Abstract

We have developed an interferometric synthetic aperture incoherent imaging system at 94GHz, in which a high-power electronic millimeter wave source (Gunn Oscillator) is integrated with a continuous-wave terahertz (THz) photomixing detection system to achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio. Imaging of a point source located 10m away from the detector array is presented. Two-dimensional THz reflective images of an extended object with different shapes are reconstructed with only four detectors by use of rotational synthesis.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications-explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266–S280 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. A. R. Thompson, J. M. Moran, and G. W. Swenson, Interferometry and Synthesis in Radio Astronomy (Krieger, 1991).
  7. K. McClatchey, M. T. Reiten, and R. A. Cheville, “Time resolved synthetic aperture terahertz impulse imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4485–4487 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. B. Ruffin, J. Decker, L. Sanchez-Palencia, L. Le Hors, J. F. Whitaker, T. B. Norris, and J. V. Rudd, “Time reversal and object reconstruction with single-cycle pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 681–683 (2001).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325–1379(2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Löffler, T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, and H. G. Roskos, “Continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a hybrid system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Sinyukov, A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Sengupta, R. Barat, D. Gary, Z.-H. Michalopoulou, D. Zimdars, and J. F. Federici, “Terahertz interferometric and synthetic aperture imaging,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 17, 431–443 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications-explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

K. P. Walsh, B. Schulkin, D. Gary, J. F. Federici, R. Barat, and D. Zimdars, “Terahertz near field interferometric and synthetic aperture imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5411, 9–17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. O’Hara and D. Grischkowsky, “Quasi-optic synthetic phased-array terahertz imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1178–1191 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. F. Federici, D. Gary, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, H. Altan, R. Barat, and D. Zimdars, “Terahertz imaging using an interferometric array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2477–2479 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (4)

1996 (1)

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Alcin, A.

T. Löffler, T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, and H. G. Roskos, “Continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a hybrid system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Altan, H.

J. F. Federici, D. Gary, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, H. Altan, R. Barat, and D. Zimdars, “Terahertz imaging using an interferometric array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2477–2479 (2003).
[CrossRef]

am Weg, C.

T. Löffler, T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, and H. G. Roskos, “Continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a hybrid system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bandyopadhyay, A.

A. M. Sinyukov, A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Sengupta, R. Barat, D. Gary, Z.-H. Michalopoulou, D. Zimdars, and J. F. Federici, “Terahertz interferometric and synthetic aperture imaging,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 17, 431–443 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baraniuk, R. G.

Barat, R.

A. M. Sinyukov, A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Sengupta, R. Barat, D. Gary, Z.-H. Michalopoulou, D. Zimdars, and J. F. Federici, “Terahertz interferometric and synthetic aperture imaging,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 17, 431–443 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Stepanov, B. Schulkin, M. Federici, A. Sengupta, D. Gary, J. Federici, R. Barat, Z. H. Michalopoulou, and D. Zimders, “Terahertz interferometric and synthetic aperture imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1168–1178 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Federici, D. Gary, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, H. Altan, R. Barat, and D. Zimdars, “Terahertz imaging using an interferometric array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2477–2479 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, and Z.-H. Michalopoulou, “Detection of explosives by terahertz imaging,” in Counter-Terrorism Detection Techniques of Explosives, J.Yinon, ed. (Elsevier, 2007), p. 323.
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. L.

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325–1379(2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheville, R. A.

K. McClatchey, M. T. Reiten, and R. A. Cheville, “Time resolved synthetic aperture terahertz impulse imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4485–4487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

de Maagt, P.

Decker, J.

Deibel, J.

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325–1379(2007).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, D.

Federici, J.

Federici, J. F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications-explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gary, D.

A. M. Sinyukov, A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Sengupta, R. Barat, D. Gary, Z.-H. Michalopoulou, D. Zimdars, and J. F. Federici, “Terahertz interferometric and synthetic aperture imaging,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 17, 431–443 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Stepanov, B. Schulkin, M. Federici, A. Sengupta, D. Gary, J. Federici, R. Barat, Z. H. Michalopoulou, and D. Zimders, “Terahertz interferometric and synthetic aperture imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1168–1178 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications-explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Walsh, B. Schulkin, D. Gary, J. F. Federici, R. Barat, and D. Zimdars, “Terahertz near field interferometric and synthetic aperture imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5411, 9–17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, and Z.-H. Michalopoulou, “Detection of explosives by terahertz imaging,” in Counter-Terrorism Detection Techniques of Explosives, J.Yinon, ed. (Elsevier, 2007), p. 323.
[CrossRef]

Gary, D. E.

