Abstract

We present a new code aimed at the simulation of grazing-incidence x-ray telescopes subject to deformations and demonstrate its ability with two test cases: the Simbol-X and the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) missions. The code, based on Monte Carlo ray tracing, computes the full photon trajectories up to the detector plane, accounting for the x-ray interactions and for the telescope motion and deformation. The simulation produces images and spectra for any telescope configuration using Wolter I mirrors and semiconductor detectors. This numerical tool allows us to study the telescope performance in terms of angular resolution, effective area, and detector efficiency, accounting for the telescope behavior. We have implemented an image reconstruction method based on the measurement of the detector drifts by an optical sensor metrology. Using an accurate metrology, this method allows us to recover the loss of angular resolution induced by the telescope instability. In the framework of the Simbol-X mission, this code was used to study the impacts of the parameters on the telescope performance. In this paper we present detailed performance analysis of Simbol-X, taking into account the satellite motions and the image reconstruction. To illustrate the versatility of the code, we present an additional performance anal ysis with a particular configuration of IXO.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Wolter, “Glancing incidence mirror systems as imaging optics for x-rays,” Ann. Physik 445, 94 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Spiga, “Analytical evaluation of the X-ray scattering contribution to imaging degradation in grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 468, 775–784 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Tagliaferri, S. Basso, G. Borghi, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, M. Civitani, P. Conconi, V. Cotroneo, M. Freyberg, D. Garoli, P. Gorenstein, G. Hartner, V. Mattarello, A. Orlandi, G. Pareschi, S. Romaine, D. Spiga, G. Valsecchi, and D. Vernani, “Simbol-X hard x-ray focusing mirrors: results obtained during the phase A study,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 35–40 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. D. Joensen, P. Voutov, A. Szentgyorgyi, J. Roll, P. Gorenstein, P. Høghøj, and F. E. Christensen, “Design of grazing-incidence multilayer supermirrors for hard-x-ray reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7935–7944 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. E. Harvey and W. J. Gressier, “Image degradation due to assembly and alignment errors in conical foil x-ray telescopes,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3037–3047 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. F. Knoll, Radiation Detection and Measurement(Wiley, 2000).
  7. G. Pareschi and P. Ferrando, “The SIMBOL-X hard x-ray mission,” Exp. Astron. 20, 139–149 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, U. Briel, E. Cavazzuti, R. Clédassou, J. L. Counil, F. Fiore, P. Giommi, A. Goldwurm, O. Lamarle, P. Laurent, F. Lebrun, G. Malaguti, S. Mereghetti, G. Micela, G. Pareschi, M. Piermaria, J. P. Roques, A. Santangelo, and G. Tagliaferri, “The Simbol-X mission,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 3–8 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Willingale, “The grazing incidence telescope,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. 221, 1–13 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Tagliaferri, P. Ferrando, J. Le Duigou, G. Pareschi, P. Laurent, G. Malaguti, R. Cledassou, M. Piermaria, O. La Marle, F. Fiore, and P. Giommi, “Simbol-X: a formation flight mission with an unprecedented imaging capability in the 0.5–80keV energy band,” http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.3683v1(2008).
  11. J. Bookbinder, “The International X-ray Observatory—RFI#1,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1001.2329v1 (2010).
  12. T. L. Aldcroft, M. Karovska, M. L. Cresitello-Dittmar, R. A. Cameron, and M. L. Markevitch, “Initial performance of the aspect system on the Chandra Observatory: postfacto aspect reconstruction,” Proc. SPIE 4012, 650–657 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2009

G. Tagliaferri, S. Basso, G. Borghi, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, M. Civitani, P. Conconi, V. Cotroneo, M. Freyberg, D. Garoli, P. Gorenstein, G. Hartner, V. Mattarello, A. Orlandi, G. Pareschi, S. Romaine, D. Spiga, G. Valsecchi, and D. Vernani, “Simbol-X hard x-ray focusing mirrors: results obtained during the phase A study,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 35–40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, U. Briel, E. Cavazzuti, R. Clédassou, J. L. Counil, F. Fiore, P. Giommi, A. Goldwurm, O. Lamarle, P. Laurent, F. Lebrun, G. Malaguti, S. Mereghetti, G. Micela, G. Pareschi, M. Piermaria, J. P. Roques, A. Santangelo, and G. Tagliaferri, “The Simbol-X mission,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

