Abstract

The problems associated with using typical free-space optics (FSO) transceivers for multipoint communications on flight platforms, such as satellites and unmanned aerial vehicles, in a cluster are discussed and the transceivers are found to be unsuitable for concurrent multipoint communications in those platforms. To overcome the problems, a multipoint FSO system design is proposed. The design of the multipoint system is described and the performance of the multipoint receiver is evaluated in terms of receive gain under different conditions. The proposed multipoint system design offers a promising way to implement concurrent multipoint communications on flight platforms with power, weight, and size advantages compared to the use of multiple transceivers.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. G. Lambert and W. L. Casey, Laser Communications in Space (Artech House, 1995).
  2. H. Hemmati, Deep Space Optical Communications (Wiley-Interscience, 2005).
  3. D. G. Aviv, Laser Space Communications (Artech House, 2006).
  4. C. Chen and J. R. Lesh, “Overview of the optical communications demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 2123, 85-95 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. G. Zenick and K. Kohlhepp, “GPS micro navigation and communication system for clusters of micro and nanosatellites,” in Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2001).
  6. P. Vincent and I. Rubin, “A swarm-assisted integrated communication and sensing network,” Proc. SPIE 5441, 48-60 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Leeb, A. Kalmar, K. Kudielka, and P. J. Winzer, “Optical terminals for microsatellite swarms,” Proc. SPIE 4635, 202-214 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. J. Mendez and R. M. Gagliardi, “Lasercom crosslinking for satellite clusters,” Proc. SPIE 4272, 50-59(2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Ch. Chlestil, E. Leitgeb, N. P. Schmitt, S. S. Muhammad, K. Zettl, and W. Rehm, “Reliable optical wireless links within UAV swarms,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2006), pp. 39-42.
  10. E. Leitgeb, K. Zettl, S. S. Muhammad, N. Schmitt, and W. Rehm, “Investigation in free space optical communication links between unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs),” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 152-155.
  11. D. L. Panak and M. A. Doucet, “Fiber coupled transceivers in point-to-point and point-to-multipoint optical wireless systems,” Proc. SPIE 4530, 7-17 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Jeganathan, A. Portillo, C. Racho, S. Lee, D. Erickson, J. DePew, S. Monacos, and A. Biswas, “Lessons learnt from the optical communications demonstrator (OCD),” Proc. SPIE 3615, 23-30 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Azzawi, Photonics: Principles and Practices (CRC, 2006).
  14. R. C. Ruddock and C. H. Walter, “Luneberg lenses for space communications,” IRE Trans. Space Electron. Telem. 8, 31-38(1962).
  15. M. J. Riedl, Optical Design Fundamentals for Infrared Systems (SPIE, 2001).
  16. ZEMAX Development Corporation, “ZEMAX: software for optical system design,” http://www.zemax.com/.
  17. Thorlabs, “Bare optical fibers and patch cables,” http://www.thorlabs.com/navigation.cfm?Guide_ID=26.
  18. Z. Liu, “Research on application of several tracking detectors in APT system,” Proc. SPIE 6027, 60272S (2006).
  19. D. Russell, H. Ansari, and C. C. Chen, “Lasercom pointing, acquisition, and tracking control using a CCD-based tracker,” Proc. SPIE 2123, 294-303 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2007

E. Leitgeb, K. Zettl, S. S. Muhammad, N. Schmitt, and W. Rehm, “Investigation in free space optical communication links between unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs),” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 152-155.

2006

A. Azzawi, Photonics: Principles and Practices (CRC, 2006).

Z. Liu, “Research on application of several tracking detectors in APT system,” Proc. SPIE 6027, 60272S (2006).

D. G. Aviv, Laser Space Communications (Artech House, 2006).

Ch. Chlestil, E. Leitgeb, N. P. Schmitt, S. S. Muhammad, K. Zettl, and W. Rehm, “Reliable optical wireless links within UAV swarms,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2006), pp. 39-42.

