Abstract

We describe the development of passive millimeter wave imaging sensors, operating at W band, that are currently being manufactured for commercial markets using standard automated assembly processes. A description of HRL Laboratories’ millimeter wave imaging chipset is presented, focusing on parameters that limit sensor performance, such as detector 1/f noise, low noise amplifier noise figure, and gain drift. We conclude with a discussion of ongoing research and development in passive millimeter wave imaging and performance improvements that can be expected for future imaging sensors.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. V. Tryon, “Millimeter wave case study of operational deployments: retail, airport, military, courthouse, and customs,” Proc. SPIE 6948, 694802 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. D. Williams and N. M. Vaidya, “A compact, low cost, passive mmW security scanner,” Proc. SPIE 5789, 109-116 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. A. Martin, “Rapid passive mmW security screening portal,” Proc. SPIE 6948, 6948J1 (2008).
  4. A. H. Lettington, D. Dunn, N. E. Alexander, A. Wabby, B. N. Lyons, R. Doyle, J. Walshe, M. Attia, and I. M. Blankson, “Design and development of a high performance passive millimeter wave imager for aeronautical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5410, 210-218 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Appleby, P. Coward, and J. N. Sanders-Reed, “Evaluation of a passive millimeter wave (PMMW) imager for wire detection in degraded visual conditions,” Proc. SPIE 7309, 7309A1(2009).
  6. C. A. Martin and V. G. Kolinko, “Improved passive millimeter wave imaging from a helicopter platform,” Proc. SPIE 5409, 8-14 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. H. Lettington, Q. H. Hong, and D. G. Gleed, “Removing line patterns from infrared and passive millimeter wave images,” Proc. SPIE 2298, 24-29 (1994).
  8. C. Mann, “First demonstration of a vehicle mounted 250 GHz real time passive imager,” Proc. SPIE 7311, 7311Q1 (2009).
  9. D. L. McMakin, D. M. Sheen, H. D. Collins, T. E. Hall, and R. H. Severtsen, “Wideband millimeter wave holographic surveillance systems,” Proc. SPIE 2511, 131-142 (1995),
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. J. Lynch, H. P. Moyer, J. H. Schaffner, Y. Royter, M. Sokolich, B. Hughes, Y. J. Yoon, and J. N. Schulman, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging module with preamplified zero-bias detection,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 1592-1600 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. H. Schaffner, J. J. Lynch, K. V. Guinn, J. N. Schulman, H. P. Moyer, R. Bowen, and M. Musni, “A wideband radiometer module for an unamplified direct detection scalable W-band imaging arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6948, 694807 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Kazemi, C. Nguyen, B. Brar, G. Rebeiz, G. Nagy, L. Tran, A. Young, and E. R. Brown, “Low cost modular integrated horn antenna array using heterojunction barrier diode detectors,” paper presented the International Microwave Symposium of the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 10-15 June 2008.
  13. M. Tiuri, “Radio astronomy receivers,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 12, 930-938 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Appleby, R. N. Anderton, S. Price, N. A. Salmon, G. N. Sinclair, J. R. Borrill, P. R. Coward, P. Papakosta, A. H. Lettington, and D. A. Robertson, “Compact real time (video rate) passive millimeter wave imager,” Proc. SPIE 3703, 13-20 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. L. Hesler and T. W. Crowe, “Responsivity and noise measurements of zero-bias Schottky detectors,” paper presented at the 18th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, Pasadena, California, USA, March 2007.
  16. J. N. Schulman and D. H. Chow, “Sb-heterostructure interband backward diodes,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 21, 353-355 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. N. Su, Z. Zhang, J. N. Schulman, and P. Fay, “Temperature dependence of high frequency and noise performance of Sb-heterostructure millimeter wave detectors,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 28, 336-339 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. G. Case, C. Pobanz, S. Weinreb, M. Matloubian, M. Hu, M. Wetzel, P. Janke, and C. Ngo, “Low cost, high performance W band LNA MMICs for millimeter wave imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4032, 89-96 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. X. B. Mei, C. H. Lin, L. J. Lee, Y. M. Kim, P. H. Liu, M. Lange, A. Cavus, R. To, M. Nishimoto, and R. Lai, “A W band InGaAs/InAlAs/InP HEMT low noise amplifier MMIC with 2.5 dB noise figure and 9.4 dB gain at 94 GHz,” paper presented at the 2008 IEEE 20th Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM'08), Versailles, France, 25-29 May 2008.

2009 (2)

R. Appleby, P. Coward, and J. N. Sanders-Reed, “Evaluation of a passive millimeter wave (PMMW) imager for wire detection in degraded visual conditions,” Proc. SPIE 7309, 7309A1(2009).

