Abstract

There has been increased interest in applying radio frequency (RF) imaging to solving problems in surveillance, situational awareness, and security screening. This has been brought about by recent advances and new programs in component development from 100GHz to 1THz. While no new phenomenology has been uncovered in this region, the potential to finally realize systems that can begin to approach the resolution of optical imaging while operating under adverse conditions of weather and obscuration has prompted new investments. Several of the issues, beyond mere component availability, that must be considered when developing these systems are reviewed. Additionally, previous analysis of two applications proposed to operate in the region above 100GHz is reviewed: a landing aid system and a standoff security screening imager, both of which are greatly influenced by atmospheric effects.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (3)

D. T. Petkie, I. V. Kemp, C. Benton, C. Boyer, L. Owens, J. A. Deibel, C. D. Stoik, and M. J. Bohn, “Nondestructive terahertz imaging for aerospace applications,” Proc. SPIE 7485, 74850D (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Kallfass, A. Tessman, A. Leuther, H. Massler, M. Schlectweg, and O. Ambacher, “Millimeter-wave monolithic integrated circuits for imaging and remotes sensing at 140, 200, and 300 GHz,” Proc. SPIE   7485, 74850L (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Wallace and M. J. Rosker, “Analytical performance comparison of active and passive SMMW imaging for contraband detection,” Proc. SPIE .  7485, 74850E (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

J. H. Booske, “Plasma physics and related challenges of millimeter-wave-to-terahertz and high power microwave generation,” Phys. Plasmas 15, 055502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Dietlein, Zoya Popović, and E. N. Grossman, “ Aqueous blackbody calibration source for millimeter-wave/terahertz metrology,” Appl. Opt. 47, 5604–5615 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Gunnarsson, N. Wadefalk, J. Svedin, S. Cherednichenko, I. Angelov, H. Zirath, I. Kallfass, and A. Leuther, “A 220 GHz single-chip receiver MMIC with integrated antenna,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Components Lett.   18, 284–286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Pukala, L. Samoska, T. Gaier, A. Fung, X. B. Mei, W. Yoshida, J. Lee, J. Uyeda, P. H. Liu, W. R. Deal, V. Radisic, and R. Lai, “Submillimeter-wave InP MMIC amplifiers from 300–345 GHz,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Components Lett. 18, 61–63 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3D imaging at 4 and 25 meter range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 2771–2778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

V. Radisic, D. Sawdai, D. Scott, W. R. Deal, L. Linh Dang; D. Li, J. Chen, A. Fung, L. Samoska, T. Gaier, and R. Lai, “Demonstration of a 311 GHz fundamental oscillator using InP HBT technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 55, 2329–2335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Appleby and H. B. Wallace, “Standoff detection of weapons and contraband in the 100 GHz to 1 THz region,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.   55 , 2944–2956 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

D. T. Petkie, F. C. De Lucia, C. Castro, P. Helminger, E. L. Jacobs, S. K. Moyer, S. Murrill, C. Halford, S. Griffin, and C. Franck, “Active and passive millimeter and sub-millimeter-wave imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5989, 598918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 910–928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. F. Goldsmith, C.-T. Hsieh, G. R. Huguenin, J. Kapitzky, and E. L. Moore, “Focal plane imaging systems for millimeter wavelengths,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   41, 1664–1675 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

H. Liebe, “MPM89—an atmospheric mm-wave propagation model,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 10, 631–650(1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

V. W. Richard, J. E. Kammerer, and H. B. Wallace, “Rain backscatter measurements at millimeter wavelengths,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.   26, 244–252 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, J. D.

J. D. Albrecht, M. J. Rosker, H. B. Wallace, and T. Chang, “THz electronics projects at DARPA: transistors, TMICs, and amplifiers,” paper to be presented at the IEEE MTT 2010 International Microwave Symposium, Anaheim, California, USA, 23–28 May 2010.

Ambacher, O.

I. Kallfass, A. Tessman, A. Leuther, H. Massler, M. Schlectweg, and O. Ambacher, “Millimeter-wave monolithic integrated circuits for imaging and remotes sensing at 140, 200, and 300 GHz,” Proc. SPIE   7485, 74850L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Angelov, I.

S. E. Gunnarsson, N. Wadefalk, J. Svedin, S. Cherednichenko, I. Angelov, H. Zirath, I. Kallfass, and A. Leuther, “A 220 GHz single-chip receiver MMIC with integrated antenna,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Components Lett.   18, 284–286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appleby, R.

R. Appleby and H. B. Wallace, “Standoff detection of weapons and contraband in the 100 GHz to 1 THz region,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.   55 , 2944–2956 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barton, D. K.

D. K. Barton, Radar System Analysis and Modeling (Artech House, 2004).

Benton, C.

