Abstract

Imaging and sensing applications based on pulsed terahertz radiation have opened new possibilities for scientific and industrial applications. Many exploit the unique features of the terahertz (THz) spectral region, where common packaging materials are transparent and many chemical compounds show characteristic absorptions. Because of their diffraction limit, THz far-field imaging techniques lack microscopic resolution and, if subwavelength features have to be resolved, near-field techniques are required. Here, we present a THz near-field microscopy approach based on photoconductive antennas as the THz emitter and as a near-field probe. Our system allows us to measure amplitude, phase, and polarization of the electric fields in the vicinity of a sample with a spatial resolution on the micrometer scale (λ/20). Using a dielectric (plant leaf) and a metallic structure (microwire) as examples, we demonstrate the capabilities of our approach.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2009 (7)

2008 (6)

A. Bitzer, H. Helm, and M. Walther, “Beam-profiling and wavefront-sensing of thz pulses at the focus of a substrate-lens,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 476–481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Brehm, D. W. van der Weide, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, and F. Keilmann, “Spectroscopic THz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 16, 3430–3438 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zentgraf, J. Dorfmüller, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Amplitude-and phase-resolved optical near fields of split-ring-resonator-based metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 33, 848–850(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. L. Adam, J. M. Brok, M. A. Seo, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, Q. H. Park, M. Nagel, and P. C. M. Planken, “Advanced terahertz electric near-field measurements at sub-wavelength diameter metallic apertures,” Opt. Express 16, 7407–7417(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bitzer and M. Walther, “Terahertz near-field imaging of metallic subwavelength holes and hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 231101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8, 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315, 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 41–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Guo, N. Liu, L. W. Fu, H. Schweizer, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Thickness dependence of the optical properties of split-ring resonator metamaterials,” Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 1256–1261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Seo, A. J. L. Adam, J. H. Kang, J. W. Lee, S. C. Jeoung, Q. H. Park, P. C. M. Planken, and D. S. Kim, “Fourier-transform terahertz near-field imaging of one-dimensional slit arrays: mapping of electric-field-, magnetic-field-, and poynting vectors,” Opt. Express 15, 11781–11789 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

S. Mair, B. Gompf, and M. Dressel, “Spatial and spectral behavior of the optical near field studied by a terahertz near-field spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1219–1221(2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H. T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, “Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3009–3011(2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. C. J. van der Valk and P. C. M. Planken, “Electro-optic detection of subwavelength terahertz spot sizes in the near field of a metal tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1558–1560 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, J. D. Wynn, and J. F. Federici, “Terahertz pulse propagation through small apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 907–909 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and J. Federici, “Terahertz near-field microscopy based on a collection mode detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3496–3498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, M. C. Wanke, R. R. Ruel, J. D. Wynn, A. J. Bruce, and J. Federici, “Near-field microscope probe for far infrared time domain measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 591–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, Z. P. Jiang, G. X. Xu, and X. C. Zhang, “Near-field terahertz imaging with a dynamic aperture,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1122–1124 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, “Thz near-field imaging,” Opt. Commun. 150, 22–26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679–692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1990 (1)

1987 (1)

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C. C. Chi, “Carrier lifetime versus ion-implantation dose in silicon on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460–462 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Adam, A. J. L.

Ahn, K. J.

Aizpurua, J.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8, 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bitzer, A.

A. Bitzer, H. Merbold, A. Thoman, T. Feurer, H. Helm, and M. Walther, “Terahertz near-field imaging of electric and magnetic resonances of a planar metamaterial,” Opt. Express 17, 3826–3834 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bitzer, J. Wallauer, H. Helm, H. Merbold, T. Feurer, and M. Walther, “Lattice modes mediate radiative coupling in metamaterial arrays,” Opt. Express 17, 22108–22113 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bitzer, H. Helm, and M. Walther, “Beam-profiling and wavefront-sensing of thz pulses at the focus of a substrate-lens,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 476–481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Bitzer and M. Walther, “Terahertz near-field imaging of metallic subwavelength holes and hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 231101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, B.

O. Mitrofanov, T. Tan, P. R. Mark, B. Bowden, and J. A. Harrington, “Waveguide mode imaging and dispersion analysis with terahertz near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brehm, M.

