1-THU.

Söderlund, M. J.

Sones, C.

Sones, C. L.

C. Basu, S. Yoo, A. J. Boyland, A. S. Webb, C. L. Sones, and J. K. Sahu, “Influence of temperature on the post-irradiation temporal loss evolution in Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibers, photodarkened by 488nm CW irradiation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics-European Quantum Electronics Conference CLEO/EUROPE-EQEC (Optical Society of America2009), CJ1.2.
[PubMed]

Tammela, S. K. T.

Unger, S.

Webb, A. S.

C. Basu, S. Yoo, A. J. Boyland, A. S. Webb, C. L. Sones, and J. K. Sahu, “Influence of temperature on the post-irradiation temporal loss evolution in Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibers, photodarkened by 488nm CW irradiation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics-European Quantum Electronics Conference CLEO/EUROPE-EQEC (Optical Society of America2009), CJ1.2.
[PubMed]

Yashkov, M. V.

A. V. Shubin, M. V. Yashkov, M. A. Melkumov, S. A. Smirnow, I. A. Bufetov, and E. M. Dianov, “Photodarkening of aluminosilicate and phosphosilicate Yb-doped fibers,” in Conference Digest of CLEO Europe-EQEC (Optical Society of America, 2007), CJ3–1-THU.

Yoo, S.

S. Yoo, C. Basu, A. J. Boyland, C. Sones, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, and D. Payne, “Photodarkening in Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibers induced by 488nm irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1626–1628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Basu, S. Yoo, A. J. Boyland, A. S. Webb, C. L. Sones, and J. K. Sahu, “Influence of temperature on the post-irradiation temporal loss evolution in Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibers, photodarkened by 488nm CW irradiation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics-European Quantum Electronics Conference CLEO/EUROPE-EQEC (Optical Society of America2009), CJ1.2.
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffmann, “Thermal, stress, and thermo-optic effects in high average power double-clad silica fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 207–217(2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. C. Newell, P. Peterson, A. Gavrielides, and M. P. Sharma, “Temperature effects on the emission properties of Yb-doped optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 273, 256–259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

A. V. Shubin, M. V. Yashkov, M. A. Melkumov, S. A. Smirnow, I. A. Bufetov, and E. M. Dianov, “Photodarkening of aluminosilicate and phosphosilicate Yb-doped fibers,” in Conference Digest of CLEO Europe-EQEC (Optical Society of America, 2007), CJ3–1-THU.

M. Leich, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, and V. Reichel, “Acceleration of photodarkening measurements in Yb-doped fibers by enhanced temperatures,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics-European Quantum Electronics Conference CLEO/EUROPE-EQEC (Optical Society of America, 2009), CE.P. 29.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Basu, S. Yoo, A. J. Boyland, A. S. Webb, C. L. Sones, and J. K. Sahu, “Influence of temperature on the post-irradiation temporal loss evolution in Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibers, photodarkened by 488nm CW irradiation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics-European Quantum Electronics Conference CLEO/EUROPE-EQEC (Optical Society of America2009), CJ1.2.
[PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Photodarkening-induced absorption coefficient change Δ α at 600 nm and simultaneous increase of fiber temperature (secondary y axis) as a function of time. (b) Photodarkening-induced temperature rise versus Δ α 600 nm P pump .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temperature response of the absorp tion coefficient change at 920 nm ( Δ α 920 nm , primary axis) and Yb-absorption coefficient change ( Abs 920 nm , secondary axis). Dashed lines show a linear fit to the data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Modeled and measured fiber temperature as a function of pump power. Modeled data are fitted to the measured temperature using the convection coefficient h as the only adjustable parameter. The same value of h is used for all subsequent calculations.

Equations (4)

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Q 0 = η P abs ( T ) + P lost ( T ) V core ,
α 915 nm clad [ dB / m ] = 4.343 Γ ( N 1 σ a ( T ) N 2 σ e ) ,
N 2 = N c σ a ( T ) σ a ( T ) + σ e 1 1 + I sat / I p ,
I sat = h p v p ( σ a ( T ) + σ e ) τ ,

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