D. T. Petkie, I. V. Kemp, C. Benton, C. Boyer, L. Owens, J. A. Deibel, C. D. Stoik, and M. J. Bohn, “Nondestructive terahertz imaging for aerospace applications,” Proc. SPIE 7485, 74850D (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bohn, M. J.

D. T. Petkie, I. V. Kemp, C. Benton, C. Boyer, L. Owens, J. A. Deibel, C. D. Stoik, and M. J. Bohn, “Nondestructive terahertz imaging for aerospace applications,” Proc. SPIE 7485, 74850D (2009).
[CrossRef]

Booske, J. H.

J. H. Booske, “Plasma physics and related challenges of millimeter-wave-to-terahertz and high power microwave generation,” Phys. Plasmas 15, 055502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, C.

D. T. Petkie, I. V. Kemp, C. Benton, C. Boyer, L. Owens, J. A. Deibel, C. D. Stoik, and M. J. Bohn, “Nondestructive terahertz imaging for aerospace applications,” Proc. SPIE 7485, 74850D (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brussaard, G.

G. Brussaard and P. A. Watson, Atmospheric Modeling and Millimetre Wave Propagation (Chapman & Hall, 1995), pp. 175–176.

Bryllert, T.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3D imaging at 4 and 25 meter range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 2771–2778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Castro, C.

D. T. Petkie, F. C. De Lucia, C. Castro, P. Helminger, E. L. Jacobs, S. K. Moyer, S. Murrill, C. Halford, S. Griffin, and C. Franck, “Active and passive millimeter and sub-millimeter-wave imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5989, 598918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T.

J. D. Albrecht, M. J. Rosker, H. B. Wallace, and T. Chang, “THz electronics projects at DARPA: transistors, TMICs, and amplifiers,” paper to be presented at the IEEE MTT 2010 International Microwave Symposium, Anaheim, California, USA, 23–28 May 2010.

Chattopadhyay, G.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3D imaging at 4 and 25 meter range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 2771–2778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

V. Radisic, D. Sawdai, D. Scott, W. R. Deal, L. Linh Dang; D. Li, J. Chen, A. Fung, L. Samoska, T. Gaier, and R. Lai, “Demonstration of a 311 GHz fundamental oscillator using InP HBT technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 55, 2329–2335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cherednichenko, S.

S. E. Gunnarsson, N. Wadefalk, J. Svedin, S. Cherednichenko, I. Angelov, H. Zirath, I. Kallfass, and A. Leuther, “A 220 GHz single-chip receiver MMIC with integrated antenna,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Components Lett.   18, 284–286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, K. B.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3D imaging at 4 and 25 meter range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 2771–2778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De Lucia, F. C.

D. T. Petkie, F. C. De Lucia, C. Castro, P. Helminger, E. L. Jacobs, S. K. Moyer, S. Murrill, C. Halford, S. Griffin, and C. Franck, “Active and passive millimeter and sub-millimeter-wave imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5989, 598918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deal, W. R.

D. Pukala, L. Samoska, T. Gaier, A. Fung, X. B. Mei, W. Yoshida, J. Lee, J. Uyeda, P. H. Liu, W. R. Deal, V. Radisic, and R. Lai, “Submillimeter-wave InP MMIC amplifiers from 300–345 GHz,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Components Lett. 18, 61–63 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Radisic, D. Sawdai, D. Scott, W. R. Deal, L. Linh Dang; D. Li, J. Chen, A. Fung, L. Samoska, T. Gaier, and R. Lai, “Demonstration of a 311 GHz fundamental oscillator using InP HBT technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 55, 2329–2335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deibel, J. A.

D. T. Petkie, I. V. Kemp, C. Benton, C. Boyer, L. Owens, J. A. Deibel, C. D. Stoik, and M. J. Bohn, “Nondestructive terahertz imaging for aerospace applications,” Proc. SPIE 7485, 74850D (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dengler, R. J.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3D imaging at 4 and 25 meter range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 2771–2778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dietlein, C.

Franck, C.

D. T. Petkie, F. C. De Lucia, C. Castro, P. Helminger, E. L. Jacobs, S. K. Moyer, S. Murrill, C. Halford, S. Griffin, and C. Franck, “Active and passive millimeter and sub-millimeter-wave imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5989, 598918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Freebody, M.

M. Freebody, “Putting imaging in the picture,” http://www.photonics.com/Article.Aspx?AID=41330 (accessed 29 March 2010).

Fung, A.

D. Pukala, L. Samoska, T. Gaier, A. Fung, X. B. Mei, W. Yoshida, J. Lee, J. Uyeda, P. H. Liu, W. R. Deal, V. Radisic, and R. Lai, “Submillimeter-wave InP MMIC amplifiers from 300–345 GHz,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Components Lett. 18, 61–63 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Radisic, D. Sawdai, D. Scott, W. R. Deal, L. Linh Dang; D. Li, J. Chen, A. Fung, L. Samoska, T. Gaier, and R. Lai, “Demonstration of a 311 GHz fundamental oscillator using InP HBT technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 55, 2329–2335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fung, A. K.