C. Mann, “First demonstration of a vehicle mounted 250 GHz real time passive imager,” Proc. SPIE 7311, 7311Q1 (2009).

2008 (4)

G. V. Tryon, “Millimeter wave case study of operational deployments: retail, airport, military, courthouse, and customs,” Proc. SPIE 6948, 694802 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Martin, “Rapid passive mmW security screening portal,” Proc. SPIE 6948, 6948J1 (2008).

J. J. Lynch, H. P. Moyer, J. H. Schaffner, Y. Royter, M. Sokolich, B. Hughes, Y. J. Yoon, and J. N. Schulman, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging module with preamplified zero-bias detection,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 1592-1600 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Schaffner, J. J. Lynch, K. V. Guinn, J. N. Schulman, H. P. Moyer, R. Bowen, and M. Musni, “A wideband radiometer module for an unamplified direct detection scalable W-band imaging arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6948, 694807 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

N. Su, Z. Zhang, J. N. Schulman, and P. Fay, “Temperature dependence of high frequency and noise performance of Sb-heterostructure millimeter wave detectors,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 28, 336-339 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

T. D. Williams and N. M. Vaidya, “A compact, low cost, passive mmW security scanner,” Proc. SPIE 5789, 109-116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. H. Lettington, D. Dunn, N. E. Alexander, A. Wabby, B. N. Lyons, R. Doyle, J. Walshe, M. Attia, and I. M. Blankson, “Design and development of a high performance passive millimeter wave imager for aeronautical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5410, 210-218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Martin and V. G. Kolinko, “Improved passive millimeter wave imaging from a helicopter platform,” Proc. SPIE 5409, 8-14 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. G. Case, C. Pobanz, S. Weinreb, M. Matloubian, M. Hu, M. Wetzel, P. Janke, and C. Ngo, “Low cost, high performance W band LNA MMICs for millimeter wave imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4032, 89-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Schulman and D. H. Chow, “Sb-heterostructure interband backward diodes,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 21, 353-355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. Appleby, R. N. Anderton, S. Price, N. A. Salmon, G. N. Sinclair, J. R. Borrill, P. R. Coward, P. Papakosta, A. H. Lettington, and D. A. Robertson, “Compact real time (video rate) passive millimeter wave imager,” Proc. SPIE 3703, 13-20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. L. McMakin, D. M. Sheen, H. D. Collins, T. E. Hall, and R. H. Severtsen, “Wideband millimeter wave holographic surveillance systems,” Proc. SPIE 2511, 131-142 (1995),
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

A. H. Lettington, Q. H. Hong, and D. G. Gleed, “Removing line patterns from infrared and passive millimeter wave images,” Proc. SPIE 2298, 24-29 (1994).

1964 (1)

M. Tiuri, “Radio astronomy receivers,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 12, 930-938 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, N. E.

A. H. Lettington, D. Dunn, N. E. Alexander, A. Wabby, B. N. Lyons, R. Doyle, J. Walshe, M. Attia, and I. M. Blankson, “Design and development of a high performance passive millimeter wave imager for aeronautical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5410, 210-218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anderton, R. N.

R. Appleby, R. N. Anderton, S. Price, N. A. Salmon, G. N. Sinclair, J. R. Borrill, P. R. Coward, P. Papakosta, A. H. Lettington, and D. A. Robertson, “Compact real time (video rate) passive millimeter wave imager,” Proc. SPIE 3703, 13-20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appleby, R.

R. Appleby, P. Coward, and J. N. Sanders-Reed, “Evaluation of a passive millimeter wave (PMMW) imager for wire detection in degraded visual conditions,” Proc. SPIE 7309, 7309A1(2009).

R. Appleby, R. N. Anderton, S. Price, N. A. Salmon, G. N. Sinclair, J. R. Borrill, P. R. Coward, P. Papakosta, A. H. Lettington, and D. A. Robertson, “Compact real time (video rate) passive millimeter wave imager,” Proc. SPIE 3703, 13-20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Attia, M.

A. H. Lettington, D. Dunn, N. E. Alexander, A. Wabby, B. N. Lyons, R. Doyle, J. Walshe, M. Attia, and I. M. Blankson, “Design and development of a high performance passive millimeter wave imager for aeronautical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5410, 210-218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blankson, I. M.

A. H. Lettington, D. Dunn, N. E. Alexander, A. Wabby, B. N. Lyons, R. Doyle, J. Walshe, M. Attia, and I. M. Blankson, “Design and development of a high performance passive millimeter wave imager for aeronautical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5410, 210-218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Borrill, J. R.