D. Spiga, “Analytical evaluation of the X-ray scattering contribution to imaging degradation in grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 468, 775–784 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

G. Pareschi and P. Ferrando, “The SIMBOL-X hard x-ray mission,” Exp. Astron. 20, 139–149 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2000

T. L. Aldcroft, M. Karovska, M. L. Cresitello-Dittmar, R. A. Cameron, and M. L. Markevitch, “Initial performance of the aspect system on the Chandra Observatory: postfacto aspect reconstruction,” Proc. SPIE 4012, 650–657 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. E. Harvey and W. J. Gressier, “Image degradation due to assembly and alignment errors in conical foil x-ray telescopes,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3037–3047 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1984

R. Willingale, “The grazing incidence telescope,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. 221, 1–13 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1952

H. Wolter, “Glancing incidence mirror systems as imaging optics for x-rays,” Ann. Physik 445, 94 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Aldcroft, T. L.

T. L. Aldcroft, M. Karovska, M. L. Cresitello-Dittmar, R. A. Cameron, and M. L. Markevitch, “Initial performance of the aspect system on the Chandra Observatory: postfacto aspect reconstruction,” Proc. SPIE 4012, 650–657 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arnaud, M.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, U. Briel, E. Cavazzuti, R. Clédassou, J. L. Counil, F. Fiore, P. Giommi, A. Goldwurm, O. Lamarle, P. Laurent, F. Lebrun, G. Malaguti, S. Mereghetti, G. Micela, G. Pareschi, M. Piermaria, J. P. Roques, A. Santangelo, and G. Tagliaferri, “The Simbol-X mission,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Basso, S.

G. Tagliaferri, S. Basso, G. Borghi, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, M. Civitani, P. Conconi, V. Cotroneo, M. Freyberg, D. Garoli, P. Gorenstein, G. Hartner, V. Mattarello, A. Orlandi, G. Pareschi, S. Romaine, D. Spiga, G. Valsecchi, and D. Vernani, “Simbol-X hard x-ray focusing mirrors: results obtained during the phase A study,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 35–40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bookbinder, J.

J. Bookbinder, “The International X-ray Observatory—RFI#1,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1001.2329v1 (2010).

Borghi, G.

G. Tagliaferri, S. Basso, G. Borghi, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, M. Civitani, P. Conconi, V. Cotroneo, M. Freyberg, D. Garoli, P. Gorenstein, G. Hartner, V. Mattarello, A. Orlandi, G. Pareschi, S. Romaine, D. Spiga, G. Valsecchi, and D. Vernani, “Simbol-X hard x-ray focusing mirrors: results obtained during the phase A study,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 35–40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Briel, U.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, U. Briel, E. Cavazzuti, R. Clédassou, J. L. Counil, F. Fiore, P. Giommi, A. Goldwurm, O. Lamarle, P. Laurent, F. Lebrun, G. Malaguti, S. Mereghetti, G. Micela, G. Pareschi, M. Piermaria, J. P. Roques, A. Santangelo, and G. Tagliaferri, “The Simbol-X mission,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burkert, W.

G. Tagliaferri, S. Basso, G. Borghi, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, M. Civitani, P. Conconi, V. Cotroneo, M. Freyberg, D. Garoli, P. Gorenstein, G. Hartner, V. Mattarello, A. Orlandi, G. Pareschi, S. Romaine, D. Spiga, G. Valsecchi, and D. Vernani, “Simbol-X hard x-ray focusing mirrors: results obtained during the phase A study,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 35–40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cameron, R. A.

T. L. Aldcroft, M. Karovska, M. L. Cresitello-Dittmar, R. A. Cameron, and M. L. Markevitch, “Initial performance of the aspect system on the Chandra Observatory: postfacto aspect reconstruction,” Proc. SPIE 4012, 650–657 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cavazzuti, E.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, U. Briel, E. Cavazzuti, R. Clédassou, J. L. Counil, F. Fiore, P. Giommi, A. Goldwurm, O. Lamarle, P. Laurent, F. Lebrun, G. Malaguti, S. Mereghetti, G. Micela, G. Pareschi, M. Piermaria, J. P. Roques, A. Santangelo, and G. Tagliaferri, “The Simbol-X mission,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, F. E.