F. T. Ulaby, R. K. Moore, and A. K. Fung, Microwave Remote Sensing, Active and Passive. Vol. 1. Microwave Remote Sensing Fundamentals and Radiometry (Addison-Wesley, 1981).

Gaier, T.

D. Pukala, L. Samoska, T. Gaier, A. Fung, X. B. Mei, W. Yoshida, J. Lee, J. Uyeda, P. H. Liu, W. R. Deal, V. Radisic, and R. Lai, “Submillimeter-wave InP MMIC amplifiers from 300–345 GHz,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Components Lett. 18, 61–63 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Radisic, D. Sawdai, D. Scott, W. R. Deal, L. Linh Dang; D. Li, J. Chen, A. Fung, L. Samoska, T. Gaier, and R. Lai, “Demonstration of a 311 GHz fundamental oscillator using InP HBT technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 55, 2329–2335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, D. A.

K. E. Kreischer, J. C. Tucek, D. A. Gallagher, and R. E. Mihailovich, “Operation of a compact, 0.65 THz source,” paper presented at the International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves/THz Electronics, Pasadena, California, USA, 15–19 September 2008.

Gill, J.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3D imaging at 4 and 25 meter range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 2771–2778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goldsmith, P. F.

P. F. Goldsmith, C.-T. Hsieh, G. R. Huguenin, J. Kapitzky, and E. L. Moore, “Focal plane imaging systems for millimeter wavelengths,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   41, 1664–1675 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, S.

D. T. Petkie, F. C. De Lucia, C. Castro, P. Helminger, E. L. Jacobs, S. K. Moyer, S. Murrill, C. Halford, S. Griffin, and C. Franck, “Active and passive millimeter and sub-millimeter-wave imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5989, 598918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grossman, E. N.

Gruner, G.

G. Gruner, Millimeter and Submillimeter Spectroscopy of Solids (Springer-Verlag, 1998).
[CrossRef]

Gunnarsson, S. E.

S. E. Gunnarsson, N. Wadefalk, J. Svedin, S. Cherednichenko, I. Angelov, H. Zirath, I. Kallfass, and A. Leuther, “A 220 GHz single-chip receiver MMIC with integrated antenna,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Components Lett.   18, 284–286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Halford, C.

D. T. Petkie, F. C. De Lucia, C. Castro, P. Helminger, E. L. Jacobs, S. K. Moyer, S. Murrill, C. Halford, S. Griffin, and C. Franck, “Active and passive millimeter and sub-millimeter-wave imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5989, 598918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Helminger, P.

D. T. Petkie, F. C. De Lucia, C. Castro, P. Helminger, E. L. Jacobs, S. K. Moyer, S. Murrill, C. Halford, S. Griffin, and C. Franck, “Active and passive millimeter and sub-millimeter-wave imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5989, 598918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Horner, N.

A. R. Kerr, E. Wollack, and N. Horner, “Waveguide flanges for ALMA instrumentation,” ALMA Memo 278 (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array Observatory, 8 November 1999).

Hsieh, C.-T.

P. F. Goldsmith, C.-T. Hsieh, G. R. Huguenin, J. Kapitzky, and E. L. Moore, “Focal plane imaging systems for millimeter wavelengths,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   41, 1664–1675 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huguenin, G. R.

P. F. Goldsmith, C.-T. Hsieh, G. R. Huguenin, J. Kapitzky, and E. L. Moore, “Focal plane imaging systems for millimeter wavelengths,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   41, 1664–1675 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, E. L.

D. T. Petkie, F. C. De Lucia, C. Castro, P. Helminger, E. L. Jacobs, S. K. Moyer, S. Murrill, C. Halford, S. Griffin, and C. Franck, “Active and passive millimeter and sub-millimeter-wave imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5989, 598918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kallfass, I.

I. Kallfass, A. Tessman, A. Leuther, H. Massler, M. Schlectweg, and O. Ambacher, “Millimeter-wave monolithic integrated circuits for imaging and remotes sensing at 140, 200, and 300 GHz,” Proc. SPIE   7485, 74850L (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Gunnarsson, N. Wadefalk, J. Svedin, S. Cherednichenko, I. Angelov, H. Zirath, I. Kallfass, and A. Leuther, “A 220 GHz single-chip receiver MMIC with integrated antenna,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Components Lett.   18, 284–286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kammerer, J. E.

V. W. Richard, J. E. Kammerer, and H. B. Wallace, “Rain backscatter measurements at millimeter wavelengths,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.   26, 244–252 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kapitzky, J.