R. Appleby, R. N. Anderton, S. Price, N. A. Salmon, G. N. Sinclair, J. R. Borrill, P. R. Coward, P. Papakosta, A. H. Lettington, and D. A. Robertson, “Compact real time (video rate) passive millimeter wave imager,” Proc. SPIE 3703, 13-20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bowen, R.

J. H. Schaffner, J. J. Lynch, K. V. Guinn, J. N. Schulman, H. P. Moyer, R. Bowen, and M. Musni, “A wideband radiometer module for an unamplified direct detection scalable W-band imaging arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6948, 694807 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brar, B.

H. Kazemi, C. Nguyen, B. Brar, G. Rebeiz, G. Nagy, L. Tran, A. Young, and E. R. Brown, “Low cost modular integrated horn antenna array using heterojunction barrier diode detectors,” paper presented the International Microwave Symposium of the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 10-15 June 2008.

Brown, E. R.

H. Kazemi, C. Nguyen, B. Brar, G. Rebeiz, G. Nagy, L. Tran, A. Young, and E. R. Brown, “Low cost modular integrated horn antenna array using heterojunction barrier diode detectors,” paper presented the International Microwave Symposium of the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 10-15 June 2008.

Case, M. G.

M. G. Case, C. Pobanz, S. Weinreb, M. Matloubian, M. Hu, M. Wetzel, P. Janke, and C. Ngo, “Low cost, high performance W band LNA MMICs for millimeter wave imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4032, 89-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cavus, A.

X. B. Mei, C. H. Lin, L. J. Lee, Y. M. Kim, P. H. Liu, M. Lange, A. Cavus, R. To, M. Nishimoto, and R. Lai, “A W band InGaAs/InAlAs/InP HEMT low noise amplifier MMIC with 2.5 dB noise figure and 9.4 dB gain at 94 GHz,” paper presented at the 2008 IEEE 20th Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM'08), Versailles, France, 25-29 May 2008.

Chow, D. H.

J. N. Schulman and D. H. Chow, “Sb-heterostructure interband backward diodes,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 21, 353-355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Collins, H. D.

D. L. McMakin, D. M. Sheen, H. D. Collins, T. E. Hall, and R. H. Severtsen, “Wideband millimeter wave holographic surveillance systems,” Proc. SPIE 2511, 131-142 (1995),
[CrossRef]

Coward, P.

R. Appleby, P. Coward, and J. N. Sanders-Reed, “Evaluation of a passive millimeter wave (PMMW) imager for wire detection in degraded visual conditions,” Proc. SPIE 7309, 7309A1(2009).

Coward, P. R.

R. Appleby, R. N. Anderton, S. Price, N. A. Salmon, G. N. Sinclair, J. R. Borrill, P. R. Coward, P. Papakosta, A. H. Lettington, and D. A. Robertson, “Compact real time (video rate) passive millimeter wave imager,” Proc. SPIE 3703, 13-20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Crowe, T. W.

J. L. Hesler and T. W. Crowe, “Responsivity and noise measurements of zero-bias Schottky detectors,” paper presented at the 18th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, Pasadena, California, USA, March 2007.

Doyle, R.

A. H. Lettington, D. Dunn, N. E. Alexander, A. Wabby, B. N. Lyons, R. Doyle, J. Walshe, M. Attia, and I. M. Blankson, “Design and development of a high performance passive millimeter wave imager for aeronautical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5410, 210-218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, D.

A. H. Lettington, D. Dunn, N. E. Alexander, A. Wabby, B. N. Lyons, R. Doyle, J. Walshe, M. Attia, and I. M. Blankson, “Design and development of a high performance passive millimeter wave imager for aeronautical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5410, 210-218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fay, P.

N. Su, Z. Zhang, J. N. Schulman, and P. Fay, “Temperature dependence of high frequency and noise performance of Sb-heterostructure millimeter wave detectors,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 28, 336-339 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gleed, D. G.

A. H. Lettington, Q. H. Hong, and D. G. Gleed, “Removing line patterns from infrared and passive millimeter wave images,” Proc. SPIE 2298, 24-29 (1994).

Guinn, K. V.

J. H. Schaffner, J. J. Lynch, K. V. Guinn, J. N. Schulman, H. P. Moyer, R. Bowen, and M. Musni, “A wideband radiometer module for an unamplified direct detection scalable W-band imaging arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6948, 694807 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hall, T. E.

D. L. McMakin, D. M. Sheen, H. D. Collins, T. E. Hall, and R. H. Severtsen, “Wideband millimeter wave holographic surveillance systems,” Proc. SPIE 2511, 131-142 (1995),
[CrossRef]

Hesler, J. L.