Citterio, O.

G. Tagliaferri, S. Basso, G. Borghi, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, M. Civitani, P. Conconi, V. Cotroneo, M. Freyberg, D. Garoli, P. Gorenstein, G. Hartner, V. Mattarello, A. Orlandi, G. Pareschi, S. Romaine, D. Spiga, G. Valsecchi, and D. Vernani, “Simbol-X hard x-ray focusing mirrors: results obtained during the phase A study,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 35–40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Civitani, M.

G. Tagliaferri, S. Basso, G. Borghi, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, M. Civitani, P. Conconi, V. Cotroneo, M. Freyberg, D. Garoli, P. Gorenstein, G. Hartner, V. Mattarello, A. Orlandi, G. Pareschi, S. Romaine, D. Spiga, G. Valsecchi, and D. Vernani, “Simbol-X hard x-ray focusing mirrors: results obtained during the phase A study,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 35–40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cledassou, R.

G. Tagliaferri, P. Ferrando, J. Le Duigou, G. Pareschi, P. Laurent, G. Malaguti, R. Cledassou, M. Piermaria, O. La Marle, F. Fiore, and P. Giommi, “Simbol-X: a formation flight mission with an unprecedented imaging capability in the 0.5–80keV energy band,” http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.3683v1(2008).

Clédassou, R.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, U. Briel, E. Cavazzuti, R. Clédassou, J. L. Counil, F. Fiore, P. Giommi, A. Goldwurm, O. Lamarle, P. Laurent, F. Lebrun, G. Malaguti, S. Mereghetti, G. Micela, G. Pareschi, M. Piermaria, J. P. Roques, A. Santangelo, and G. Tagliaferri, “The Simbol-X mission,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Conconi, P.

G. Tagliaferri, S. Basso, G. Borghi, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, M. Civitani, P. Conconi, V. Cotroneo, M. Freyberg, D. Garoli, P. Gorenstein, G. Hartner, V. Mattarello, A. Orlandi, G. Pareschi, S. Romaine, D. Spiga, G. Valsecchi, and D. Vernani, “Simbol-X hard x-ray focusing mirrors: results obtained during the phase A study,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 35–40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cotroneo, V.

G. Tagliaferri, S. Basso, G. Borghi, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, M. Civitani, P. Conconi, V. Cotroneo, M. Freyberg, D. Garoli, P. Gorenstein, G. Hartner, V. Mattarello, A. Orlandi, G. Pareschi, S. Romaine, D. Spiga, G. Valsecchi, and D. Vernani, “Simbol-X hard x-ray focusing mirrors: results obtained during the phase A study,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 35–40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Counil, J. L.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, U. Briel, E. Cavazzuti, R. Clédassou, J. L. Counil, F. Fiore, P. Giommi, A. Goldwurm, O. Lamarle, P. Laurent, F. Lebrun, G. Malaguti, S. Mereghetti, G. Micela, G. Pareschi, M. Piermaria, J. P. Roques, A. Santangelo, and G. Tagliaferri, “The Simbol-X mission,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cresitello-Dittmar, M. L.

T. L. Aldcroft, M. Karovska, M. L. Cresitello-Dittmar, R. A. Cameron, and M. L. Markevitch, “Initial performance of the aspect system on the Chandra Observatory: postfacto aspect reconstruction,” Proc. SPIE 4012, 650–657 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ferrando, P.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, U. Briel, E. Cavazzuti, R. Clédassou, J. L. Counil, F. Fiore, P. Giommi, A. Goldwurm, O. Lamarle, P. Laurent, F. Lebrun, G. Malaguti, S. Mereghetti, G. Micela, G. Pareschi, M. Piermaria, J. P. Roques, A. Santangelo, and G. Tagliaferri, “The Simbol-X mission,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Pareschi and P. Ferrando, “The SIMBOL-X hard x-ray mission,” Exp. Astron. 20, 139–149 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Tagliaferri, P. Ferrando, J. Le Duigou, G. Pareschi, P. Laurent, G. Malaguti, R. Cledassou, M. Piermaria, O. La Marle, F. Fiore, and P. Giommi, “Simbol-X: a formation flight mission with an unprecedented imaging capability in the 0.5–80keV energy band,” http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.3683v1(2008).