P. F. Goldsmith, C.-T. Hsieh, G. R. Huguenin, J. Kapitzky, and E. L. Moore, “Focal plane imaging systems for millimeter wavelengths,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   41, 1664–1675 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, I. V.

D. T. Petkie, I. V. Kemp, C. Benton, C. Boyer, L. Owens, J. A. Deibel, C. D. Stoik, and M. J. Bohn, “Nondestructive terahertz imaging for aerospace applications,” Proc. SPIE 7485, 74850D (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, A. R.

A. R. Kerr, E. Wollack, and N. Horner, “Waveguide flanges for ALMA instrumentation,” ALMA Memo 278 (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array Observatory, 8 November 1999).

Kreischer, K. E.

K. E. Kreischer, J. C. Tucek, D. A. Gallagher, and R. E. Mihailovich, “Operation of a compact, 0.65 THz source,” paper presented at the International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves/THz Electronics, Pasadena, California, USA, 15–19 September 2008.

Lai, R.

D. Pukala, L. Samoska, T. Gaier, A. Fung, X. B. Mei, W. Yoshida, J. Lee, J. Uyeda, P. H. Liu, W. R. Deal, V. Radisic, and R. Lai, “Submillimeter-wave InP MMIC amplifiers from 300–345 GHz,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Components Lett. 18, 61–63 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Radisic, D. Sawdai, D. Scott, W. R. Deal, L. Linh Dang; D. Li, J. Chen, A. Fung, L. Samoska, T. Gaier, and R. Lai, “Demonstration of a 311 GHz fundamental oscillator using InP HBT technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 55, 2329–2335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3D imaging at 4 and 25 meter range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 2771–2778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

D. Pukala, L. Samoska, T. Gaier, A. Fung, X. B. Mei, W. Yoshida, J. Lee, J. Uyeda, P. H. Liu, W. R. Deal, V. Radisic, and R. Lai, “Submillimeter-wave InP MMIC amplifiers from 300–345 GHz,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Components Lett. 18, 61–63 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leuther, A.

I. Kallfass, A. Tessman, A. Leuther, H. Massler, M. Schlectweg, and O. Ambacher, “Millimeter-wave monolithic integrated circuits for imaging and remotes sensing at 140, 200, and 300 GHz,” Proc. SPIE   7485, 74850L (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Gunnarsson, N. Wadefalk, J. Svedin, S. Cherednichenko, I. Angelov, H. Zirath, I. Kallfass, and A. Leuther, “A 220 GHz single-chip receiver MMIC with integrated antenna,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Components Lett.   18, 284–286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Levush, B.

B. Levush, “Upper MM / SMM sources overview,” paper presented at the Ninth Annual Directed Energy Symposium, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, 30 October–3 November 2006.

Li, D.

V. Radisic, D. Sawdai, D. Scott, W. R. Deal, L. Linh Dang; D. Li, J. Chen, A. Fung, L. Samoska, T. Gaier, and R. Lai, “Demonstration of a 311 GHz fundamental oscillator using InP HBT technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 55, 2329–2335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liebe, H.

H. Liebe, “MPM89—an atmospheric mm-wave propagation model,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 10, 631–650(1989).
[CrossRef]

Linh, L.

V. Radisic, D. Sawdai, D. Scott, W. R. Deal, L. Linh Dang; D. Li, J. Chen, A. Fung, L. Samoska, T. Gaier, and R. Lai, “Demonstration of a 311 GHz fundamental oscillator using InP HBT technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 55, 2329–2335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, P. H.

D. Pukala, L. Samoska, T. Gaier, A. Fung, X. B. Mei, W. Yoshida, J. Lee, J. Uyeda, P. H. Liu, W. R. Deal, V. Radisic, and R. Lai, “Submillimeter-wave InP MMIC amplifiers from 300–345 GHz,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Components Lett. 18, 61–63 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Llombart, N.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3D imaging at 4 and 25 meter range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 2771–2778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Loffler, T.

T. Loffler and H. Quast, “Towards real-time active THz range imaging for security applications,” paper presented at the SPIE Europe Defence & Security Symposium, Berlin, Germany, September 2009.

Massler, H.

I. Kallfass, A. Tessman, A. Leuther, H. Massler, M. Schlectweg, and O. Ambacher, “Millimeter-wave monolithic integrated circuits for imaging and remotes sensing at 140, 200, and 300 GHz,” Proc. SPIE   7485, 74850L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matzler, C.

C. Matzler, “Drop-size distributions and Mie computations for rain,” research report 2002-16 (University of Berne, 2002).

Mehdi, I.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3D imaging at 4 and 25 meter range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 2771–2778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mei, X. B.