J. L. Hesler and T. W. Crowe, “Responsivity and noise measurements of zero-bias Schottky detectors,” paper presented at the 18th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, Pasadena, California, USA, March 2007.

Hong, Q. H.

A. H. Lettington, Q. H. Hong, and D. G. Gleed, “Removing line patterns from infrared and passive millimeter wave images,” Proc. SPIE 2298, 24-29 (1994).

Hu, M.

M. G. Case, C. Pobanz, S. Weinreb, M. Matloubian, M. Hu, M. Wetzel, P. Janke, and C. Ngo, “Low cost, high performance W band LNA MMICs for millimeter wave imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4032, 89-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, B.

J. J. Lynch, H. P. Moyer, J. H. Schaffner, Y. Royter, M. Sokolich, B. Hughes, Y. J. Yoon, and J. N. Schulman, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging module with preamplified zero-bias detection,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 1592-1600 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Janke, P.

M. G. Case, C. Pobanz, S. Weinreb, M. Matloubian, M. Hu, M. Wetzel, P. Janke, and C. Ngo, “Low cost, high performance W band LNA MMICs for millimeter wave imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4032, 89-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kazemi, H.

H. Kazemi, C. Nguyen, B. Brar, G. Rebeiz, G. Nagy, L. Tran, A. Young, and E. R. Brown, “Low cost modular integrated horn antenna array using heterojunction barrier diode detectors,” paper presented the International Microwave Symposium of the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 10-15 June 2008.

Kim, Y. M.

X. B. Mei, C. H. Lin, L. J. Lee, Y. M. Kim, P. H. Liu, M. Lange, A. Cavus, R. To, M. Nishimoto, and R. Lai, “A W band InGaAs/InAlAs/InP HEMT low noise amplifier MMIC with 2.5 dB noise figure and 9.4 dB gain at 94 GHz,” paper presented at the 2008 IEEE 20th Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM'08), Versailles, France, 25-29 May 2008.

Kolinko, V. G.

C. A. Martin and V. G. Kolinko, “Improved passive millimeter wave imaging from a helicopter platform,” Proc. SPIE 5409, 8-14 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lai, R.

X. B. Mei, C. H. Lin, L. J. Lee, Y. M. Kim, P. H. Liu, M. Lange, A. Cavus, R. To, M. Nishimoto, and R. Lai, “A W band InGaAs/InAlAs/InP HEMT low noise amplifier MMIC with 2.5 dB noise figure and 9.4 dB gain at 94 GHz,” paper presented at the 2008 IEEE 20th Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM'08), Versailles, France, 25-29 May 2008.

Lange, M.

X. B. Mei, C. H. Lin, L. J. Lee, Y. M. Kim, P. H. Liu, M. Lange, A. Cavus, R. To, M. Nishimoto, and R. Lai, “A W band InGaAs/InAlAs/InP HEMT low noise amplifier MMIC with 2.5 dB noise figure and 9.4 dB gain at 94 GHz,” paper presented at the 2008 IEEE 20th Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM'08), Versailles, France, 25-29 May 2008.

Lee, L. J.

X. B. Mei, C. H. Lin, L. J. Lee, Y. M. Kim, P. H. Liu, M. Lange, A. Cavus, R. To, M. Nishimoto, and R. Lai, “A W band InGaAs/InAlAs/InP HEMT low noise amplifier MMIC with 2.5 dB noise figure and 9.4 dB gain at 94 GHz,” paper presented at the 2008 IEEE 20th Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM'08), Versailles, France, 25-29 May 2008.

Lettington, A. H.

A. H. Lettington, D. Dunn, N. E. Alexander, A. Wabby, B. N. Lyons, R. Doyle, J. Walshe, M. Attia, and I. M. Blankson, “Design and development of a high performance passive millimeter wave imager for aeronautical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5410, 210-218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Appleby, R. N. Anderton, S. Price, N. A. Salmon, G. N. Sinclair, J. R. Borrill, P. R. Coward, P. Papakosta, A. H. Lettington, and D. A. Robertson, “Compact real time (video rate) passive millimeter wave imager,” Proc. SPIE 3703, 13-20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Lettington, Q. H. Hong, and D. G. Gleed, “Removing line patterns from infrared and passive millimeter wave images,” Proc. SPIE 2298, 24-29 (1994).

Lin, C. H.

