Abstract

We report on a transverse load sensor with enhanced sensitivity through the use of a birefringent interferometer based on a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber (HB-PCF). The transverse load sensitivity can be enhanced by using a fabricated HB-PCF having larger air holes on its fast axis. The transverse load sensitivity was measured to be high: 2.17nm/(N/cm). The temperature-induced undesirable effects can be ignored because transmission outputs of our HB-PCF were stable with the change of the temperature. The sensing probe can be compact because of its high birefringence with the order of 103 and no bending loss.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2009 (2)

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Han, Y. Chung, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, M. Y. Jeong, and M. K. Kim, “Temperature and strain discrimination based on a temperature-insensitive birefringent interferometer incorporating an erbium-doped fiber,” Appl. Opt. 48, 2303–2307 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2007 (3)

2006 (2)

I. Abe, O. Frazão, M. W. Schiller, R. N. Nogueira, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Pinto, “Bragg gratings in normal and reduced diameter high birefringence fibre optics,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1477–1484 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Jewart, K. P. Chen, B. McMillen, M. M. Bails, S. P. Levitan, J. Canning, and I. V. Avdeev, “Sensitivity enhancement of fiber Bragg gratings to transverse stress by using microstructural fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2260–2262 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 325–331(2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Silva-López, W. MacPherson, C. Li, A. Moore, J. Barton, J. Jones, D. Zhao, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Transverse load and orientation measurement with multicore fiber Bragg gratings,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6890–6897 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Martynkien, M. Szpulak, and W. Urbanczyk, “Modeling and measurement of temperature sensitivity in birefringent photonic crystal holey fibers,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7780–7788(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2535–2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Fibre-optic sensing applications of a pair of long-period fibre gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 778–781(2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

Abe, I.

I. Abe, O. Frazão, M. W. Schiller, R. N. Nogueira, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Pinto, “Bragg gratings in normal and reduced diameter high birefringence fibre optics,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1477–1484 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Atkin, D. M.

Avdeev, I. V.

Bails, M. M.

Baptista, J. M.

Bartelt, H.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J.

Becker, M.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Berghmans, F.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 325–331(2005).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Canning, J.

Chah, K.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. P.

Chung, Y.

De Waele, W.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Degrieck, J.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Demokan, M. S.

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2535–2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

H. Y. Fu, H. Y. Tam, L. Y. Shao, X. Dong, P. K. A. Wai, C. Lu, and S. K. Khijwania, “Pressure sensor realized with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2835–2839 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Frazão, O.

O. Frazão, S. O. Silva, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, “Simultaneous measurement of multiparameters using a Sagnac interferometer with polarization maintaining side-hole fiber,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4841–4848 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Abe, O. Frazão, M. W. Schiller, R. N. Nogueira, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Pinto, “Bragg gratings in normal and reduced diameter high birefringence fibre optics,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1477–1484 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

Fu, H. Y.

Geernaert, T.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Golojuch, G.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 325–331(2005).
[CrossRef]

Han, W. T.

D. S. Moon, B. H. Kim, A. Lin, G. Sun, Y. G. Han, W. T. Han, and Y. Chung, “The temperature sensitivity of Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining side-hole fiber,” Opt. Express 15, 7962–7967 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Fibre-optic sensing applications of a pair of long-period fibre gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 778–781(2001).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y. G.

Jeong, M. Y.

Jewart, C.

Jin, W.

Y. Wang, D. N. Wang, W. Jin, and Y. Rao, “Asymmetric transverse-load characteristics and polarization dependence of long-period fiber gratings written by a focused CO2 laser,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3079–3086 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2535–2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J.

Kalinowski, H. J.

I. Abe, O. Frazão, M. W. Schiller, R. N. Nogueira, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Pinto, “Bragg gratings in normal and reduced diameter high birefringence fibre optics,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1477–1484 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khijwania, S. K.

Kim, B. H.

Kim, C. S.

Kim, M. K.

Knight, J. C.

LeBlanc, M.

Lee, B. H.

Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Fibre-optic sensing applications of a pair of long-period fibre gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 778–781(2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. B.

Levitan, S. P.

Li, C.

Lin, A.

Lu, C.