2005

H. Hemmati, Deep Space Optical Communications (Wiley-Interscience, 2005).

2004

P. Vincent and I. Rubin, “A swarm-assisted integrated communication and sensing network,” Proc. SPIE 5441, 48-60 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

W. Leeb, A. Kalmar, K. Kudielka, and P. J. Winzer, “Optical terminals for microsatellite swarms,” Proc. SPIE 4635, 202-214 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. J. Mendez and R. M. Gagliardi, “Lasercom crosslinking for satellite clusters,” Proc. SPIE 4272, 50-59(2001).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Zenick and K. Kohlhepp, “GPS micro navigation and communication system for clusters of micro and nanosatellites,” in Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2001).

M. J. Riedl, Optical Design Fundamentals for Infrared Systems (SPIE, 2001).

D. L. Panak and M. A. Doucet, “Fiber coupled transceivers in point-to-point and point-to-multipoint optical wireless systems,” Proc. SPIE 4530, 7-17 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Jeganathan, A. Portillo, C. Racho, S. Lee, D. Erickson, J. DePew, S. Monacos, and A. Biswas, “Lessons learnt from the optical communications demonstrator (OCD),” Proc. SPIE 3615, 23-30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. G. Lambert and W. L. Casey, Laser Communications in Space (Artech House, 1995).

1994

C. Chen and J. R. Lesh, “Overview of the optical communications demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 2123, 85-95 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Russell, H. Ansari, and C. C. Chen, “Lasercom pointing, acquisition, and tracking control using a CCD-based tracker,” Proc. SPIE 2123, 294-303 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1962

R. C. Ruddock and C. H. Walter, “Luneberg lenses for space communications,” IRE Trans. Space Electron. Telem. 8, 31-38(1962).

Ansari, H.

D. Russell, H. Ansari, and C. C. Chen, “Lasercom pointing, acquisition, and tracking control using a CCD-based tracker,” Proc. SPIE 2123, 294-303 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Aviv, D. G.

D. G. Aviv, Laser Space Communications (Artech House, 2006).

Azzawi, A.

A. Azzawi, Photonics: Principles and Practices (CRC, 2006).

Biswas, A.

M. Jeganathan, A. Portillo, C. Racho, S. Lee, D. Erickson, J. DePew, S. Monacos, and A. Biswas, “Lessons learnt from the optical communications demonstrator (OCD),” Proc. SPIE 3615, 23-30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Casey, W. L.

S. G. Lambert and W. L. Casey, Laser Communications in Space (Artech House, 1995).

Chen, C.

C. Chen and J. R. Lesh, “Overview of the optical communications demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 2123, 85-95 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. C.

D. Russell, H. Ansari, and C. C. Chen, “Lasercom pointing, acquisition, and tracking control using a CCD-based tracker,” Proc. SPIE 2123, 294-303 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chlestil, Ch.

Ch. Chlestil, E. Leitgeb, N. P. Schmitt, S. S. Muhammad, K. Zettl, and W. Rehm, “Reliable optical wireless links within UAV swarms,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2006), pp. 39-42.

DePew, J.

M. Jeganathan, A. Portillo, C. Racho, S. Lee, D. Erickson, J. DePew, S. Monacos, and A. Biswas, “Lessons learnt from the optical communications demonstrator (OCD),” Proc. SPIE 3615, 23-30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Doucet, M. A.

D. L. Panak and M. A. Doucet, “Fiber coupled transceivers in point-to-point and point-to-multipoint optical wireless systems,” Proc. SPIE 4530, 7-17 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, D.

M. Jeganathan, A. Portillo, C. Racho, S. Lee, D. Erickson, J. DePew, S. Monacos, and A. Biswas, “Lessons learnt from the optical communications demonstrator (OCD),” Proc. SPIE 3615, 23-30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gagliardi, R. M.

A. J. Mendez and R. M. Gagliardi, “Lasercom crosslinking for satellite clusters,” Proc. SPIE 4272, 50-59(2001).
[CrossRef]

Hemmati, H.

H. Hemmati, Deep Space Optical Communications (Wiley-Interscience, 2005).

Jeganathan, M.

M. Jeganathan, A. Portillo, C. Racho, S. Lee, D. Erickson, J. DePew, S. Monacos, and A. Biswas, “Lessons learnt from the optical communications demonstrator (OCD),” Proc. SPIE 3615, 23-30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kalmar, A.

W. Leeb, A. Kalmar, K. Kudielka, and P. J. Winzer, “Optical terminals for microsatellite swarms,” Proc. SPIE 4635, 202-214 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kohlhepp, K.

