Abstract

We present a correction method of a systematic error that arises when total luminous flux of a large-area surface-emitting light source (SLS) is measured in an integrating sphere by substitution with a reference lamp. Putting a large-area SLS into an integrating sphere is equivalent to adding a low-reflective baffle to screen the spatial distribution of radiation inside the sphere, which severely changes the sphere responsivity. To compensate this self-screening effect, we propose to use a specially designed auxiliary lamp whose illuminating area is spatially matched to that of the SLS under test. The validity of the proposed correction method is tested by numerical simulations based on the radiative transfer equation.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Commision Internationale de l’Éclairage, International Lighting Vocabulary, CIE publication 17.4 (CIE, 1989).
  2. Commision Internationale de l’Éclairage, The Measurement of Luminous Flux, CIE publication 84 (CIE, 1989).
  3. Commision Internationale de l’Éclairage, The Photometry and Goniophotometry of Luminaires, CIE publication 121 (CIE, 1996).
  4. Y. Ohno, “Detector-based luminous-flux calibration using the absolute integrating-sphere method,” Metrologia 35, 473–478(1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Hovila, P. Toivanen, and E. Ikonen, “Realization of the unit of luminous flux at the HUT using the absolute integrating-sphere method,” Metrologia 41, 407–413 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Park, D.-H. Lee, Y.-W. Kim, and S.-N. Park, “Absolute integrating sphere method for total luminous flux of LEDs,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (NEWRAD) (KRISS, 2008), pp. 215–216.
    [PubMed]
  7. Commision Internationale de l’Éclairage, Measurement of LEDs, 127 (CIE, 1999).
  8. Illuminating Engineering Society, Approved Method: Electrical and Photometric Measurements of Solid-State Lighting, LM-79-08 (Illuminating Engineering Society, 2008).
  9. S. Park, D.-H. Lee, Y.-W. Kim, H.-P. Kim, and S.-N. Park, “Study on the total luminous flux measurement of surface-emitting light sources using an integrating sphere,” in Proceedings of CIE Expert Symposium on Advances in Photometry and Colorimetry, x033:2008 (CIE, 2008).
  10. Y. Ohno, “Integrating sphere simulation: application to total flux scale realization,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2637–2647 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Park, J.-H. Jeon, N.-J. Yoo, and S.-N. Park, “Calculation of spatial response distribution function of an integrating sphere for LED total luminous flux measurement using a commercial Monte-Carlo ray-tracing simulator,” in Proceedings of 26th Session of the CIE, D2-37 (CIE, 2007).

2004 (1)

J. Hovila, P. Toivanen, and E. Ikonen, “Realization of the unit of luminous flux at the HUT using the absolute integrating-sphere method,” Metrologia 41, 407–413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Y. Ohno, “Detector-based luminous-flux calibration using the absolute integrating-sphere method,” Metrologia 35, 473–478(1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Hovila, J.

J. Hovila, P. Toivanen, and E. Ikonen, “Realization of the unit of luminous flux at the HUT using the absolute integrating-sphere method,” Metrologia 41, 407–413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ikonen, E.

J. Hovila, P. Toivanen, and E. Ikonen, “Realization of the unit of luminous flux at the HUT using the absolute integrating-sphere method,” Metrologia 41, 407–413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, J.-H.

S. Park, J.-H. Jeon, N.-J. Yoo, and S.-N. Park, “Calculation of spatial response distribution function of an integrating sphere for LED total luminous flux measurement using a commercial Monte-Carlo ray-tracing simulator,” in Proceedings of 26th Session of the CIE, D2-37 (CIE, 2007).

Kim, H.-P.

S. Park, D.-H. Lee, Y.-W. Kim, H.-P. Kim, and S.-N. Park, “Study on the total luminous flux measurement of surface-emitting light sources using an integrating sphere,” in Proceedings of CIE Expert Symposium on Advances in Photometry and Colorimetry, x033:2008 (CIE, 2008).

Kim, Y.-W.

S. Park, D.-H. Lee, Y.-W. Kim, H.-P. Kim, and S.-N. Park, “Study on the total luminous flux measurement of surface-emitting light sources using an integrating sphere,” in Proceedings of CIE Expert Symposium on Advances in Photometry and Colorimetry, x033:2008 (CIE, 2008).