H. Y. Fu, H. Y. Tam, L. Y. Shao, X. Dong, P. K. A. Wai, C. Lu, and S. K. Khijwania, “Pressure sensor realized with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2835–2839 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2535–2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luyckx, G.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

MacPherson, W.

Makara, M.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 325–331(2005).
[CrossRef]

Martynkien, T.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 325–331(2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Martynkien, M. Szpulak, and W. Urbanczyk, “Modeling and measurement of temperature sensitivity in birefringent photonic crystal holey fibers,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7780–7788(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McMillen, B.

Mergo, P.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 325–331(2005).
[CrossRef]

Moon, D. S.

Moore, A.

Nasilowski, T.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 325–331(2005).
[CrossRef]

Nogueira, R. N.

I. Abe, O. Frazão, M. W. Schiller, R. N. Nogueira, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Pinto, “Bragg gratings in normal and reduced diameter high birefringence fibre optics,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1477–1484 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Olszewski, J.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 325–331(2005).
[CrossRef]

Paek, U. C.

Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Fibre-optic sensing applications of a pair of long-period fibre gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 778–781(2001).
[CrossRef]

Pinto, J. L.

I. Abe, O. Frazão, M. W. Schiller, R. N. Nogueira, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Pinto, “Bragg gratings in normal and reduced diameter high birefringence fibre optics,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1477–1484 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y.

Russell, P. St. J.

Santos, J. L.

Schiller, M. W.

I. Abe, O. Frazão, M. W. Schiller, R. N. Nogueira, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Pinto, “Bragg gratings in normal and reduced diameter high birefringence fibre optics,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1477–1484 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shao, L. Y.

Shum, P.

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Silva, S. O.

Silva-López, M.

Statkiewicz, G.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 325–331(2005).
[CrossRef]

Statkiewicz-Barabach, G.

Sun, G.

Szpulak, M.

T. Martynkien, M. Szpulak, and W. Urbanczyk, “Modeling and measurement of temperature sensitivity in birefringent photonic crystal holey fibers,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7780–7788(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 325–331(2005).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

H. Y. Fu, H. Y. Tam, L. Y. Shao, X. Dong, P. K. A. Wai, C. Lu, and S. K. Khijwania, “Pressure sensor realized with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2835–2839 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Terryn, H.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 325–331(2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, T. E.

Urbanczyk, W.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, S. O. Silva, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, “Simultaneous measurement of multiparameters using a Sagnac interferometer with polarization maintaining side-hole fiber,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4841–4848 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Martynkien, M. Szpulak, and W. Urbanczyk, “Modeling and measurement of temperature sensitivity in birefringent photonic crystal holey fibers,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7780–7788(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 325–331(2005).
[CrossRef]

Voet, E.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vohra, S. T.

Wai, P. K. A.

Wang, D. N.

Wang, Y.

Wojcik, J.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, S. O. Silva, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, “Simultaneous measurement of multiparameters using a Sagnac interferometer with polarization maintaining side-hole fiber,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4841–4848 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 325–331(2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2535–2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Zhao, C.-L.

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2535–2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D.

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 325–331(2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2535–2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

I. Abe, O. Frazão, M. W. Schiller, R. N. Nogueira, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Pinto, “Bragg gratings in normal and reduced diameter high birefringence fibre optics,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1477–1484 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Fibre-optic sensing applications of a pair of long-period fibre gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 778–781(2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM images of (a) transverse cross section and (b) core region of the fabricated HB-PCF.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectrum of the fabricated HB-PCF.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Bending loss and (inset) transmission spectra of our HB-PCF with respect to the number of bending turns.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sensing scheme based on an HB-PCF for transverse load sensing (×, splicing point).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission output of the HB-PCF-based birefringent interferometer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transverse load sensitivities for different angles of the applied load.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Peak wavelength shift and (inset) transmission spectra as a function of temperature.

Equations (5)

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t = cos 2 ( π λ L Δ n g ) ,
Δ n g = λ 2 Δ λ L ,
Δ λ shift ( L Δ n g T + Δ n g L T ) Δ T + ( L Δ n g F + Δ n g L F ) Δ F ,
Δ λ shift Δ n g F Δ F ,
Δ n g F = Δ n g , s F Δ n g , f F ,

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