Fiore, F.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, U. Briel, E. Cavazzuti, R. Clédassou, J. L. Counil, F. Fiore, P. Giommi, A. Goldwurm, O. Lamarle, P. Laurent, F. Lebrun, G. Malaguti, S. Mereghetti, G. Micela, G. Pareschi, M. Piermaria, J. P. Roques, A. Santangelo, and G. Tagliaferri, “The Simbol-X mission,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Tagliaferri, P. Ferrando, J. Le Duigou, G. Pareschi, P. Laurent, G. Malaguti, R. Cledassou, M. Piermaria, O. La Marle, F. Fiore, and P. Giommi, “Simbol-X: a formation flight mission with an unprecedented imaging capability in the 0.5–80keV energy band,” http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.3683v1(2008).

Freyberg, M.

G. Tagliaferri, S. Basso, G. Borghi, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, M. Civitani, P. Conconi, V. Cotroneo, M. Freyberg, D. Garoli, P. Gorenstein, G. Hartner, V. Mattarello, A. Orlandi, G. Pareschi, S. Romaine, D. Spiga, G. Valsecchi, and D. Vernani, “Simbol-X hard x-ray focusing mirrors: results obtained during the phase A study,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 35–40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garoli, D.

G. Tagliaferri, S. Basso, G. Borghi, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, M. Civitani, P. Conconi, V. Cotroneo, M. Freyberg, D. Garoli, P. Gorenstein, G. Hartner, V. Mattarello, A. Orlandi, G. Pareschi, S. Romaine, D. Spiga, G. Valsecchi, and D. Vernani, “Simbol-X hard x-ray focusing mirrors: results obtained during the phase A study,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 35–40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Giommi, P.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, U. Briel, E. Cavazzuti, R. Clédassou, J. L. Counil, F. Fiore, P. Giommi, A. Goldwurm, O. Lamarle, P. Laurent, F. Lebrun, G. Malaguti, S. Mereghetti, G. Micela, G. Pareschi, M. Piermaria, J. P. Roques, A. Santangelo, and G. Tagliaferri, “The Simbol-X mission,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Tagliaferri, P. Ferrando, J. Le Duigou, G. Pareschi, P. Laurent, G. Malaguti, R. Cledassou, M. Piermaria, O. La Marle, F. Fiore, and P. Giommi, “Simbol-X: a formation flight mission with an unprecedented imaging capability in the 0.5–80keV energy band,” http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.3683v1(2008).

Goldwurm, A.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, U. Briel, E. Cavazzuti, R. Clédassou, J. L. Counil, F. Fiore, P. Giommi, A. Goldwurm, O. Lamarle, P. Laurent, F. Lebrun, G. Malaguti, S. Mereghetti, G. Micela, G. Pareschi, M. Piermaria, J. P. Roques, A. Santangelo, and G. Tagliaferri, “The Simbol-X mission,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gorenstein, P.

G. Tagliaferri, S. Basso, G. Borghi, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, M. Civitani, P. Conconi, V. Cotroneo, M. Freyberg, D. Garoli, P. Gorenstein, G. Hartner, V. Mattarello, A. Orlandi, G. Pareschi, S. Romaine, D. Spiga, G. Valsecchi, and D. Vernani, “Simbol-X hard x-ray focusing mirrors: results obtained during the phase A study,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 35–40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Joensen, P. Voutov, A. Szentgyorgyi, J. Roll, P. Gorenstein, P. Høghøj, and F. E. Christensen, “Design of grazing-incidence multilayer supermirrors for hard-x-ray reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7935–7944 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gressier, W. J.

J. E. Harvey and W. J. Gressier, “Image degradation due to assembly and alignment errors in conical foil x-ray telescopes,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3037–3047 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hartner, G.

G. Tagliaferri, S. Basso, G. Borghi, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, M. Civitani, P. Conconi, V. Cotroneo, M. Freyberg, D. Garoli, P. Gorenstein, G. Hartner, V. Mattarello, A. Orlandi, G. Pareschi, S. Romaine, D. Spiga, G. Valsecchi, and D. Vernani, “Simbol-X hard x-ray focusing mirrors: results obtained during the phase A study,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 35–40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, J. E.