R. G. Zenick and K. Kohlhepp, “GPS micro navigation and communication system for clusters of micro and nanosatellites,” in Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2001).

Kudielka, K.

W. Leeb, A. Kalmar, K. Kudielka, and P. J. Winzer, “Optical terminals for microsatellite swarms,” Proc. SPIE 4635, 202-214 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, S. G.

S. G. Lambert and W. L. Casey, Laser Communications in Space (Artech House, 1995).

Lee, S.

M. Jeganathan, A. Portillo, C. Racho, S. Lee, D. Erickson, J. DePew, S. Monacos, and A. Biswas, “Lessons learnt from the optical communications demonstrator (OCD),” Proc. SPIE 3615, 23-30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leeb, W.

W. Leeb, A. Kalmar, K. Kudielka, and P. J. Winzer, “Optical terminals for microsatellite swarms,” Proc. SPIE 4635, 202-214 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, E.

E. Leitgeb, K. Zettl, S. S. Muhammad, N. Schmitt, and W. Rehm, “Investigation in free space optical communication links between unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs),” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 152-155.

Ch. Chlestil, E. Leitgeb, N. P. Schmitt, S. S. Muhammad, K. Zettl, and W. Rehm, “Reliable optical wireless links within UAV swarms,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2006), pp. 39-42.

Lesh, J. R.

C. Chen and J. R. Lesh, “Overview of the optical communications demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 2123, 85-95 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, “Research on application of several tracking detectors in APT system,” Proc. SPIE 6027, 60272S (2006).

Mendez, A. J.

A. J. Mendez and R. M. Gagliardi, “Lasercom crosslinking for satellite clusters,” Proc. SPIE 4272, 50-59(2001).
[CrossRef]

Monacos, S.

M. Jeganathan, A. Portillo, C. Racho, S. Lee, D. Erickson, J. DePew, S. Monacos, and A. Biswas, “Lessons learnt from the optical communications demonstrator (OCD),” Proc. SPIE 3615, 23-30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Muhammad, S. S.

E. Leitgeb, K. Zettl, S. S. Muhammad, N. Schmitt, and W. Rehm, “Investigation in free space optical communication links between unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs),” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 152-155.

Ch. Chlestil, E. Leitgeb, N. P. Schmitt, S. S. Muhammad, K. Zettl, and W. Rehm, “Reliable optical wireless links within UAV swarms,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2006), pp. 39-42.

Panak, D. L.

D. L. Panak and M. A. Doucet, “Fiber coupled transceivers in point-to-point and point-to-multipoint optical wireless systems,” Proc. SPIE 4530, 7-17 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Portillo, A.

M. Jeganathan, A. Portillo, C. Racho, S. Lee, D. Erickson, J. DePew, S. Monacos, and A. Biswas, “Lessons learnt from the optical communications demonstrator (OCD),” Proc. SPIE 3615, 23-30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Racho, C.

M. Jeganathan, A. Portillo, C. Racho, S. Lee, D. Erickson, J. DePew, S. Monacos, and A. Biswas, “Lessons learnt from the optical communications demonstrator (OCD),” Proc. SPIE 3615, 23-30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rehm, W.

E. Leitgeb, K. Zettl, S. S. Muhammad, N. Schmitt, and W. Rehm, “Investigation in free space optical communication links between unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs),” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 152-155.

Ch. Chlestil, E. Leitgeb, N. P. Schmitt, S. S. Muhammad, K. Zettl, and W. Rehm, “Reliable optical wireless links within UAV swarms,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2006), pp. 39-42.

Riedl, M. J.

M. J. Riedl, Optical Design Fundamentals for Infrared Systems (SPIE, 2001).

Rubin, I.

P. Vincent and I. Rubin, “A swarm-assisted integrated communication and sensing network,” Proc. SPIE 5441, 48-60 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ruddock, R. C.

R. C. Ruddock and C. H. Walter, “Luneberg lenses for space communications,” IRE Trans. Space Electron. Telem. 8, 31-38(1962).

Russell, D.

D. Russell, H. Ansari, and C. C. Chen, “Lasercom pointing, acquisition, and tracking control using a CCD-based tracker,” Proc. SPIE 2123, 294-303 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, N.