Breitenstein, B.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, B. Breitenstein, D. Selmar, and M. Koch, “Evaluation of leaf water status by means of permittivity at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 35, 255–264(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brener, I.

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and J. Federici, “Terahertz near-field microscopy based on a collection mode detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3496–3498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, M. C. Wanke, R. R. Ruel, J. D. Wynn, A. J. Bruce, and J. Federici, “Near-field microscope probe for far infrared time domain measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 591–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, “Thz near-field imaging,” Opt. Commun. 150, 22–26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brok, J. M.

Bruce, A. J.

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, M. C. Wanke, R. R. Ruel, J. D. Wynn, A. J. Bruce, and J. Federici, “Near-field microscope probe for far infrared time domain measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 591–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, “Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3009–3011(2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Chi, C. C.

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C. C. Chi, “Carrier lifetime versus ion-implantation dose in silicon on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460–462 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cho, G. C.

H. T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, “Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3009–3011(2003).
[CrossRef]

Doany, F. E.

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C. C. Chi, “Carrier lifetime versus ion-implantation dose in silicon on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460–462 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dorfmüller, J.

Drachenko, O.

Dressel, M.

S. Mair, B. Gompf, and M. Dressel, “Spatial and spectral behavior of the optical near field studied by a terahertz near-field spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1219–1221(2004).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Etrich, C.

Fattinger, C.

Federici, J.

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, M. C. Wanke, R. R. Ruel, J. D. Wynn, A. J. Bruce, and J. Federici, “Near-field microscope probe for far infrared time domain measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 591–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and J. Federici, “Terahertz near-field microscopy based on a collection mode detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3496–3498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Federici, J. F.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, J. D. Wynn, and J. F. Federici, “Terahertz pulse propagation through small apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 907–909 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Feurer, T.

Fu, L. W.

H. C. Guo, N. Liu, L. W. Fu, H. Schweizer, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Thickness dependence of the optical properties of split-ring resonator metamaterials,” Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 1256–1261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

T. Zentgraf, J. Dorfmüller, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Amplitude-and phase-resolved optical near fields of split-ring-resonator-based metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 33, 848–850(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Guo, N. Liu, L. W. Fu, H. Schweizer, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Thickness dependence of the optical properties of split-ring resonator metamaterials,” Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 1256–1261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gompf, B.

S. Mair, B. Gompf, and M. Dressel, “Spatial and spectral behavior of the optical near field studied by a terahertz near-field spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1219–1221(2004).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. Vanexter, and C. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006–2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C. C. Chi, “Carrier lifetime versus ion-implantation dose in silicon on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460–462 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Guestin, L.

Guo, H. C.

H. C. Guo, N. Liu, L. W. Fu, H. Schweizer, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Thickness dependence of the optical properties of split-ring resonator metamaterials,” Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 1256–1261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harel, R.

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and J. Federici, “Terahertz near-field microscopy based on a collection mode detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3496–3498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harrington, J. A.

O. Mitrofanov, T. Tan, P. R. Mark, B. Bowden, and J. A. Harrington, “Waveguide mode imaging and dispersion analysis with terahertz near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

Helm, M.

Hillenbrand, R.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8, 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, J. W. P.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, J. D. Wynn, and J. F. Federici, “Terahertz pulse propagation through small apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 907–909 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. B.

Huber, A. J.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8, 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunsche, S.

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, “Thz near-field imaging,” Opt. Commun. 150, 22–26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, R. H.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679–692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jeoung, S. C.

Jiang, Z. P.

Jördens, C.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, B. Breitenstein, D. Selmar, and M. Koch, “Evaluation of leaf water status by means of permittivity at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 35, 255–264(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaiser, S.

H. C. Guo, N. Liu, L. W. Fu, H. Schweizer, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Thickness dependence of the optical properties of split-ring resonator metamaterials,” Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 1256–1261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. H.

Keiding, S.

Keilmann, F.

H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Brehm, D. W. van der Weide, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, and F. Keilmann, “Spectroscopic THz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 16, 3430–3438 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8, 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kern, K.

Kersting, R.