J. E. Harvey and W. J. Gressier, “Image degradation due to assembly and alignment errors in conical foil x-ray telescopes,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3037–3047 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Høghøj, P.

Joensen, K. D.

Karovska, M.

T. L. Aldcroft, M. Karovska, M. L. Cresitello-Dittmar, R. A. Cameron, and M. L. Markevitch, “Initial performance of the aspect system on the Chandra Observatory: postfacto aspect reconstruction,” Proc. SPIE 4012, 650–657 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, G. F.

G. F. Knoll, Radiation Detection and Measurement(Wiley, 2000).

La Marle, O.

G. Tagliaferri, P. Ferrando, J. Le Duigou, G. Pareschi, P. Laurent, G. Malaguti, R. Cledassou, M. Piermaria, O. La Marle, F. Fiore, and P. Giommi, “Simbol-X: a formation flight mission with an unprecedented imaging capability in the 0.5–80keV energy band,” http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.3683v1(2008).

Lamarle, O.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, U. Briel, E. Cavazzuti, R. Clédassou, J. L. Counil, F. Fiore, P. Giommi, A. Goldwurm, O. Lamarle, P. Laurent, F. Lebrun, G. Malaguti, S. Mereghetti, G. Micela, G. Pareschi, M. Piermaria, J. P. Roques, A. Santangelo, and G. Tagliaferri, “The Simbol-X mission,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laurent, P.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, U. Briel, E. Cavazzuti, R. Clédassou, J. L. Counil, F. Fiore, P. Giommi, A. Goldwurm, O. Lamarle, P. Laurent, F. Lebrun, G. Malaguti, S. Mereghetti, G. Micela, G. Pareschi, M. Piermaria, J. P. Roques, A. Santangelo, and G. Tagliaferri, “The Simbol-X mission,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Tagliaferri, P. Ferrando, J. Le Duigou, G. Pareschi, P. Laurent, G. Malaguti, R. Cledassou, M. Piermaria, O. La Marle, F. Fiore, and P. Giommi, “Simbol-X: a formation flight mission with an unprecedented imaging capability in the 0.5–80keV energy band,” http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.3683v1(2008).

Le Duigou, J.

G. Tagliaferri, P. Ferrando, J. Le Duigou, G. Pareschi, P. Laurent, G. Malaguti, R. Cledassou, M. Piermaria, O. La Marle, F. Fiore, and P. Giommi, “Simbol-X: a formation flight mission with an unprecedented imaging capability in the 0.5–80keV energy band,” http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.3683v1(2008).

Lebrun, F.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, U. Briel, E. Cavazzuti, R. Clédassou, J. L. Counil, F. Fiore, P. Giommi, A. Goldwurm, O. Lamarle, P. Laurent, F. Lebrun, G. Malaguti, S. Mereghetti, G. Micela, G. Pareschi, M. Piermaria, J. P. Roques, A. Santangelo, and G. Tagliaferri, “The Simbol-X mission,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Malaguti, G.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, U. Briel, E. Cavazzuti, R. Clédassou, J. L. Counil, F. Fiore, P. Giommi, A. Goldwurm, O. Lamarle, P. Laurent, F. Lebrun, G. Malaguti, S. Mereghetti, G. Micela, G. Pareschi, M. Piermaria, J. P. Roques, A. Santangelo, and G. Tagliaferri, “The Simbol-X mission,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Tagliaferri, P. Ferrando, J. Le Duigou, G. Pareschi, P. Laurent, G. Malaguti, R. Cledassou, M. Piermaria, O. La Marle, F. Fiore, and P. Giommi, “Simbol-X: a formation flight mission with an unprecedented imaging capability in the 0.5–80keV energy band,” http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.3683v1(2008).

Markevitch, M. L.

T. L. Aldcroft, M. Karovska, M. L. Cresitello-Dittmar, R. A. Cameron, and M. L. Markevitch, “Initial performance of the aspect system on the Chandra Observatory: postfacto aspect reconstruction,” Proc. SPIE 4012, 650–657 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mattarello, V.