X. B. Mei, C. H. Lin, L. J. Lee, Y. M. Kim, P. H. Liu, M. Lange, A. Cavus, R. To, M. Nishimoto, and R. Lai, “A W band InGaAs/InAlAs/InP HEMT low noise amplifier MMIC with 2.5 dB noise figure and 9.4 dB gain at 94 GHz,” paper presented at the 2008 IEEE 20th Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM'08), Versailles, France, 25-29 May 2008.

Liu, P. H.

X. B. Mei, C. H. Lin, L. J. Lee, Y. M. Kim, P. H. Liu, M. Lange, A. Cavus, R. To, M. Nishimoto, and R. Lai, “A W band InGaAs/InAlAs/InP HEMT low noise amplifier MMIC with 2.5 dB noise figure and 9.4 dB gain at 94 GHz,” paper presented at the 2008 IEEE 20th Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM'08), Versailles, France, 25-29 May 2008.

Lynch, J. J.

J. J. Lynch, H. P. Moyer, J. H. Schaffner, Y. Royter, M. Sokolich, B. Hughes, Y. J. Yoon, and J. N. Schulman, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging module with preamplified zero-bias detection,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 1592-1600 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Schaffner, J. J. Lynch, K. V. Guinn, J. N. Schulman, H. P. Moyer, R. Bowen, and M. Musni, “A wideband radiometer module for an unamplified direct detection scalable W-band imaging arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6948, 694807 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lyons, B. N.

A. H. Lettington, D. Dunn, N. E. Alexander, A. Wabby, B. N. Lyons, R. Doyle, J. Walshe, M. Attia, and I. M. Blankson, “Design and development of a high performance passive millimeter wave imager for aeronautical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5410, 210-218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mann, C.

C. Mann, “First demonstration of a vehicle mounted 250 GHz real time passive imager,” Proc. SPIE 7311, 7311Q1 (2009).

Martin, C. A.

C. A. Martin, “Rapid passive mmW security screening portal,” Proc. SPIE 6948, 6948J1 (2008).

C. A. Martin and V. G. Kolinko, “Improved passive millimeter wave imaging from a helicopter platform,” Proc. SPIE 5409, 8-14 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matloubian, M.

M. G. Case, C. Pobanz, S. Weinreb, M. Matloubian, M. Hu, M. Wetzel, P. Janke, and C. Ngo, “Low cost, high performance W band LNA MMICs for millimeter wave imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4032, 89-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McMakin, D. L.

D. L. McMakin, D. M. Sheen, H. D. Collins, T. E. Hall, and R. H. Severtsen, “Wideband millimeter wave holographic surveillance systems,” Proc. SPIE 2511, 131-142 (1995),
[CrossRef]

Mei, X. B.

X. B. Mei, C. H. Lin, L. J. Lee, Y. M. Kim, P. H. Liu, M. Lange, A. Cavus, R. To, M. Nishimoto, and R. Lai, “A W band InGaAs/InAlAs/InP HEMT low noise amplifier MMIC with 2.5 dB noise figure and 9.4 dB gain at 94 GHz,” paper presented at the 2008 IEEE 20th Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM'08), Versailles, France, 25-29 May 2008.

Moyer, H. P.

J. J. Lynch, H. P. Moyer, J. H. Schaffner, Y. Royter, M. Sokolich, B. Hughes, Y. J. Yoon, and J. N. Schulman, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging module with preamplified zero-bias detection,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 1592-1600 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Schaffner, J. J. Lynch, K. V. Guinn, J. N. Schulman, H. P. Moyer, R. Bowen, and M. Musni, “A wideband radiometer module for an unamplified direct detection scalable W-band imaging arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6948, 694807 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Musni, M.

J. H. Schaffner, J. J. Lynch, K. V. Guinn, J. N. Schulman, H. P. Moyer, R. Bowen, and M. Musni, “A wideband radiometer module for an unamplified direct detection scalable W-band imaging arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6948, 694807 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nagy, G.

H. Kazemi, C. Nguyen, B. Brar, G. Rebeiz, G. Nagy, L. Tran, A. Young, and E. R. Brown, “Low cost modular integrated horn antenna array using heterojunction barrier diode detectors,” paper presented the International Microwave Symposium of the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 10-15 June 2008.

Ngo, C.

M. G. Case, C. Pobanz, S. Weinreb, M. Matloubian, M. Hu, M. Wetzel, P. Janke, and C. Ngo, “Low cost, high performance W band LNA MMICs for millimeter wave imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4032, 89-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, C.

H. Kazemi, C. Nguyen, B. Brar, G. Rebeiz, G. Nagy, L. Tran, A. Young, and E. R. Brown, “Low cost modular integrated horn antenna array using heterojunction barrier diode detectors,” paper presented the International Microwave Symposium of the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 10-15 June 2008.