D. Pukala, L. Samoska, T. Gaier, A. Fung, X. B. Mei, W. Yoshida, J. Lee, J. Uyeda, P. H. Liu, W. R. Deal, V. Radisic, and R. Lai, “Submillimeter-wave InP MMIC amplifiers from 300–345 GHz,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Components Lett. 18, 61–63 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mihailovich, R. E.

K. E. Kreischer, J. C. Tucek, D. A. Gallagher, and R. E. Mihailovich, “Operation of a compact, 0.65 THz source,” paper presented at the International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves/THz Electronics, Pasadena, California, USA, 15–19 September 2008.

Moore, E. L.

P. F. Goldsmith, C.-T. Hsieh, G. R. Huguenin, J. Kapitzky, and E. L. Moore, “Focal plane imaging systems for millimeter wavelengths,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   41, 1664–1675 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Moore, R. K.

F. T. Ulaby, R. K. Moore, and A. K. Fung, Microwave Remote Sensing, Active and Passive. Vol. 1. Microwave Remote Sensing Fundamentals and Radiometry (Addison-Wesley, 1981).

Moyer, S. K.

D. T. Petkie, F. C. De Lucia, C. Castro, P. Helminger, E. L. Jacobs, S. K. Moyer, S. Murrill, C. Halford, S. Griffin, and C. Franck, “Active and passive millimeter and sub-millimeter-wave imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5989, 598918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Murrill, S.

D. T. Petkie, F. C. De Lucia, C. Castro, P. Helminger, E. L. Jacobs, S. K. Moyer, S. Murrill, C. Halford, S. Griffin, and C. Franck, “Active and passive millimeter and sub-millimeter-wave imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5989, 598918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Owens, L.

D. T. Petkie, I. V. Kemp, C. Benton, C. Boyer, L. Owens, J. A. Deibel, C. D. Stoik, and M. J. Bohn, “Nondestructive terahertz imaging for aerospace applications,” Proc. SPIE 7485, 74850D (2009).
[CrossRef]

Petkie, D. T.

D. T. Petkie, I. V. Kemp, C. Benton, C. Boyer, L. Owens, J. A. Deibel, C. D. Stoik, and M. J. Bohn, “Nondestructive terahertz imaging for aerospace applications,” Proc. SPIE 7485, 74850D (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Petkie, F. C. De Lucia, C. Castro, P. Helminger, E. L. Jacobs, S. K. Moyer, S. Murrill, C. Halford, S. Griffin, and C. Franck, “Active and passive millimeter and sub-millimeter-wave imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5989, 598918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, Zoya

Pukala, D.

D. Pukala, L. Samoska, T. Gaier, A. Fung, X. B. Mei, W. Yoshida, J. Lee, J. Uyeda, P. H. Liu, W. R. Deal, V. Radisic, and R. Lai, “Submillimeter-wave InP MMIC amplifiers from 300–345 GHz,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Components Lett. 18, 61–63 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Samoska, D. Pukala, M. Soria, and G. Sadowy, “A G-band multi-chip MMIC T/R module for radar applications,” paper presented at the International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves/THz Electronics, Pasadena, California, USA, 15–19 September 2008.

Quast, H.

T. Loffler and H. Quast, “Towards real-time active THz range imaging for security applications,” paper presented at the SPIE Europe Defence & Security Symposium, Berlin, Germany, September 2009.

Radisic, V.

D. Pukala, L. Samoska, T. Gaier, A. Fung, X. B. Mei, W. Yoshida, J. Lee, J. Uyeda, P. H. Liu, W. R. Deal, V. Radisic, and R. Lai, “Submillimeter-wave InP MMIC amplifiers from 300–345 GHz,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Components Lett. 18, 61–63 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Radisic, D. Sawdai, D. Scott, W. R. Deal, L. Linh Dang; D. Li, J. Chen, A. Fung, L. Samoska, T. Gaier, and R. Lai, “Demonstration of a 311 GHz fundamental oscillator using InP HBT technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 55, 2329–2335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Richard, V. W.

V. W. Richard, J. E. Kammerer, and H. B. Wallace, “Rain backscatter measurements at millimeter wavelengths,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.   26, 244–252 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rosker, M. J.

H. B. Wallace and M. J. Rosker, “Analytical performance comparison of active and passive SMMW imaging for contraband detection,” Proc. SPIE .  7485, 74850E (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Wallace and M. J. Rosker, “A method for analyzing active SMMW imaging system performance,” paper presented at the International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves/THz Electronics, Pasadena, California, USA, 15–19 September 2008.

J. D. Albrecht, M. J. Rosker, H. B. Wallace, and T. Chang, “THz electronics projects at DARPA: transistors, TMICs, and amplifiers,” paper to be presented at the IEEE MTT 2010 International Microwave Symposium, Anaheim, California, USA, 23–28 May 2010.