G. Tagliaferri, S. Basso, G. Borghi, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, M. Civitani, P. Conconi, V. Cotroneo, M. Freyberg, D. Garoli, P. Gorenstein, G. Hartner, V. Mattarello, A. Orlandi, G. Pareschi, S. Romaine, D. Spiga, G. Valsecchi, and D. Vernani, “Simbol-X hard x-ray focusing mirrors: results obtained during the phase A study,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 35–40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mereghetti, S.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, U. Briel, E. Cavazzuti, R. Clédassou, J. L. Counil, F. Fiore, P. Giommi, A. Goldwurm, O. Lamarle, P. Laurent, F. Lebrun, G. Malaguti, S. Mereghetti, G. Micela, G. Pareschi, M. Piermaria, J. P. Roques, A. Santangelo, and G. Tagliaferri, “The Simbol-X mission,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Micela, G.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, U. Briel, E. Cavazzuti, R. Clédassou, J. L. Counil, F. Fiore, P. Giommi, A. Goldwurm, O. Lamarle, P. Laurent, F. Lebrun, G. Malaguti, S. Mereghetti, G. Micela, G. Pareschi, M. Piermaria, J. P. Roques, A. Santangelo, and G. Tagliaferri, “The Simbol-X mission,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Orlandi, A.

G. Tagliaferri, S. Basso, G. Borghi, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, M. Civitani, P. Conconi, V. Cotroneo, M. Freyberg, D. Garoli, P. Gorenstein, G. Hartner, V. Mattarello, A. Orlandi, G. Pareschi, S. Romaine, D. Spiga, G. Valsecchi, and D. Vernani, “Simbol-X hard x-ray focusing mirrors: results obtained during the phase A study,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 35–40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pareschi, G.

G. Tagliaferri, S. Basso, G. Borghi, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, M. Civitani, P. Conconi, V. Cotroneo, M. Freyberg, D. Garoli, P. Gorenstein, G. Hartner, V. Mattarello, A. Orlandi, G. Pareschi, S. Romaine, D. Spiga, G. Valsecchi, and D. Vernani, “Simbol-X hard x-ray focusing mirrors: results obtained during the phase A study,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 35–40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, U. Briel, E. Cavazzuti, R. Clédassou, J. L. Counil, F. Fiore, P. Giommi, A. Goldwurm, O. Lamarle, P. Laurent, F. Lebrun, G. Malaguti, S. Mereghetti, G. Micela, G. Pareschi, M. Piermaria, J. P. Roques, A. Santangelo, and G. Tagliaferri, “The Simbol-X mission,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Pareschi and P. Ferrando, “The SIMBOL-X hard x-ray mission,” Exp. Astron. 20, 139–149 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Tagliaferri, P. Ferrando, J. Le Duigou, G. Pareschi, P. Laurent, G. Malaguti, R. Cledassou, M. Piermaria, O. La Marle, F. Fiore, and P. Giommi, “Simbol-X: a formation flight mission with an unprecedented imaging capability in the 0.5–80keV energy band,” http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.3683v1(2008).

Piermaria, M.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, U. Briel, E. Cavazzuti, R. Clédassou, J. L. Counil, F. Fiore, P. Giommi, A. Goldwurm, O. Lamarle, P. Laurent, F. Lebrun, G. Malaguti, S. Mereghetti, G. Micela, G. Pareschi, M. Piermaria, J. P. Roques, A. Santangelo, and G. Tagliaferri, “The Simbol-X mission,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Tagliaferri, P. Ferrando, J. Le Duigou, G. Pareschi, P. Laurent, G. Malaguti, R. Cledassou, M. Piermaria, O. La Marle, F. Fiore, and P. Giommi, “Simbol-X: a formation flight mission with an unprecedented imaging capability in the 0.5–80keV energy band,” http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.3683v1(2008).

Roll, J.

Romaine, S.