E. Leitgeb, K. Zettl, S. S. Muhammad, N. Schmitt, and W. Rehm, “Investigation in free space optical communication links between unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs),” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 152-155.

Schmitt, N. P.

Ch. Chlestil, E. Leitgeb, N. P. Schmitt, S. S. Muhammad, K. Zettl, and W. Rehm, “Reliable optical wireless links within UAV swarms,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2006), pp. 39-42.

Vincent, P.

P. Vincent and I. Rubin, “A swarm-assisted integrated communication and sensing network,” Proc. SPIE 5441, 48-60 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Walter, C. H.

R. C. Ruddock and C. H. Walter, “Luneberg lenses for space communications,” IRE Trans. Space Electron. Telem. 8, 31-38(1962).

Winzer, P. J.

W. Leeb, A. Kalmar, K. Kudielka, and P. J. Winzer, “Optical terminals for microsatellite swarms,” Proc. SPIE 4635, 202-214 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zenick, R. G.

R. G. Zenick and K. Kohlhepp, “GPS micro navigation and communication system for clusters of micro and nanosatellites,” in Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2001).

Zettl, K.

E. Leitgeb, K. Zettl, S. S. Muhammad, N. Schmitt, and W. Rehm, “Investigation in free space optical communication links between unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs),” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 152-155.

Ch. Chlestil, E. Leitgeb, N. P. Schmitt, S. S. Muhammad, K. Zettl, and W. Rehm, “Reliable optical wireless links within UAV swarms,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2006), pp. 39-42.

IRE Trans. Space Electron. Telem.

R. C. Ruddock and C. H. Walter, “Luneberg lenses for space communications,” IRE Trans. Space Electron. Telem. 8, 31-38(1962).

Proc. SPIE

D. L. Panak and M. A. Doucet, “Fiber coupled transceivers in point-to-point and point-to-multipoint optical wireless systems,” Proc. SPIE 4530, 7-17 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Jeganathan, A. Portillo, C. Racho, S. Lee, D. Erickson, J. DePew, S. Monacos, and A. Biswas, “Lessons learnt from the optical communications demonstrator (OCD),” Proc. SPIE 3615, 23-30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, “Research on application of several tracking detectors in APT system,” Proc. SPIE 6027, 60272S (2006).

D. Russell, H. Ansari, and C. C. Chen, “Lasercom pointing, acquisition, and tracking control using a CCD-based tracker,” Proc. SPIE 2123, 294-303 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen and J. R. Lesh, “Overview of the optical communications demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 2123, 85-95 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Vincent and I. Rubin, “A swarm-assisted integrated communication and sensing network,” Proc. SPIE 5441, 48-60 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Leeb, A. Kalmar, K. Kudielka, and P. J. Winzer, “Optical terminals for microsatellite swarms,” Proc. SPIE 4635, 202-214 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Mendez and R. M. Gagliardi, “Lasercom crosslinking for satellite clusters,” Proc. SPIE 4272, 50-59(2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

Ch. Chlestil, E. Leitgeb, N. P. Schmitt, S. S. Muhammad, K. Zettl, and W. Rehm, “Reliable optical wireless links within UAV swarms,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2006), pp. 39-42.

E. Leitgeb, K. Zettl, S. S. Muhammad, N. Schmitt, and W. Rehm, “Investigation in free space optical communication links between unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs),” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 152-155.

R. G. Zenick and K. Kohlhepp, “GPS micro navigation and communication system for clusters of micro and nanosatellites,” in Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2001).

S. G. Lambert and W. L. Casey, Laser Communications in Space (Artech House, 1995).

H. Hemmati, Deep Space Optical Communications (Wiley-Interscience, 2005).

D. G. Aviv, Laser Space Communications (Artech House, 2006).

A. Azzawi, Photonics: Principles and Practices (CRC, 2006).

M. J. Riedl, Optical Design Fundamentals for Infrared Systems (SPIE, 2001).

ZEMAX Development Corporation, “ZEMAX: software for optical system design,” http://www.zemax.com/.

Thorlabs, “Bare optical fibers and patch cables,” http://www.thorlabs.com/navigation.cfm?Guide_ID=26.

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