Sadowy, G.

L. Samoska, D. Pukala, M. Soria, and G. Sadowy, “A G-band multi-chip MMIC T/R module for radar applications,” paper presented at the International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves/THz Electronics, Pasadena, California, USA, 15–19 September 2008.

Samoska, L.

D. Pukala, L. Samoska, T. Gaier, A. Fung, X. B. Mei, W. Yoshida, J. Lee, J. Uyeda, P. H. Liu, W. R. Deal, V. Radisic, and R. Lai, “Submillimeter-wave InP MMIC amplifiers from 300–345 GHz,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Components Lett. 18, 61–63 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Radisic, D. Sawdai, D. Scott, W. R. Deal, L. Linh Dang; D. Li, J. Chen, A. Fung, L. Samoska, T. Gaier, and R. Lai, “Demonstration of a 311 GHz fundamental oscillator using InP HBT technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 55, 2329–2335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Samoska, D. Pukala, M. Soria, and G. Sadowy, “A G-band multi-chip MMIC T/R module for radar applications,” paper presented at the International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves/THz Electronics, Pasadena, California, USA, 15–19 September 2008.

Sawdai, D.

V. Radisic, D. Sawdai, D. Scott, W. R. Deal, L. Linh Dang; D. Li, J. Chen, A. Fung, L. Samoska, T. Gaier, and R. Lai, “Demonstration of a 311 GHz fundamental oscillator using InP HBT technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 55, 2329–2335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schlecht, E.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3D imaging at 4 and 25 meter range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 2771–2778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schlectweg, M.

I. Kallfass, A. Tessman, A. Leuther, H. Massler, M. Schlectweg, and O. Ambacher, “Millimeter-wave monolithic integrated circuits for imaging and remotes sensing at 140, 200, and 300 GHz,” Proc. SPIE   7485, 74850L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scott, D.

V. Radisic, D. Sawdai, D. Scott, W. R. Deal, L. Linh Dang; D. Li, J. Chen, A. Fung, L. Samoska, T. Gaier, and R. Lai, “Demonstration of a 311 GHz fundamental oscillator using InP HBT technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 55, 2329–2335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, P. H.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3D imaging at 4 and 25 meter range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 2771–2778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 910–928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Skalare, A.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3D imaging at 4 and 25 meter range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 2771–2778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soria, M.

L. Samoska, D. Pukala, M. Soria, and G. Sadowy, “A G-band multi-chip MMIC T/R module for radar applications,” paper presented at the International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves/THz Electronics, Pasadena, California, USA, 15–19 September 2008.

Spicer, J. B.

J. B. Spicer, “Terahertz spectroscopy for condensed phase, energetic chemical species detection,” seminar at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, USA, 6 June 2005.

Stoik, C. D.

D. T. Petkie, I. V. Kemp, C. Benton, C. Boyer, L. Owens, J. A. Deibel, C. D. Stoik, and M. J. Bohn, “Nondestructive terahertz imaging for aerospace applications,” Proc. SPIE 7485, 74850D (2009).
[CrossRef]

Svedin, J.

S. E. Gunnarsson, N. Wadefalk, J. Svedin, S. Cherednichenko, I. Angelov, H. Zirath, I. Kallfass, and A. Leuther, “A 220 GHz single-chip receiver MMIC with integrated antenna,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Components Lett.   18, 284–286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tessman, A.

I. Kallfass, A. Tessman, A. Leuther, H. Massler, M. Schlectweg, and O. Ambacher, “Millimeter-wave monolithic integrated circuits for imaging and remotes sensing at 140, 200, and 300 GHz,” Proc. SPIE   7485, 74850L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tucek, J. C.

K. E. Kreischer, J. C. Tucek, D. A. Gallagher, and R. E. Mihailovich, “Operation of a compact, 0.65 THz source,” paper presented at the International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves/THz Electronics, Pasadena, California, USA, 15–19 September 2008.

Ulaby, F. T.

F. T. Ulaby, R. K. Moore, and A. K. Fung, Microwave Remote Sensing, Active and Passive. Vol. 1. Microwave Remote Sensing Fundamentals and Radiometry (Addison-Wesley, 1981).

Uyeda, J.

D. Pukala, L. Samoska, T. Gaier, A. Fung, X. B. Mei, W. Yoshida, J. Lee, J. Uyeda, P. H. Liu, W. R. Deal, V. Radisic, and R. Lai, “Submillimeter-wave InP MMIC amplifiers from 300–345 GHz,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Components Lett. 18, 61–63 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wadefalk, N.