H. T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, “Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3009–3011(2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

Knab, J. R.

Koch, M.

M. Scheller and M. Koch, “Terahertz quasi time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17, 17723–17733 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, B. Breitenstein, D. Selmar, and M. Koch, “Evaluation of leaf water status by means of permittivity at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 35, 255–264(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, “Thz near-field imaging,” Opt. Commun. 150, 22–26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

Lee, J. W.

Lee, M.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, J. D. Wynn, and J. F. Federici, “Terahertz pulse propagation through small apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 907–909 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315, 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

H. C. Guo, N. Liu, L. W. Fu, H. Schweizer, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Thickness dependence of the optical properties of split-ring resonator metamaterials,” Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 1256–1261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mair, S.

S. Mair, B. Gompf, and M. Dressel, “Spatial and spectral behavior of the optical near field studied by a terahertz near-field spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1219–1221(2004).
[CrossRef]

Mark, P. R.

O. Mitrofanov, T. Tan, P. R. Mark, B. Bowden, and J. A. Harrington, “Waveguide mode imaging and dispersion analysis with terahertz near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Merbold, H.

Mitrofanov, O.

O. Mitrofanov, T. Tan, P. R. Mark, B. Bowden, and J. A. Harrington, “Waveguide mode imaging and dispersion analysis with terahertz near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, M. C. Wanke, R. R. Ruel, J. D. Wynn, A. J. Bruce, and J. Federici, “Near-field microscope probe for far infrared time domain measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 591–593 (2000).
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O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and J. Federici, “Terahertz near-field microscopy based on a collection mode detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3496–3498 (2000).
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O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, J. D. Wynn, and J. F. Federici, “Terahertz pulse propagation through small apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 907–909 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and J. Federici, “Terahertz near-field microscopy based on a collection mode detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3496–3498 (2000).
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O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, M. C. Wanke, R. R. Ruel, J. D. Wynn, A. J. Bruce, and J. Federici, “Near-field microscope probe for far infrared time domain measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 591–593 (2000).
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[CrossRef]

Selmar, D.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, B. Breitenstein, D. Selmar, and M. Koch, “Evaluation of leaf water status by means of permittivity at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 35, 255–264(2009).
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O. Mitrofanov, T. Tan, P. R. Mark, B. Bowden, and J. A. Harrington, “Waveguide mode imaging and dispersion analysis with terahertz near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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N. C. J. van der Valk and P. C. M. Planken, “Electro-optic detection of subwavelength terahertz spot sizes in the near field of a metal tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1558–1560 (2002).
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A. Bitzer, H. Merbold, A. Thoman, T. Feurer, H. Helm, and M. Walther, “Terahertz near-field imaging of electric and magnetic resonances of a planar metamaterial,” Opt. Express 17, 3826–3834 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

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O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, M. C. Wanke, R. R. Ruel, J. D. Wynn, A. J. Bruce, and J. Federici, “Near-field microscope probe for far infrared time domain measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 591–593 (2000).
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O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, J. D. Wynn, and J. F. Federici, “Terahertz pulse propagation through small apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 907–909 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and J. Federici, “Terahertz near-field microscopy based on a collection mode detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3496–3498 (2000).
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T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
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O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, J. D. Wynn, and J. F. Federici, “Terahertz pulse propagation through small apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 907–909 (2001).
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O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and J. Federici, “Terahertz near-field microscopy based on a collection mode detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3496–3498 (2000).
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O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, M. C. Wanke, R. R. Ruel, J. D. Wynn, A. J. Bruce, and J. Federici, “Near-field microscope probe for far infrared time domain measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 591–593 (2000).
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Zentgraf, T.

Zhang, X. C.