S. Park, D.-H. Lee, Y.-W. Kim, and S.-N. Park, “Absolute integrating sphere method for total luminous flux of LEDs,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (NEWRAD) (KRISS, 2008), pp. 215–216.
[PubMed]

Lee, D.-H.

S. Park, D.-H. Lee, Y.-W. Kim, and S.-N. Park, “Absolute integrating sphere method for total luminous flux of LEDs,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (NEWRAD) (KRISS, 2008), pp. 215–216.
[PubMed]

S. Park, D.-H. Lee, Y.-W. Kim, H.-P. Kim, and S.-N. Park, “Study on the total luminous flux measurement of surface-emitting light sources using an integrating sphere,” in Proceedings of CIE Expert Symposium on Advances in Photometry and Colorimetry, x033:2008 (CIE, 2008).

Ohno, Y.

Y. Ohno, “Detector-based luminous-flux calibration using the absolute integrating-sphere method,” Metrologia 35, 473–478(1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohno, “Integrating sphere simulation: application to total flux scale realization,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2637–2647 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S.

S. Park, D.-H. Lee, Y.-W. Kim, and S.-N. Park, “Absolute integrating sphere method for total luminous flux of LEDs,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (NEWRAD) (KRISS, 2008), pp. 215–216.
[PubMed]

S. Park, D.-H. Lee, Y.-W. Kim, H.-P. Kim, and S.-N. Park, “Study on the total luminous flux measurement of surface-emitting light sources using an integrating sphere,” in Proceedings of CIE Expert Symposium on Advances in Photometry and Colorimetry, x033:2008 (CIE, 2008).

S. Park, J.-H. Jeon, N.-J. Yoo, and S.-N. Park, “Calculation of spatial response distribution function of an integrating sphere for LED total luminous flux measurement using a commercial Monte-Carlo ray-tracing simulator,” in Proceedings of 26th Session of the CIE, D2-37 (CIE, 2007).

Park, S.-N.

S. Park, D.-H. Lee, Y.-W. Kim, H.-P. Kim, and S.-N. Park, “Study on the total luminous flux measurement of surface-emitting light sources using an integrating sphere,” in Proceedings of CIE Expert Symposium on Advances in Photometry and Colorimetry, x033:2008 (CIE, 2008).

S. Park, J.-H. Jeon, N.-J. Yoo, and S.-N. Park, “Calculation of spatial response distribution function of an integrating sphere for LED total luminous flux measurement using a commercial Monte-Carlo ray-tracing simulator,” in Proceedings of 26th Session of the CIE, D2-37 (CIE, 2007).

S. Park, D.-H. Lee, Y.-W. Kim, and S.-N. Park, “Absolute integrating sphere method for total luminous flux of LEDs,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (NEWRAD) (KRISS, 2008), pp. 215–216.
[PubMed]

Toivanen, P.

J. Hovila, P. Toivanen, and E. Ikonen, “Realization of the unit of luminous flux at the HUT using the absolute integrating-sphere method,” Metrologia 41, 407–413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, N.-J.

S. Park, J.-H. Jeon, N.-J. Yoo, and S.-N. Park, “Calculation of spatial response distribution function of an integrating sphere for LED total luminous flux measurement using a commercial Monte-Carlo ray-tracing simulator,” in Proceedings of 26th Session of the CIE, D2-37 (CIE, 2007).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Metrologia (2)

Y. Ohno, “Detector-based luminous-flux calibration using the absolute integrating-sphere method,” Metrologia 35, 473–478(1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Hovila, P. Toivanen, and E. Ikonen, “Realization of the unit of luminous flux at the HUT using the absolute integrating-sphere method,” Metrologia 41, 407–413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

S. Park, D.-H. Lee, Y.-W. Kim, and S.-N. Park, “Absolute integrating sphere method for total luminous flux of LEDs,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (NEWRAD) (KRISS, 2008), pp. 215–216.
[PubMed]

Commision Internationale de l’Éclairage, Measurement of LEDs, 127 (CIE, 1999).

Illuminating Engineering Society, Approved Method: Electrical and Photometric Measurements of Solid-State Lighting, LM-79-08 (Illuminating Engineering Society, 2008).

