Abstract

The optical properties of YAG:Ce phosphor were measured by a double-integrating-sphere system and calculated by Mie theory and Monte Carlo ray tracing to provide precise optical characterizations of YAG:Ce phosphor for white light-emitting diode (LED) packaging design. Measurement results showed that the phosphor presents strong absorption for blue light, high reflection for yellow light, and an isotropic emission pattern of converted light. The conversion efficiency and quantum efficiency for the saturated phosphor are around 70% and 87%, respectively. Based on the measurement results, the absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor of the phosphor calculated by Mie theory were compared with those calculated by ray-tracing simulation to modify Mie theory to find a reasonable method that can easily obtain the optical constants of YAG:Ce phosphor. Comparisons revealed that Mie theory can predict the variation of the optical constants of phosphor, but the absorption and scattering cross sections should be multiplied with two fitting parameters. The fitting pa rameters have been given in this study and can be obtained by testing packaged LEDs with different phosphor concentrations.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (3)

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Status and prospect for phosphor-based white light-emitting diodes packaging,” Front. Optoelectron. China 2, 119-140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of phosphor's location for high-power light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9, 65-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, P. F. Gu, and S. Z. Jin, “Enhancement of flip-chip white light-emitting diodes with a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 34, 301-303 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (8)

N. T. Tran and F. G. Shi, “Studies of phosphor concentration and thickness for phosphor-based white light-emitting-diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 3556-3559 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim and E. F. Schubert, “Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting,” Opt. Express 16, 21835-21842 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, K. Sakuma, and N. Kimura, “White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using (oxy)nitride phosphors,” J. Phys. D 41, 144013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Zachau, D. Becker, D. Berben, T. Fiedler, F. Jermann, and F. Zwaschka, “Phosphors for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691010 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 739-741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2027-2029(2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kucera, P. Hasa, and J. Hakenov, “Optical and magneto-optical properties of Ce: YAG,” J. Alloys Compd. 451, 146-148 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, J. A. Mares, A. Beitlerov, A. Vedda, K. Nejezchleb, K. Blazek, and C. D'Ambrosio, “Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG:Ce single crystal and optical ceramics,” J. Lumin. 126, 77-80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Mares, A. Beitlerova, M. Nikl, N. Solovieva, K. Nitsch, M. Kucera, M. Kubova, V. Gorbenko, and Y. Zorenko, “Scintillation and optical properties of YAG:Ce films grown by liquid phase epitaxy,” Radiat. Meas. 42, 533-536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Jonasz and G. R. Fournier, Light Scattering by Particles in Water (Elsevier, 2007), pp. 87-130.
[CrossRef]

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “ELiXIR-solid-state luminaire with enhanced light extraction by internal reflection,” J. Display Technol. 3, 155-159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

Y. Zhu, N. Narendran, and Y. Gu, “Investigation of the optical properties of YAG:Ce phosphor,” Proc. SPIE 6337, 63370S(2006).
[CrossRef]

D.-Y. Kang, E. Wu, and D.-M. Wang, “Modeling white light-emitting diodes with phosphor layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

N. Narendran, F. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi 202, R60-R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light source getting smart,” Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wu, X. Zhang, C. Guo, J. Xu, M. Wu, and Q. Su, “Three-band white light from InGaN-based blue LED chip precoated with green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1160-1162 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Hoppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi 202, 1727-1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

G. Sharma, Digital Color Imaging Handbook (CRC, 2003).

G. J. Zhao, X. H. Zeng, J. Xu, S. M. Zhou, and Y. Z. Zhou, “Temperature gradient technique (TGT) growth and characterizations of large-sized Ce-doped YAG scintillation crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi A 199, 355-359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, “High-power phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes based on III-nitrides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 339-345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310-320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. G. Volz, Industrial Color Testing: Fundamentals and Techniques (Wiley-VCH, 2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, and L. D. Travis, Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Applications (Academic, 2000).

M. K. Gunde and Z. C. Orel, “Absorption and scattering of light by pigment particles in solar-absorbing paints,” Appl. Opt. 39, 622-628 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, 1999).

A. R. Jones, “Light scattering for particle characterization,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 25, 1-53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Yaroslavsky, I. V. Yaroslavsky, T. Goldbach, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, “Influence of the scattering phase function approximation on the optical properties of blood determined from the integrating sphere measurements,” J Biomed. Opt. 4, 47-53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Kaczmarek, G. Domianiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, J. Kisielewski, and J. Wojtkowska, “Changes in optical properties of Ce:YAG crystals under annealing and irradiation processing,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34, 1031-1036 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

S. Nakamura, S. Pearton, and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode: GaN Based Light Emitters and Lasers, 2nd ed. (Springer, 1997), pp. 215-230.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, R. A. Kahn, and R. A. West, “Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16831-16847 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 417-418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

1989 (1)

1983 (1)

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983), pp. 57-129.