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[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and J. Federici, “Terahertz near-field microscopy based on a collection mode detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3496–3498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, M. C. Wanke, R. R. Ruel, J. D. Wynn, A. J. Bruce, and J. Federici, “Near-field microscope probe for far infrared time domain measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 591–593 (2000).
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[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, J. D. Wynn, and J. F. Federici, “Terahertz pulse propagation through small apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 907–909 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. Bitzer, H. Helm, and M. Walther, “Beam-profiling and wavefront-sensing of thz pulses at the focus of a substrate-lens,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 476–481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679–692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Biol. Phys. (1)

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, B. Breitenstein, D. Selmar, and M. Koch, “Evaluation of leaf water status by means of permittivity at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 35, 255–264(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nano Lett. (1)

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8, 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 41–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, “Thz near-field imaging,” Opt. Commun. 150, 22–26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (8)

H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Brehm, D. W. van der Weide, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, and F. Keilmann, “Spectroscopic THz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 16, 3430–3438 (2008).
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A. Bitzer, H. Merbold, A. Thoman, T. Feurer, H. Helm, and M. Walther, “Terahertz near-field imaging of electric and magnetic resonances of a planar metamaterial,” Opt. Express 17, 3826–3834 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Seo, A. J. L. Adam, J. H. Kang, J. W. Lee, S. C. Jeoung, Q. H. Park, P. C. M. Planken, and D. S. Kim, “Fourier-transform terahertz near-field imaging of one-dimensional slit arrays: mapping of electric-field-, magnetic-field-, and poynting vectors,” Opt. Express 15, 11781–11789 (2007).
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A. J. L. Adam, J. M. Brok, M. A. Seo, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, Q. H. Park, M. Nagel, and P. C. M. Planken, “Advanced terahertz electric near-field measurements at sub-wavelength diameter metallic apertures,” Opt. Express 16, 7407–7417(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Scheller and M. Koch, “Terahertz quasi time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17, 17723–17733 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bitzer, J. Wallauer, H. Helm, H. Merbold, T. Feurer, and M. Walther, “Lattice modes mediate radiative coupling in metamaterial arrays,” Opt. Express 17, 22108–22113 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Guestin, A. J. L. Adam, J. R. Knab, M. Nagel, and P. C. M. Planken, “Influence of the dielectric substrate on the terahertz electric near-field of a hole in a metal,” Opt. Express 17, 17412–17425 (2009).
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J. R. Knab, A. J. L. Adam, M. Nagel, E. Shaner, M. A. Seo, D. S. Kim, and P. C. M. Planken, “Terahertz near-field vectorial imaging of subwavelength apertures and aperture arrays,” Opt. Express 17, 15072–15086 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

H. C. Guo, N. Liu, L. W. Fu, H. Schweizer, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Thickness dependence of the optical properties of split-ring resonator metamaterials,” Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 1256–1261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315, 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (2550 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (2987 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) THz near-field microscopy setup. The output of a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser is split by a beam splitter (BS) into excitation and probe beams that are focused by lenses (L) onto a photoconductive THz emitter and a detector, respectively. The emitted THz pulses are focused by a pair of off-axis paraboloid mirrors M1 and M2 onto the sample. The THz electric field is spatially mapped at the backside of the sample by raster scanning either the sample or the detector unit in the x and y directions. (b) Electrode structure of the detector antenna used as a THz near-field probe.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

THz waveform recorded at each spatial pixel. Fourier transformation yields the amplitude (A) and phase (ϕ) spectra. Backtransformation of the complex amplitude data at a single frequency yields the frequency-filtered electric field in the TD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) THz near-field imaging of a small plant leaf that was raster scanned in front of the stationary near-field detector. (b) The approximate position of the scanned area ( 5 mm × 5 mm ) is indicated by the square. Amplitude (c) and phase image (d) plotted at 1.36 THz . Dark colors correspond to low transmission or a large induced phase, respectively. The leaf was scanned with a spatial resolution of 50 μm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time-sequence of the electric field component E x measured in the near field of a short metal wire after excitation by an x-polarized THz pulse (Media 1). The dashed lines indicate the center of the propagating THz wave packet.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a), (b) Experimental configuration for mapping the x and y components of the electric near field. (c) The investigated structure is a metal wire on a PTFE substrate. (d) A far-field transmission spectrum of a square array of these wires shows transmission minima at the characteristic resonances of the structure. (e) Vector plots of the in-plane electric field measured close to the wire at its fundamental resonances (Media 2). The color code indicates the out-of-plane component of the magnetic field. The directions of the resonant currents are schematically sketched in the insets.

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