G. Tagliaferri, S. Basso, G. Borghi, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, M. Civitani, P. Conconi, V. Cotroneo, M. Freyberg, D. Garoli, P. Gorenstein, G. Hartner, V. Mattarello, A. Orlandi, G. Pareschi, S. Romaine, D. Spiga, G. Valsecchi, and D. Vernani, “Simbol-X hard x-ray focusing mirrors: results obtained during the phase A study,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 35–40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roques, J. P.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, U. Briel, E. Cavazzuti, R. Clédassou, J. L. Counil, F. Fiore, P. Giommi, A. Goldwurm, O. Lamarle, P. Laurent, F. Lebrun, G. Malaguti, S. Mereghetti, G. Micela, G. Pareschi, M. Piermaria, J. P. Roques, A. Santangelo, and G. Tagliaferri, “The Simbol-X mission,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Santangelo, A.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, U. Briel, E. Cavazzuti, R. Clédassou, J. L. Counil, F. Fiore, P. Giommi, A. Goldwurm, O. Lamarle, P. Laurent, F. Lebrun, G. Malaguti, S. Mereghetti, G. Micela, G. Pareschi, M. Piermaria, J. P. Roques, A. Santangelo, and G. Tagliaferri, “The Simbol-X mission,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spiga, D.

G. Tagliaferri, S. Basso, G. Borghi, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, M. Civitani, P. Conconi, V. Cotroneo, M. Freyberg, D. Garoli, P. Gorenstein, G. Hartner, V. Mattarello, A. Orlandi, G. Pareschi, S. Romaine, D. Spiga, G. Valsecchi, and D. Vernani, “Simbol-X hard x-ray focusing mirrors: results obtained during the phase A study,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 35–40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Spiga, “Analytical evaluation of the X-ray scattering contribution to imaging degradation in grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 468, 775–784 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Szentgyorgyi, A.

Tagliaferri, G.

P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, U. Briel, E. Cavazzuti, R. Clédassou, J. L. Counil, F. Fiore, P. Giommi, A. Goldwurm, O. Lamarle, P. Laurent, F. Lebrun, G. Malaguti, S. Mereghetti, G. Micela, G. Pareschi, M. Piermaria, J. P. Roques, A. Santangelo, and G. Tagliaferri, “The Simbol-X mission,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Tagliaferri, S. Basso, G. Borghi, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, M. Civitani, P. Conconi, V. Cotroneo, M. Freyberg, D. Garoli, P. Gorenstein, G. Hartner, V. Mattarello, A. Orlandi, G. Pareschi, S. Romaine, D. Spiga, G. Valsecchi, and D. Vernani, “Simbol-X hard x-ray focusing mirrors: results obtained during the phase A study,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 35–40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Tagliaferri, P. Ferrando, J. Le Duigou, G. Pareschi, P. Laurent, G. Malaguti, R. Cledassou, M. Piermaria, O. La Marle, F. Fiore, and P. Giommi, “Simbol-X: a formation flight mission with an unprecedented imaging capability in the 0.5–80keV energy band,” http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.3683v1(2008).

Valsecchi, G.

G. Tagliaferri, S. Basso, G. Borghi, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, M. Civitani, P. Conconi, V. Cotroneo, M. Freyberg, D. Garoli, P. Gorenstein, G. Hartner, V. Mattarello, A. Orlandi, G. Pareschi, S. Romaine, D. Spiga, G. Valsecchi, and D. Vernani, “Simbol-X hard x-ray focusing mirrors: results obtained during the phase A study,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 35–40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vernani, D.

G. Tagliaferri, S. Basso, G. Borghi, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, M. Civitani, P. Conconi, V. Cotroneo, M. Freyberg, D. Garoli, P. Gorenstein, G. Hartner, V. Mattarello, A. Orlandi, G. Pareschi, S. Romaine, D. Spiga, G. Valsecchi, and D. Vernani, “Simbol-X hard x-ray focusing mirrors: results obtained during the phase A study,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 35–40 (2009).
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P. Ferrando, M. Arnaud, U. Briel, E. Cavazzuti, R. Clédassou, J. L. Counil, F. Fiore, P. Giommi, A. Goldwurm, O. Lamarle, P. Laurent, F. Lebrun, G. Malaguti, S. Mereghetti, G. Micela, G. Pareschi, M. Piermaria, J. P. Roques, A. Santangelo, and G. Tagliaferri, “The Simbol-X mission,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Tagliaferri, S. Basso, G. Borghi, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, M. Civitani, P. Conconi, V. Cotroneo, M. Freyberg, D. Garoli, P. Gorenstein, G. Hartner, V. Mattarello, A. Orlandi, G. Pareschi, S. Romaine, D. Spiga, G. Valsecchi, and D. Vernani, “Simbol-X hard x-ray focusing mirrors: results obtained during the phase A study,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1126, 35–40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Physik

H. Wolter, “Glancing incidence mirror systems as imaging optics for x-rays,” Ann. Physik 445, 94 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astron. Astrophys.