Allen, S. C.

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “ELiXIR-solid-state luminaire with enhanced light extraction by internal reflection,” J. Display Technol. 3, 155-159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Becker, D.

M. Zachau, D. Becker, D. Berben, T. Fiedler, F. Jermann, and F. Zwaschka, “Phosphors for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691010 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beek, J. F.

Beitlerov, A.

E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, J. A. Mares, A. Beitlerov, A. Vedda, K. Nejezchleb, K. Blazek, and C. D'Ambrosio, “Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG:Ce single crystal and optical ceramics,” J. Lumin. 126, 77-80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beitlerova, A.

J. A. Mares, A. Beitlerova, M. Nikl, N. Solovieva, K. Nitsch, M. Kucera, M. Kubova, V. Gorbenko, and Y. Zorenko, “Scintillation and optical properties of YAG:Ce films grown by liquid phase epitaxy,” Radiat. Meas. 42, 533-536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Berben, D.

M. Zachau, D. Becker, D. Berben, T. Fiedler, F. Jermann, and F. Zwaschka, “Phosphors for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691010 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, J. C.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310-320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blazek, K.

E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, J. A. Mares, A. Beitlerov, A. Vedda, K. Nejezchleb, K. Blazek, and C. D'Ambrosio, “Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG:Ce single crystal and optical ceramics,” J. Lumin. 126, 77-80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983), pp. 57-129.

Cho, J.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Collins, D.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310-320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

D'Ambrosio, C.

E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, J. A. Mares, A. Beitlerov, A. Vedda, K. Nejezchleb, K. Blazek, and C. D'Ambrosio, “Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG:Ce single crystal and optical ceramics,” J. Lumin. 126, 77-80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Domianiak-Dzik, G.

S. M. Kaczmarek, G. Domianiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, J. Kisielewski, and J. Wojtkowska, “Changes in optical properties of Ce:YAG crystals under annealing and irradiation processing,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34, 1031-1036 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fasol, G.

S. Nakamura, S. Pearton, and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode: GaN Based Light Emitters and Lasers, 2nd ed. (Springer, 1997), pp. 215-230.

Fiedler, T.

M. Zachau, D. Becker, D. Berben, T. Fiedler, F. Jermann, and F. Zwaschka, “Phosphors for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691010 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, R. M.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310-320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, G. R.

M. Jonasz and G. R. Fournier, Light Scattering by Particles in Water (Elsevier, 2007), pp. 87-130.
[CrossRef]

Freyssinier-Nova, J. P.

N. Narendran, F. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi 202, R60-R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goldbach, T.

A. N. Yaroslavsky, I. V. Yaroslavsky, T. Goldbach, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, “Influence of the scattering phase function approximation on the optical properties of blood determined from the integrating sphere measurements,” J Biomed. Opt. 4, 47-53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gorbenko, V.

J. A. Mares, A. Beitlerova, M. Nikl, N. Solovieva, K. Nitsch, M. Kucera, M. Kubova, V. Gorbenko, and Y. Zorenko, “Scintillation and optical properties of YAG:Ce films grown by liquid phase epitaxy,” Radiat. Meas. 42, 533-536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gu, F.

N. Narendran, F. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi 202, R60-R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gu, P. F.

Gu, Y.

Y. Zhu, N. Narendran, and Y. Gu, “Investigation of the optical properties of YAG:Ce phosphor,” Proc. SPIE 6337, 63370S(2006).
[CrossRef]

Gunde, M. K.

Guo, C.

H. Wu, X. Zhang, C. Guo, J. Xu, M. Wu, and Q. Su, “Three-band white light from InGaN-based blue LED chip precoated with green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1160-1162 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hakenov, J.

M. Kucera, P. Hasa, and J. Hakenov, “Optical and magneto-optical properties of Ce: YAG,” J. Alloys Compd. 451, 146-148 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harbers, G.

Hartmann, P.

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 739-741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hasa, P.

M. Kucera, P. Hasa, and J. Hakenov, “Optical and magneto-optical properties of Ce: YAG,” J. Alloys Compd. 451, 146-148 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hembree, D. M.

Hirosaki, N.

Holcomb, M. O.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310-320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hoppe, H. A.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Hoppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi 202, 1727-1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hovenier, J. W.

M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, and D. W. Mackowski, “Singe scattering by a small volume element,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 71-87 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, and L. D. Travis, Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Applications (Academic, 2000).

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983), pp. 57-129.

Ishimaru, A.

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, 1999).

Jermann, F.