S. Park, D.-H. Lee, Y.-W. Kim, H.-P. Kim, and S.-N. Park, “Study on the total luminous flux measurement of surface-emitting light sources using an integrating sphere,” in Proceedings of CIE Expert Symposium on Advances in Photometry and Colorimetry, x033:2008 (CIE, 2008).

S. Park, J.-H. Jeon, N.-J. Yoo, and S.-N. Park, “Calculation of spatial response distribution function of an integrating sphere for LED total luminous flux measurement using a commercial Monte-Carlo ray-tracing simulator,” in Proceedings of 26th Session of the CIE, D2-37 (CIE, 2007).

Commision Internationale de l’Éclairage, International Lighting Vocabulary, CIE publication 17.4 (CIE, 1989).

Commision Internationale de l’Éclairage, The Measurement of Luminous Flux, CIE publication 84 (CIE, 1989).

Commision Internationale de l’Éclairage, The Photometry and Goniophotometry of Luminaires, CIE publication 121 (CIE, 1996).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawings of the integrating sphere photometer for total luminous flux measurement of a large-area SLS at different measurement steps: (a), (b) reading of the reference (REF) and test (DUT) lamp signals, respectively, for the case of a 2 π REF lamp; (c), (d) reading of the REF and DUT lamp signals, respectively, for the case of a 4 π REF lamp; (e), (f) reading of the auxiliary lamp signals at the REF and DUT lamp, respectively, for the correction of self screening of the test SLS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometric design of the integrating sphere photometer used for numerical simulation: A L 1 , 2 , auxiliary lamps; D SP , diameter of the integrating sphere; D B , diameter of the baffle in front of the photometer port; D W , diameter of the photometer port; D DUT , diameter of the SLS-DUT; d, distance between the baffle and the SLS-DUT.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Angular distribution of luminous intensity of the auxiliary lamp modeled for simulation of self-screening correction: cos θ model (black solid); cos 2 θ model (red dashed); cos 5 θ model (green dotted); cos 12 θ model (blue dash-dotted).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative error of total luminous flux as a function of the diameter of a SLS-DUT for the case that no correction of self-screening error is applied. The symbols correspond to the calculation points and they are connected for better visibility.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative residual error of total luminous flux as a function of the diameter of a SLS-DUT for the case that the self-screening correction is applied using one auxiliary lamp with the angular distribution of (a) cos θ , (b) cos 2 θ , (c) cos 5 θ , and (d) cos 12 θ . The symbols of different shapes correspond to the calculation points for different values of sphere wall reflectance. The symbols of the same shape are connected for better visibility.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the relative residual errors after self-screening correction between the case using a 2 π REF (black circles) and the case using a 4 π REF (red squares). The symbols correspond to the calculation points and they are connected for better visibility.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relative residual error of total luminous flux as a function of the diameter of a SLS-DUT after the self-screening correction using one cos θ auxiliary lamp for different values of the reflectance of the front/rear surface of the SLS-DUT. The symbols of different shapes correspond to the calculation points for different values of the SLS-DUT reflectance (front/rear). The symbols of the same shape are connected for better visibility.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relative residual error of total luminous flux as a function of the diameter of a SLS-DUT after the self-screening correction using one cos θ auxiliary lamp for different values of (a) distance d of the baffle from the SLS-DUT, and (b) diameter D B of the baffle. The symbols of different shapes correspond to the calculation points for different values of parameters. The symbols of the same shape are connected for better visibility.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Relative residual error of total luminous flux as a function of the diameter of a SLS-DUT after the self-screening correction using one, two, and four auxiliary lamp(s) with the cos θ distribution. The symbols of different shapes correspond to the calculation points for different numbers of the auxiliary lamps. The symbols of the same shape are connected for better visibility.

Equations (5)

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Φ v T = y T y R · Φ v R · k CCF · k SCF · k abs ,
k abs = y R A y T A .
E i ( r ) = 1 π σ ρ ( r ) E i 1 ( r ) S ( r , r ) T ( r , r ) d A .
T ( r , r ) = cos θ 1 cos θ 2 | r r | 2 ,
E ( r ) = i = 0 E i ( r ) .

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