Gary, D.

J. F. Federici, D. Gary, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, H. Altan, R. Barat, and D. Zimdars, “Terahertz imaging using an interferometric array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2477–2479 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

Hewitt, T. D.

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hils, B.

T. Löffler, T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, and H. G. Roskos, “Continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a hybrid system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications-explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Le Hors, L.

Liu, Z.

Löffler, T.

May, T.

T. Löffler, T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, and H. G. Roskos, “Continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a hybrid system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McClatchey, K.

K. McClatchey, M. T. Reiten, and R. A. Cheville, “Time resolved synthetic aperture terahertz impulse imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4485–4487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Michalopoulou, Z. H.

Michalopoulou, Z.-H.

Z. Liu, K. Su, D. E. Gary, J. F. Federici, R. B. Barat, and Z.-H. Michalopoulou, “Video-rate terahertz interferometric and synthetic aperture imaging,” Appl. Opt. 48, 3788–3795(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Sinyukov, A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Sengupta, R. Barat, D. Gary, Z.-H. Michalopoulou, D. Zimdars, and J. F. Federici, “Terahertz interferometric and synthetic aperture imaging,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 17, 431–443 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, and Z.-H. Michalopoulou, “Detection of explosives by terahertz imaging,” in Counter-Terrorism Detection Techniques of Explosives, J.Yinon, ed. (Elsevier, 2007), p. 323.
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

Mittleman, D. M.

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325–1379(2007).
[CrossRef]

Moran, J. M.

A. R. Thompson, J. M. Moran, and G. W. Swenson, Interferometry and Synthesis in Radio Astronomy (Krieger, 1991).

Norris, T. B.

Nuss, M. C.

O’Hara, J.

Roskos, H. G.

Sanchez-Palencia, L.

Schulkin, B.

A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Stepanov, B. Schulkin, M. Federici, A. Sengupta, D. Gary, J. Federici, R. Barat, Z. H. Michalopoulou, and D. Zimders, “Terahertz interferometric and synthetic aperture imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1168–1178 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications-explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Walsh, B. Schulkin, D. Gary, J. F. Federici, R. Barat, and D. Zimdars, “Terahertz near field interferometric and synthetic aperture imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5411, 9–17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Federici, D. Gary, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, H. Altan, R. Barat, and D. Zimdars, “Terahertz imaging using an interferometric array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2477–2479 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sengupta, A.

Sinyukov, A. M.

A. M. Sinyukov, A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Sengupta, R. Barat, D. Gary, Z.-H. Michalopoulou, D. Zimdars, and J. F. Federici, “Terahertz interferometric and synthetic aperture imaging,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 17, 431–443 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A.

Swenson, G. W.

A. R. Thompson, J. M. Moran, and G. W. Swenson, Interferometry and Synthesis in Radio Astronomy (Krieger, 1991).

Symes, W. W.

Thomson, M. D.

Van Rudd, J.

von Spiegel, W.

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

am Weg, C.

Bandyopadhyay, A.

Barat, R.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications-explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Walsh, B. Schulkin, D. Gary, J. F. Federici, R. Barat, and D. Zimdars, “Terahertz near field interferometric and synthetic aperture imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5411, 9–17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barat, R. B.

Dorney, T. D.

Federici, J. F.

Federici, M.

Federici, J. F.

K. P. Walsh, B. Schulkin, D. Gary, J. F. Federici, R. Barat, and D. Zimdars, “Terahertz near field interferometric and synthetic aperture imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5411, 9–17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Federici, J. F.

A. M. Sinyukov, A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Sengupta, R. Barat, D. Gary, Z.-H. Michalopoulou, D. Zimdars, and J. F. Federici, “Terahertz interferometric and synthetic aperture imaging,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 17, 431–443 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Federici, D. Gary, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, H. Altan, R. Barat, and D. Zimdars, “Terahertz imaging using an interferometric array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2477–2479 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, and Z.-H. Michalopoulou, “Detection of explosives by terahertz imaging,” in Counter-Terrorism Detection Techniques of Explosives, J.Yinon, ed. (Elsevier, 2007), p. 323.
[CrossRef]

Geckeler, R. D.

Grischkowsky, D.

Hils, B.

Hu, B. B.

Huang, F.

J. F. Federici, D. Gary, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, H. Altan, R. Barat, and D. Zimdars, “Terahertz imaging using an interferometric array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2477–2479 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J. L.

Löffler, T.

