Abstract

We report an effective solution process to fabricate planarized photonic crystal substrates to enhance the outcoupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The photonic crystal structure was fabricated using nanoimprint lithography using a UV-curable acrylate and was planarized by using a ZnO layer formed by the solgel process. The solgel process resulted in a smooth surface, and OLEDs have been successfully integrated on the planarized photonic crystal layer with a low leakage current. The resulting light outcoupling efficiency was enhanced by 38% compared with that of conventional OLEDs, which is well matched with a theoretical prediction.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174–2176 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1149–1152 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Moller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324–3327 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y.-H. Cheng, J.-L. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, K.-C. Syao, and M.-C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091102(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Ishihara, M. Fusita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11, 711–716 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1214–1218 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y.-R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779–3781 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, Jae R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 223307 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. L. Hench and J. K. West, “The sol–gel process,” Chem. Rev. 90, 33–72 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Ohyama, H. Kozuka, and T. Yoko, “Sol-gel preparation of ZnO films with extremely preferred orientation along (002) plane from zinc acetate solution,” Thin Solid Films 306, 78–85(1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R.-C. Perez, O.-J. Sandoval, S.-J. Sandoval, J.-M. Marin, A.-M. Galvan, G.-T. Delgado, and A.-M. Alvarez, “Influence of annealing temperature on the formation and characteristics of sol-gel prepared ZnO films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 1811–1816 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2010

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11, 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, Jae R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. Ishihara, M. Fusita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Cheng, J.-L. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, K.-C. Syao, and M.-C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091102(2007).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y.-R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. Moller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324–3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

R.-C. Perez, O.-J. Sandoval, S.-J. Sandoval, J.-M. Marin, A.-M. Galvan, G.-T. Delgado, and A.-M. Alvarez, “Influence of annealing temperature on the formation and characteristics of sol-gel prepared ZnO films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 1811–1816 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Ohyama, H. Kozuka, and T. Yoko, “Sol-gel preparation of ZnO films with extremely preferred orientation along (002) plane from zinc acetate solution,” Thin Solid Films 306, 78–85(1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

L. L. Hench and J. K. West, “The sol–gel process,” Chem. Rev. 90, 33–72 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Altun, A. O.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11, 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, Jae R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez, A.-M.

R.-C. Perez, O.-J. Sandoval, S.-J. Sandoval, J.-M. Marin, A.-M. Galvan, G.-T. Delgado, and A.-M. Alvarez, “Influence of annealing temperature on the formation and characteristics of sol-gel prepared ZnO films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 1811–1816 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Araoka, F.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

K. Ishihara, M. Fusita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Caneau, C.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C.-H.

Y.-H. Cheng, J.-L. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, K.-C. Syao, and M.-C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091102(2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Cheng, J.-L. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, K.-C. Syao, and M.-C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091102(2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C.-O.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.-H.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y.-R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D.-G.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11, 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, Jae R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.-H.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11, 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Delgado, G.-T.

R.-C. Perez, O.-J. Sandoval, S.-J. Sandoval, J.-M. Marin, A.-M. Galvan, G.-T. Delgado, and A.-M. Alvarez, “Influence of annealing temperature on the formation and characteristics of sol-gel prepared ZnO films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 1811–1816 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Do, Y. R.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Do, Y.-R.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y.-R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

S. Moller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324–3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fusita, M.

K. Ishihara, M. Fusita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Galvan, A.-M.

R.-C. Perez, O.-J. Sandoval, S.-J. Sandoval, J.-M. Marin, A.-M. Galvan, G.-T. Delgado, and A.-M. Alvarez, “Influence of annealing temperature on the formation and characteristics of sol-gel prepared ZnO films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 1811–1816 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gmitter, T. J.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hench, L. L.

L. L. Hench and J. K. West, “The sol–gel process,” Chem. Rev. 90, 33–72 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hirasawa, A.

K. Ishihara, M. Fusita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huh, J.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y.-R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, K.

K. Ishihara, M. Fusita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, K.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, H.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11, 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, Jae R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J.-h.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11, 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, Jae R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S. M.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J.-W.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11, 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, Jae R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kawano, K.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.-H.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y.-R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-J.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11, 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, Jae R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-D.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11, 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, Jae R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-H.

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, Jae R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y.-R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-C.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y.-R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kozuka, H.

M. Ohyama, H. Kozuka, and T. Yoko, “Sol-gel preparation of ZnO films with extremely preferred orientation along (002) plane from zinc acetate solution,” Thin Solid Films 306, 78–85(1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, E.-S.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11, 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-C. M.

Y.-H. Cheng, J.-L. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, K.-C. Syao, and M.-C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091102(2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-W.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11, 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-H.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11, 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, Jae R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y.-R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y.-R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Machida, Y.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marin, J.-M.