Nishimoto, M.

X. B. Mei, C. H. Lin, L. J. Lee, Y. M. Kim, P. H. Liu, M. Lange, A. Cavus, R. To, M. Nishimoto, and R. Lai, “A W band InGaAs/InAlAs/InP HEMT low noise amplifier MMIC with 2.5 dB noise figure and 9.4 dB gain at 94 GHz,” paper presented at the 2008 IEEE 20th Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM'08), Versailles, France, 25-29 May 2008.

Papakosta, P.

R. Appleby, R. N. Anderton, S. Price, N. A. Salmon, G. N. Sinclair, J. R. Borrill, P. R. Coward, P. Papakosta, A. H. Lettington, and D. A. Robertson, “Compact real time (video rate) passive millimeter wave imager,” Proc. SPIE 3703, 13-20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pobanz, C.

M. G. Case, C. Pobanz, S. Weinreb, M. Matloubian, M. Hu, M. Wetzel, P. Janke, and C. Ngo, “Low cost, high performance W band LNA MMICs for millimeter wave imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4032, 89-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Price, S.

R. Appleby, R. N. Anderton, S. Price, N. A. Salmon, G. N. Sinclair, J. R. Borrill, P. R. Coward, P. Papakosta, A. H. Lettington, and D. A. Robertson, “Compact real time (video rate) passive millimeter wave imager,” Proc. SPIE 3703, 13-20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rebeiz, G.

H. Kazemi, C. Nguyen, B. Brar, G. Rebeiz, G. Nagy, L. Tran, A. Young, and E. R. Brown, “Low cost modular integrated horn antenna array using heterojunction barrier diode detectors,” paper presented the International Microwave Symposium of the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 10-15 June 2008.

Robertson, D. A.

R. Appleby, R. N. Anderton, S. Price, N. A. Salmon, G. N. Sinclair, J. R. Borrill, P. R. Coward, P. Papakosta, A. H. Lettington, and D. A. Robertson, “Compact real time (video rate) passive millimeter wave imager,” Proc. SPIE 3703, 13-20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Royter, Y.

J. J. Lynch, H. P. Moyer, J. H. Schaffner, Y. Royter, M. Sokolich, B. Hughes, Y. J. Yoon, and J. N. Schulman, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging module with preamplified zero-bias detection,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 1592-1600 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, N. A.

R. Appleby, R. N. Anderton, S. Price, N. A. Salmon, G. N. Sinclair, J. R. Borrill, P. R. Coward, P. Papakosta, A. H. Lettington, and D. A. Robertson, “Compact real time (video rate) passive millimeter wave imager,” Proc. SPIE 3703, 13-20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sanders-Reed, J. N.

R. Appleby, P. Coward, and J. N. Sanders-Reed, “Evaluation of a passive millimeter wave (PMMW) imager for wire detection in degraded visual conditions,” Proc. SPIE 7309, 7309A1(2009).

Schaffner, J. H.

J. J. Lynch, H. P. Moyer, J. H. Schaffner, Y. Royter, M. Sokolich, B. Hughes, Y. J. Yoon, and J. N. Schulman, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging module with preamplified zero-bias detection,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 1592-1600 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Schaffner, J. J. Lynch, K. V. Guinn, J. N. Schulman, H. P. Moyer, R. Bowen, and M. Musni, “A wideband radiometer module for an unamplified direct detection scalable W-band imaging arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6948, 694807 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schulman, J. N.

J. H. Schaffner, J. J. Lynch, K. V. Guinn, J. N. Schulman, H. P. Moyer, R. Bowen, and M. Musni, “A wideband radiometer module for an unamplified direct detection scalable W-band imaging arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6948, 694807 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Lynch, H. P. Moyer, J. H. Schaffner, Y. Royter, M. Sokolich, B. Hughes, Y. J. Yoon, and J. N. Schulman, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging module with preamplified zero-bias detection,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 1592-1600 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Su, Z. Zhang, J. N. Schulman, and P. Fay, “Temperature dependence of high frequency and noise performance of Sb-heterostructure millimeter wave detectors,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 28, 336-339 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Schulman and D. H. Chow, “Sb-heterostructure interband backward diodes,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 21, 353-355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Severtsen, R. H.

D. L. McMakin, D. M. Sheen, H. D. Collins, T. E. Hall, and R. H. Severtsen, “Wideband millimeter wave holographic surveillance systems,” Proc. SPIE 2511, 131-142 (1995),
[CrossRef]

Sheen, D. M.