S. E. Gunnarsson, N. Wadefalk, J. Svedin, S. Cherednichenko, I. Angelov, H. Zirath, I. Kallfass, and A. Leuther, “A 220 GHz single-chip receiver MMIC with integrated antenna,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Components Lett.   18, 284–286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, H. B.

H. B. Wallace and M. J. Rosker, “Analytical performance comparison of active and passive SMMW imaging for contraband detection,” Proc. SPIE .  7485, 74850E (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Appleby and H. B. Wallace, “Standoff detection of weapons and contraband in the 100 GHz to 1 THz region,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.   55 , 2944–2956 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. W. Richard, J. E. Kammerer, and H. B. Wallace, “Rain backscatter measurements at millimeter wavelengths,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.   26, 244–252 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Wallace and M. J. Rosker, “A method for analyzing active SMMW imaging system performance,” paper presented at the International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves/THz Electronics, Pasadena, California, USA, 15–19 September 2008.

J. D. Albrecht, M. J. Rosker, H. B. Wallace, and T. Chang, “THz electronics projects at DARPA: transistors, TMICs, and amplifiers,” paper to be presented at the IEEE MTT 2010 International Microwave Symposium, Anaheim, California, USA, 23–28 May 2010.

Watson, P. A.

G. Brussaard and P. A. Watson, Atmospheric Modeling and Millimetre Wave Propagation (Chapman & Hall, 1995), pp. 175–176.

Wikner, D.

D. Wikner, “Assessment of MMW imaging technologies,” internal report to DARPA (Army Research Laboratory, July 1997).

Wollack, E.

A. R. Kerr, E. Wollack, and N. Horner, “Waveguide flanges for ALMA instrumentation,” ALMA Memo 278 (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array Observatory, 8 November 1999).

Yoshida, W.

D. Pukala, L. Samoska, T. Gaier, A. Fung, X. B. Mei, W. Yoshida, J. Lee, J. Uyeda, P. H. Liu, W. R. Deal, V. Radisic, and R. Lai, “Submillimeter-wave InP MMIC amplifiers from 300–345 GHz,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Components Lett. 18, 61–63 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zirath, H.

S. E. Gunnarsson, N. Wadefalk, J. Svedin, S. Cherednichenko, I. Angelov, H. Zirath, I. Kallfass, and A. Leuther, “A 220 GHz single-chip receiver MMIC with integrated antenna,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Components Lett.   18, 284–286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Microwave Wireless Components Lett. (2)

D. Pukala, L. Samoska, T. Gaier, A. Fung, X. B. Mei, W. Yoshida, J. Lee, J. Uyeda, P. H. Liu, W. R. Deal, V. Radisic, and R. Lai, “Submillimeter-wave InP MMIC amplifiers from 300–345 GHz,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Components Lett. 18, 61–63 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Gunnarsson, N. Wadefalk, J. Svedin, S. Cherednichenko, I. Angelov, H. Zirath, I. Kallfass, and A. Leuther, “A 220 GHz single-chip receiver MMIC with integrated antenna,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Components Lett.   18, 284–286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

R. Appleby and H. B. Wallace, “Standoff detection of weapons and contraband in the 100 GHz to 1 THz region,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.   55 , 2944–2956 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

V. W. Richard, J. E. Kammerer, and H. B. Wallace, “Rain backscatter measurements at millimeter wavelengths,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.   26, 244–252 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (4)

V. Radisic, D. Sawdai, D. Scott, W. R. Deal, L. Linh Dang; D. Li, J. Chen, A. Fung, L. Samoska, T. Gaier, and R. Lai, “Demonstration of a 311 GHz fundamental oscillator using InP HBT technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 55, 2329–2335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3D imaging at 4 and 25 meter range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 2771–2778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Goldsmith, C.-T. Hsieh, G. R. Huguenin, J. Kapitzky, and E. L. Moore, “Focal plane imaging systems for millimeter wavelengths,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   41, 1664–1675 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 910–928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves (1)

H. Liebe, “MPM89—an atmospheric mm-wave propagation model,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 10, 631–650(1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Plasmas (1)

J. H. Booske, “Plasma physics and related challenges of millimeter-wave-to-terahertz and high power microwave generation,” Phys. Plasmas 15, 055502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (4)

D. T. Petkie, F. C. De Lucia, C. Castro, P. Helminger, E. L. Jacobs, S. K. Moyer, S. Murrill, C. Halford, S. Griffin, and C. Franck, “Active and passive millimeter and sub-millimeter-wave imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5989, 598918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Kallfass, A. Tessman, A. Leuther, H. Massler, M. Schlectweg, and O. Ambacher, “Millimeter-wave monolithic integrated circuits for imaging and remotes sensing at 140, 200, and 300 GHz,” Proc. SPIE   7485, 74850L (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Wallace and M. J. Rosker, “Analytical performance comparison of active and passive SMMW imaging for contraband detection,” Proc. SPIE .  7485, 74850E (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Petkie, I. V. Kemp, C. Benton, C. Boyer, L. Owens, J. A. Deibel, C. D. Stoik, and M. J. Bohn, “Nondestructive terahertz imaging for aerospace applications,” Proc. SPIE 7485, 74850D (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (22)

G. Gruner, Millimeter and Submillimeter Spectroscopy of Solids (Springer-Verlag, 1998).
[CrossRef]

“Aviation during World War II,” http://www.century-of-flight.net/Aviation history/WW2/radar in world war two.htm(accessed 29 March 2010).