D. Spiga, “Analytical evaluation of the X-ray scattering contribution to imaging degradation in grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 468, 775–784 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Astron.

G. Pareschi and P. Ferrando, “The SIMBOL-X hard x-ray mission,” Exp. Astron. 20, 139–149 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res.

R. Willingale, “The grazing incidence telescope,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. 221, 1–13 (1984).
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G. Tagliaferri, P. Ferrando, J. Le Duigou, G. Pareschi, P. Laurent, G. Malaguti, R. Cledassou, M. Piermaria, O. La Marle, F. Fiore, and P. Giommi, “Simbol-X: a formation flight mission with an unprecedented imaging capability in the 0.5–80keV energy band,” http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.3683v1(2008).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the simulation. The five modules (SpM, MeM, SoM, MiM, and DeM) are represented with white rectangles. The rectangles with rounded corners represent a modification of the photon vectors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reference frames used in the simulation. Fd is the reference frame of the detector, Fm is the reference frame of the mirror, and J2000 is the equatorial coordinate system for the astrophysical sources.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Left: Reference geometric configuration of Simbol-X. Right: One possible Simbol-X configuration during an observation. The metrology, composed of star trackers and a camera, allows the computation of the detector drifts.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated reflection coefficient at 60 keV of a 250 Pt / C depth graded multilayer. The thickness ranges from d 1 = 2 nm to d 250 = 10 nm with the distribution d n = d 1 / n 1 / 4 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulated effective area of Simbol-X using the param eters of Table 1. Top: Effective area versus energy and source position. Middle: Effective area versus energy (solid curve, on axis; dotted curve, 3 arcmin off axis; dashed curve, 6 arcmin off axis). Bottom: Effective area versus source position (solid curve, 1 keV ; dotted curve, 30 keV ; dashed curve, 70 keV ).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulated PSF of Simbol-X at 1 keV for an on-axis source ( 15 arcsec HEW).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Angular resolution degradation versus source position in the FOV.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Effective area versus source position: a, 1 keV ; b, 30 keV ; and c, 70 keV . Solid curve, no mirror attitude instability; dotted curve, 4 arcmin mirror attitude instability; and dashed curve, 8 arcmin mirror attitude instability.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Angular resolution degradation versus the defocus for different source positions (solid curve, on-axis source; dotted curve, 2 arcmin off-axis source; dashed curve, 4 arcmin off-axis source; and dashed-dotted curve, 6 arcmin off axis source).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Lateral drift effects on the Simbol-X PSF for an on-axis source. Top: PSF without lateral drift ( 15 arcsec HEW). Middle: PSF with a maximum 0.5 cm lateral drift ( 66 arcsec HEW). Bottom: Reconstructed PSF using a sensor with 1 arcsec maximum noise ( 15.5 arcsec HEW).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Sensor accuracy consequences on image reconstruction. Top: Error of the reconstructed source position versus sensor errors (dotted curve: bias error, dashed line: noise error). Bottom: HEW degradation of the reconstructed source PSF versus sensor errors (dotted curve, bias error; dashed curve, noise error).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Lateral drift effects on the IXO PSF for an on axis source. Top: PSF without lateral drift ( 4 arcsec HEW). Middle: PSF with a maximum 0.5 mm lateral drift ( 7.7 arcsec HEW). Bottom: Reconstructed PSF using a sensor with 1 arcsec maximum noise ( 5.1 arcsec HEW).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Sensor accuracy consequences on image reconstruction. Left: Error of the reconstructed source position versus sensor errors (dotted curve, bias error; dashed curve, noise error). Right: HEW degradation of the reconstructed source PSF versus sensor errors (dotted curve, bias error; dashed curve, noise error).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Instrumental Characteristics of Simbol-X Used in Our Simulation as Reference

Tables Icon

Table 2 Simbol-X Formation Flight Control Tolerances

Tables Icon

Table 3 Instrumental Characteristics of International X-ray Observatory Used in Our Simulation as Reference

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