D. L. McMakin, D. M. Sheen, H. D. Collins, T. E. Hall, and R. H. Severtsen, “Wideband millimeter wave holographic surveillance systems,” Proc. SPIE 2511, 131-142 (1995),
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, G. N.

R. Appleby, R. N. Anderton, S. Price, N. A. Salmon, G. N. Sinclair, J. R. Borrill, P. R. Coward, P. Papakosta, A. H. Lettington, and D. A. Robertson, “Compact real time (video rate) passive millimeter wave imager,” Proc. SPIE 3703, 13-20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sokolich, M.

J. J. Lynch, H. P. Moyer, J. H. Schaffner, Y. Royter, M. Sokolich, B. Hughes, Y. J. Yoon, and J. N. Schulman, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging module with preamplified zero-bias detection,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 1592-1600 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Su, N.

N. Su, Z. Zhang, J. N. Schulman, and P. Fay, “Temperature dependence of high frequency and noise performance of Sb-heterostructure millimeter wave detectors,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 28, 336-339 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tiuri, M.

M. Tiuri, “Radio astronomy receivers,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 12, 930-938 (1964).
[CrossRef]

To, R.

X. B. Mei, C. H. Lin, L. J. Lee, Y. M. Kim, P. H. Liu, M. Lange, A. Cavus, R. To, M. Nishimoto, and R. Lai, “A W band InGaAs/InAlAs/InP HEMT low noise amplifier MMIC with 2.5 dB noise figure and 9.4 dB gain at 94 GHz,” paper presented at the 2008 IEEE 20th Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM'08), Versailles, France, 25-29 May 2008.

Tran, L.

H. Kazemi, C. Nguyen, B. Brar, G. Rebeiz, G. Nagy, L. Tran, A. Young, and E. R. Brown, “Low cost modular integrated horn antenna array using heterojunction barrier diode detectors,” paper presented the International Microwave Symposium of the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 10-15 June 2008.

Tryon, G. V.

G. V. Tryon, “Millimeter wave case study of operational deployments: retail, airport, military, courthouse, and customs,” Proc. SPIE 6948, 694802 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vaidya, N. M.

T. D. Williams and N. M. Vaidya, “A compact, low cost, passive mmW security scanner,” Proc. SPIE 5789, 109-116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wabby, A.

A. H. Lettington, D. Dunn, N. E. Alexander, A. Wabby, B. N. Lyons, R. Doyle, J. Walshe, M. Attia, and I. M. Blankson, “Design and development of a high performance passive millimeter wave imager for aeronautical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5410, 210-218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Walshe, J.

A. H. Lettington, D. Dunn, N. E. Alexander, A. Wabby, B. N. Lyons, R. Doyle, J. Walshe, M. Attia, and I. M. Blankson, “Design and development of a high performance passive millimeter wave imager for aeronautical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5410, 210-218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weinreb, S.

M. G. Case, C. Pobanz, S. Weinreb, M. Matloubian, M. Hu, M. Wetzel, P. Janke, and C. Ngo, “Low cost, high performance W band LNA MMICs for millimeter wave imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4032, 89-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wetzel, M.

M. G. Case, C. Pobanz, S. Weinreb, M. Matloubian, M. Hu, M. Wetzel, P. Janke, and C. Ngo, “Low cost, high performance W band LNA MMICs for millimeter wave imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4032, 89-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Williams, T. D.

T. D. Williams and N. M. Vaidya, “A compact, low cost, passive mmW security scanner,” Proc. SPIE 5789, 109-116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, Y. J.

J. J. Lynch, H. P. Moyer, J. H. Schaffner, Y. Royter, M. Sokolich, B. Hughes, Y. J. Yoon, and J. N. Schulman, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging module with preamplified zero-bias detection,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 1592-1600 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Young, A.

H. Kazemi, C. Nguyen, B. Brar, G. Rebeiz, G. Nagy, L. Tran, A. Young, and E. R. Brown, “Low cost modular integrated horn antenna array using heterojunction barrier diode detectors,” paper presented the International Microwave Symposium of the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 10-15 June 2008.

Zhang, Z.