J. B. Spicer, “Terahertz spectroscopy for condensed phase, energetic chemical species detection,” seminar at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, USA, 6 June 2005.

F. T. Ulaby, R. K. Moore, and A. K. Fung, Microwave Remote Sensing, Active and Passive. Vol. 1. Microwave Remote Sensing Fundamentals and Radiometry (Addison-Wesley, 1981).

D. K. Barton, Radar System Analysis and Modeling (Artech House, 2004).

M. Freebody, “Putting imaging in the picture,” http://www.photonics.com/Article.Aspx?AID=41330 (accessed 29 March 2010).

B. Levush, “Upper MM / SMM sources overview,” paper presented at the Ninth Annual Directed Energy Symposium, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, 30 October–3 November 2006.

H. B. Wallace and M. J. Rosker, “A method for analyzing active SMMW imaging system performance,” paper presented at the International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves/THz Electronics, Pasadena, California, USA, 15–19 September 2008.

L. Samoska, D. Pukala, M. Soria, and G. Sadowy, “A G-band multi-chip MMIC T/R module for radar applications,” paper presented at the International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves/THz Electronics, Pasadena, California, USA, 15–19 September 2008.

J. D. Albrecht, M. J. Rosker, H. B. Wallace, and T. Chang, “THz electronics projects at DARPA: transistors, TMICs, and amplifiers,” paper to be presented at the IEEE MTT 2010 International Microwave Symposium, Anaheim, California, USA, 23–28 May 2010.

http://www.wunderground.com/ accessed (September 2008).

http://mmwconcepts.com/Products.html.

“Attenuation by atmospheric gases,” ITU-R P.676-5 (International Telecommunication Union, 2001), based on MPM89, which provided the model for the losses due to oxygen and water vapor.

“Attenuation due to clouds and fog,” ITU-R P.840-3 (International Telecommunication Union, 1999), which provided the model for losses due to fog and clouds.

“Specific attenuation model for rain for use in prediction methods,” ITU-R P.838-2 (International Telecommunication Union, 2004).

http://www.abmillimetre.com/.

A. R. Kerr, E. Wollack, and N. Horner, “Waveguide flanges for ALMA instrumentation,” ALMA Memo 278 (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array Observatory, 8 November 1999).

D. Wikner, “Assessment of MMW imaging technologies,” internal report to DARPA (Army Research Laboratory, July 1997).

K. E. Kreischer, J. C. Tucek, D. A. Gallagher, and R. E. Mihailovich, “Operation of a compact, 0.65 THz source,” paper presented at the International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves/THz Electronics, Pasadena, California, USA, 15–19 September 2008.

C. Matzler, “Drop-size distributions and Mie computations for rain,” research report 2002-16 (University of Berne, 2002).

G. Brussaard and P. A. Watson, Atmospheric Modeling and Millimetre Wave Propagation (Chapman & Hall, 1995), pp. 175–176.

T. Loffler and H. Quast, “Towards real-time active THz range imaging for security applications,” paper presented at the SPIE Europe Defence & Security Symposium, Berlin, Germany, September 2009.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Atmospheric attenuation from 1 GHz to 1 THz for four weather conditions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cumulative attenuation from sea level for different altitudes at 220 GHz for four different atmospheric conditions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculations of the normalized backscatter from rain for three different rain rates.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Clutter-to-backscatter-plus-noise ratio for the landing aid with a 1 W transmitter using linear polarization.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Peak power required in a landing radar to achieve a 10 1 CBPNR at 1.2 km .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Range at which the postulated active and passive imaging systems meet the requirements of Table 2, where the spatial resolution is held constant (the antenna diameter scales with frequency) under standard and humid atmospheric conditions.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Salient Characteristics of Postulated MMW Landing Aid

Tables Icon

Table 2 Postulated Requirements for an Imager for Detecting Concealed Objects in this Study

Equations (4)

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SNR = P * G 2 * λ 2 * σ * Int * L ant 2 * L atm 2 ( 4 π ) 3 * R 4 * k * T * B * N ,
CBPNR = CNR BNR + 1
SCP BPNR = SNR CNR + BNR + 1 .
Δ T = T a n t + T r e c B τ ,

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