R.-C. Perez, O.-J. Sandoval, S.-J. Sandoval, J.-M. Marin, A.-M. Galvan, G.-T. Delgado, and A.-M. Alvarez, “Influence of annealing temperature on the formation and characteristics of sol-gel prepared ZnO films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 1811–1816 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matsubara, I.

K. Ishihara, M. Fusita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moller, S.

S. Moller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324–3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakada, H.

K. Ishihara, M. Fusita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, S.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

K. Ishihara, M. Fusita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohata, H.

K. Ishihara, M. Fusita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohyama, M.

M. Ohyama, H. Kozuka, and T. Yoko, “Sol-gel preparation of ZnO films with extremely preferred orientation along (002) plane from zinc acetate solution,” Thin Solid Films 306, 78–85(1997).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.-D.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11, 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, Jae R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perez, R.-C.

R.-C. Perez, O.-J. Sandoval, S.-J. Sandoval, J.-M. Marin, A.-M. Galvan, G.-T. Delgado, and A.-M. Alvarez, “Influence of annealing temperature on the formation and characteristics of sol-gel prepared ZnO films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 1811–1816 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sandoval, O.-J.

R.-C. Perez, O.-J. Sandoval, S.-J. Sandoval, J.-M. Marin, A.-M. Galvan, G.-T. Delgado, and A.-M. Alvarez, “Influence of annealing temperature on the formation and characteristics of sol-gel prepared ZnO films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 1811–1816 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sandoval, S.-J.

R.-C. Perez, O.-J. Sandoval, S.-J. Sandoval, J.-M. Marin, A.-M. Galvan, G.-T. Delgado, and A.-M. Alvarez, “Influence of annealing temperature on the formation and characteristics of sol-gel prepared ZnO films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 1811–1816 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schnitzer, I.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shim, J.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11, 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, Jae R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shimoji, N.

K. Ishihara, M. Fusita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.-W.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suzaki, G.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Syao, K.-C.

Y.-H. Cheng, J.-L. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, K.-C. Syao, and M.-C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091102(2007).
[CrossRef]

Takezoe, H.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsui, T.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

West, J. K.

L. L. Hench and J. K. West, “The sol–gel process,” Chem. Rev. 90, 33–72 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.-L.

Y.-H. Cheng, J.-L. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, K.-C. Syao, and M.-C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091102(2007).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yahiro, M.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yoko, T.

M. Ohyama, H. Kozuka, and T. Yoko, “Sol-gel preparation of ZnO films with extremely preferred orientation along (002) plane from zinc acetate solution,” Thin Solid Films 306, 78–85(1997).
[CrossRef]

Yokogawa, H.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, M.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Youn, J. R.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11, 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Youn, Jae R.

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, Jae R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y.-R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, Jae R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Cheng, J.-L. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, K.-C. Syao, and M.-C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091102(2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Ishihara, M. Fusita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

L. L. Hench and J. K. West, “The sol–gel process,” Chem. Rev. 90, 33–72 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Moller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324–3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

R.-C. Perez, O.-J. Sandoval, S.-J. Sandoval, J.-M. Marin, A.-M. Galvan, G.-T. Delgado, and A.-M. Alvarez, “Influence of annealing temperature on the formation and characteristics of sol-gel prepared ZnO films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 1811–1816 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Org. Electron.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-h. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11, 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

M. Ohyama, H. Kozuka, and T. Yoko, “Sol-gel preparation of ZnO films with extremely preferred orientation along (002) plane from zinc acetate solution,” Thin Solid Films 306, 78–85(1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM images of a PC substrate: (a) PC structure with pillars (b) after planarization by the solution process. (c) Cross section of (b). (d) Peak-to-valley roughness and rms roughness of the substrate measured with an AFM versus the number of spin coatings for the ZnO solgel process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

AFM image and surface profile of the PC substrate planarized with a 150 nm thick Si N x layer formed by PECVD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Device structure of OLEDs fabricated on the solution processed PC substrate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

FDTD simulation results of a conventional OLED and a SPPC OLED. The enhancement of light extraction is about 41%.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Current density–voltage–luminance characteristics and (b) luminance efficiency of various devices in the normal direction: a conventional OLED (square), a SPPC OLED (circle), and a PC OLED before planarization (triangle), respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Integrated emission spectra with relative emission intensities at 10 mA / cm 2 and (b) integrated emission intensity versus current density: conventional OLED (square), SPPC OLED (circle), and NPPC OLED (triangle). Emission images of conventional OLED, SPPC OLED, and NPPC OLED are shown in (c)–(e), respectively.

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