N. Su, Z. Zhang, J. N. Schulman, and P. Fay, “Temperature dependence of high frequency and noise performance of Sb-heterostructure millimeter wave detectors,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 28, 336-339 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron. Device Lett. (2)

J. N. Schulman and D. H. Chow, “Sb-heterostructure interband backward diodes,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 21, 353-355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Su, Z. Zhang, J. N. Schulman, and P. Fay, “Temperature dependence of high frequency and noise performance of Sb-heterostructure millimeter wave detectors,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 28, 336-339 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

M. Tiuri, “Radio astronomy receivers,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 12, 930-938 (1964).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

J. J. Lynch, H. P. Moyer, J. H. Schaffner, Y. Royter, M. Sokolich, B. Hughes, Y. J. Yoon, and J. N. Schulman, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging module with preamplified zero-bias detection,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 1592-1600 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (12)

J. H. Schaffner, J. J. Lynch, K. V. Guinn, J. N. Schulman, H. P. Moyer, R. Bowen, and M. Musni, “A wideband radiometer module for an unamplified direct detection scalable W-band imaging arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6948, 694807 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Appleby, R. N. Anderton, S. Price, N. A. Salmon, G. N. Sinclair, J. R. Borrill, P. R. Coward, P. Papakosta, A. H. Lettington, and D. A. Robertson, “Compact real time (video rate) passive millimeter wave imager,” Proc. SPIE 3703, 13-20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Case, C. Pobanz, S. Weinreb, M. Matloubian, M. Hu, M. Wetzel, P. Janke, and C. Ngo, “Low cost, high performance W band LNA MMICs for millimeter wave imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4032, 89-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Tryon, “Millimeter wave case study of operational deployments: retail, airport, military, courthouse, and customs,” Proc. SPIE 6948, 694802 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Williams and N. M. Vaidya, “A compact, low cost, passive mmW security scanner,” Proc. SPIE 5789, 109-116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Martin, “Rapid passive mmW security screening portal,” Proc. SPIE 6948, 6948J1 (2008).

A. H. Lettington, D. Dunn, N. E. Alexander, A. Wabby, B. N. Lyons, R. Doyle, J. Walshe, M. Attia, and I. M. Blankson, “Design and development of a high performance passive millimeter wave imager for aeronautical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5410, 210-218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Appleby, P. Coward, and J. N. Sanders-Reed, “Evaluation of a passive millimeter wave (PMMW) imager for wire detection in degraded visual conditions,” Proc. SPIE 7309, 7309A1(2009).

C. A. Martin and V. G. Kolinko, “Improved passive millimeter wave imaging from a helicopter platform,” Proc. SPIE 5409, 8-14 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Lettington, Q. H. Hong, and D. G. Gleed, “Removing line patterns from infrared and passive millimeter wave images,” Proc. SPIE 2298, 24-29 (1994).

C. Mann, “First demonstration of a vehicle mounted 250 GHz real time passive imager,” Proc. SPIE 7311, 7311Q1 (2009).

D. L. McMakin, D. M. Sheen, H. D. Collins, T. E. Hall, and R. H. Severtsen, “Wideband millimeter wave holographic surveillance systems,” Proc. SPIE 2511, 131-142 (1995),
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

X. B. Mei, C. H. Lin, L. J. Lee, Y. M. Kim, P. H. Liu, M. Lange, A. Cavus, R. To, M. Nishimoto, and R. Lai, “A W band InGaAs/InAlAs/InP HEMT low noise amplifier MMIC with 2.5 dB noise figure and 9.4 dB gain at 94 GHz,” paper presented at the 2008 IEEE 20th Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM'08), Versailles, France, 25-29 May 2008.

J. L. Hesler and T. W. Crowe, “Responsivity and noise measurements of zero-bias Schottky detectors,” paper presented at the 18th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, Pasadena, California, USA, March 2007.

H. Kazemi, C. Nguyen, B. Brar, G. Rebeiz, G. Nagy, L. Tran, A. Young, and E. R. Brown, “Low cost modular integrated horn antenna array using heterojunction barrier diode detectors,” paper presented the International Microwave Symposium of the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 10-15 June 2008.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of radiometer. Simplicity is key to achieving low cost.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy band diagram of the Sb-based backward tunnel diode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Photograph of the backward tunnel diode detector MMIC. (b) Plot of measured responsivity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Photograph of five stage LNA MMIC. (b) Plot of gain versus frequency.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plot of normalized output voltage versus time for two different sensors. The variation is due to drift in LNA gain. The data were taken following an approximately 15 min. warm up time.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photograph of a W band imaging sensor from Brijot Imaging Systems.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Performance and Extracted Parameters

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V = k ( α ( T s T o ) + F T o ) G β Δ f ,
S ( f ) = V 2 ( 2 Δ f + S d V 2 + K f ) .
Δ V 2 = V 2 ( 1 Δ f T int + S d 2 V 2 T int + K ln N ) .
NETD = Δ V 2 d V / d T s = T sys 1 Δ f T int + S d 2 V 2 T int + K ln N ,
Δ f = 2 V 2 S | white , LNA   on S | white , LNA   off .

Metrics