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J. K. Kim and E. F. Schubert, “Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting,” Opt. Express 16, 21835-21842 (2008).
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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measurement platform of YAG:Ce phosphor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Excitation and emission spectra of YAG:Ce phosphor, and the spectra of blue LED and yellow LED used in this study.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measurement results of the reflectance and transmittance of YAG:Ce phosphor samples for (a) blue light from blue LED, (b) yellow light from yellow LED, and (c) converted light from the phosphor.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Emission and conversion properties of YAG:Ce phosphor.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Particle size distribution data and the fitted curves of YAG:Ce phosphor. Inset is a SEM photograph of YAG:Ce phosphor.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Mass distribution curve of unit YAG:Ce phosphor.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Absorption and scattering cross sections of YAG:Ce phosphor for blue light by Mie theoretical calculation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Absorption and scattering coefficients of YAG:Ce phosphor for blue light by Mie theoretical calculation and ray-tracing simulation.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Absorption and scattering cross sections of YAG:Ce phosphor for yellow light by Mie theoretical calculation.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Absorption and scattering coefficients of YAG:Ce phosphor for yellow light by Mie theoretical calculation and ray-tracing simulation.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Anisotropy factors of YAG:Ce phosphor for (a) single particle scattering and (b) volume scattering by Mie theoretical calculation. Solid curves in (a) are the results for blue light and dashed curves are the results for yellow light.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Ray-tracing results of anisotropy factor of YAG:Ce phosphor by ray-tracing simulation.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Comparisons of reduced scattering coefficients between ray-tracing results and Mie theoretical results. Solid and dashed curves are the results for blue light and yellow light, respectively.

Equations (29)

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f s ( r ) = ε s σ 1 2 π exp ( ( r s μ 1 ) 2 2 σ 1 2 ) ,
f phos ( r ) = ε phos r phos σ 2 2 π exp ( ( ln r phos ln μ 2 ) 2 2 σ 2 2 ) ,
f ( r ) = f s ( r ) + f phos ( r ) .
F ( r ) = f ( r ) d r .
μ abs ( λ ) = N ( r ) C abs ( λ , r ) d r ,
μ sca ( λ ) = N ( r ) C sca ( λ , r ) d r ,
g ( λ ) = 2 π 1 1 p ( θ , λ , r ) f ( r ) cos θ d cos θ d r ,
N ( r ) = N s ( r ) + N phos ( r ) = K N f ( r ) .
M ( r ) = ρ V ( r ) f ( r ) = 4 3 π r 3 [ ρ s f s ( r ) + ρ phos f phos ( r ) ] ,
K N = c M ( r ) d r .
C sca = 2 π k 2 0 ( 2 n + 1 ) ( | a n | 2 + | b n | 2 ) ,
C ext = 2 π k 2 1 ( 2 n + 1 ) Re ( a n + b n ) ,
C abs = C ext C sca ,
a n = m ψ n ( m x ) ψ n ( x ) ψ n ( m x ) ψ n ( x ) m ψ n ( m x ) ξ n ( x ) ψ n ( m x ) ξ n ( x ) ,
b n = ψ n ( m x ) ψ n ( x ) m ψ n ( m x ) ψ n ( x ) ψ n ( m x ) ξ n ( x ) m ψ n ( m x ) ξ n ( x ) ,
n phos = n phos i n phos ,
m s = n s / n sil , m phos = n phos / n sil .
n = 2.08745 + 1.2081 λ 2 / ( λ 2 0.02119 ) + 17.2049 λ 2 / ( λ 2 1404.45 ) .
n = α / 2 k ,
I = I 0 exp ( μ ext z ) ,
μ ext = μ abs + μ sca ( 1 g ) .
p ( θ , λ , r ) = 4 π β ( θ , λ , r ) k 2 C sca ( λ , r ) ,
β ( θ ) = ( 1 / 2 ) [ | S 1 ( θ ) | 2 + | S 2 ( θ ) | 2 ] ,
S 1 ( θ ) = n = 1 2 n + 1 n ( n + 1 ) [ a n P n 1 ( cos θ ) sin θ + b n d P n 1 ( cos θ ) d θ ] ,
S 2 ( θ ) = n = 1 2 n + 1 n ( n + 1 ) [ b n P n 1 ( cos θ ) sin θ + a n d P n 1 ( cos θ ) d θ ] ,
p ( θ ) = 1 g 2 4 π ( 1 2 g cos θ + g 2 ) 3 / 2 ,
C abs = k abs C abs , C sca = k sca C sca .
μ abs = k abs μ abs , μ abs = k sca μ sca , g = g / k sca .
δ sca = k sca μ sca ( 1 g / k sca ) = μ sca ( k sca g ) ,

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