T. Löffler, T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, and H. G. Roskos, “Continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a hybrid system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O’Hara, J.

Oliveira, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications-explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reiten, M. T.

K. McClatchey, M. T. Reiten, and R. A. Cheville, “Time resolved synthetic aperture terahertz impulse imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4485–4487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H. G.

T. Löffler, T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, and H. G. Roskos, “Continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a hybrid system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rudd, J. V.

Ruffin, A. B.

Sengupta, A.

A. M. Sinyukov, A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Sengupta, R. Barat, D. Gary, Z.-H. Michalopoulou, D. Zimdars, and J. F. Federici, “Terahertz interferometric and synthetic aperture imaging,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 17, 431–443 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Su, K.

Thompson, A. R.

A. R. Thompson, J. M. Moran, and G. W. Swenson, Interferometry and Synthesis in Radio Astronomy (Krieger, 1991).

Walsh, K. P.

K. P. Walsh, B. Schulkin, D. Gary, J. F. Federici, R. Barat, and D. Zimdars, “Terahertz near field interferometric and synthetic aperture imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5411, 9–17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Whitaker, J. F.

Zhang, X.-C.

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zimdars, D.

A. M. Sinyukov, A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Sengupta, R. Barat, D. Gary, Z.-H. Michalopoulou, D. Zimdars, and J. F. Federici, “Terahertz interferometric and synthetic aperture imaging,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 17, 431–443 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications-explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Walsh, B. Schulkin, D. Gary, J. F. Federici, R. Barat, and D. Zimdars, “Terahertz near field interferometric and synthetic aperture imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5411, 9–17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Federici, D. Gary, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, H. Altan, R. Barat, and D. Zimdars, “Terahertz imaging using an interferometric array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2477–2479 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zimders, D.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

K. McClatchey, M. T. Reiten, and R. A. Cheville, “Time resolved synthetic aperture terahertz impulse imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4485–4487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Löffler, T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, and H. G. Roskos, “Continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a hybrid system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Federici, D. Gary, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, H. Altan, R. Barat, and D. Zimdars, “Terahertz imaging using an interferometric array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2477–2479 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. (1)

A. M. Sinyukov, A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Sengupta, R. Barat, D. Gary, Z.-H. Michalopoulou, D. Zimdars, and J. F. Federici, “Terahertz interferometric and synthetic aperture imaging,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 17, 431–443 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. SPIE (1)

K. P. Walsh, B. Schulkin, D. Gary, J. F. Federici, R. Barat, and D. Zimdars, “Terahertz near field interferometric and synthetic aperture imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5411, 9–17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325–1379(2007).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications-explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, and Z.-H. Michalopoulou, “Detection of explosives by terahertz imaging,” in Counter-Terrorism Detection Techniques of Explosives, J.Yinon, ed. (Elsevier, 2007), p. 323.
[CrossRef]

A. R. Thompson, J. M. Moran, and G. W. Swenson, Interferometry and Synthesis in Radio Astronomy (Krieger, 1991).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Four detector array, (b) corresponding distribution of points in the U–V plane , (c) U–V point distribution with symmetry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Four detector array with row configuration and (b) corresponding distribution of points in the U–V plane.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Four detector array configuration after rotation and (b) corresponding distribution of points in the U–V plane.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of the incoherent detection THz interferometric imaging system configuration.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Spectrum of the PDA receiver with 1 MHz bandwidth at detuning frequencies of 70, 15, and 0 MHz . (b) Frequency spectrum of an incoherent detection waveform acquired from the digitizer: A, signal level and B, average noise floor. (c) Frequency spectrum of coherent detection waveform acquired from the digitizer: A, the peak corresponding to the modulation frequency of 100 kHz and B, average noise floor.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of THz imaging of the GDM source (top row) and simulations (bottom row) at distances of 10.3 m (left), 7.6 m (middle), and 1 m (right).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Simulation image of 20 mm by 40 mm rectangles with limited U–V data and (b) THz image reconstructed with the experimental data.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Simulation image of an object shaped as a cross and (b) THz image reconstructed with the experimental data.

Equations (4)

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σ E ( ξ , η ) = l = 1 N ( N 1 ) / 2 [ Re ( A l e i Δ ϕ l ) cos ( k ( μ l ξ + v l η ) ) Im ( A l e i Δ ϕ l ) sin ( k ( μ l ξ + v l η ) ) ] ,
θ = λ b ,
Δ L lat = θ · Z 0 = λ · Z 0 b .
( u = x n x m λ , v = y n y m λ ) .

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