Abstract

A 980nm bottom-emitting vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a p-contact diameter is reported to achieve high power and good beam quality. A numerical simulation is conducted on the current spreading in a VCSEL with oxidation between the active region and the p-type distributed Bragg reflector. It is found that, for a particular oxide aperture diameter, somewhat homogeneous current distribution can be achieved for a VCSEL with an optimized p-contact diameter. The far-field divergence angle from a 600μm diameter VCSEL is suppressed from 30° to 15°, and no strong sidelobe is observed in the far-field pattern by using the optimized p-contact diameter. There is a slight rise in threshold and optical output power that is due to the p-contact optimization. By improving the device packaging method, the maximum optical output power of the device is 2.01W.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. W. Chow, K. D. Choquette, M. H. Crawford, K. L. Lear, and G. R. Hadley, “Design, fabrication, and performance of infrared and visible vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1810–1824 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Iga, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser: its conception and evolution,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1–10 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. H. Peters, M. G. Peters, D. B. Young, J. W. Scott, B. J. Thibeault, S. W. Corzine, and L. A. Coldren, “High-power vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 200–201 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Jager, M. Grabherr, C. Jung, R. Michalzik, G. Reiner, B. Weigl, and K. J. Ebeling, “57% wallplug efficiency oxide-confined 850 nm wavelength GaAs VCSELs,” Electron. Lett. 33, 330–331 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Wang, A. D. Rakić, and M. L. Majewski, “Design of microchannel free-space optical interconnects based on vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3469–3478(2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. C. Amann, M. Ortsiefer, R. Shau, and J. Robkopf, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes for telecommunication wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 4871, 123–129 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Sun, Z. Jin, Y. Ning, L. Qin, C. Yan, G. Luo, G. Tao, Y. Liu, L. Wang, D. Cui, H. Li, and Z. Xu, “Fabrication and experimental characterization of high power bottom-emitting VCSELs,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 12, 449–453 (2004).
  8. Y. P. Lan, Y.-F. Chen, K. F. Huang, H. C. Lai, and J. S. Pan, “Oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers pumped Nd:YVO4 microchip lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 272–274 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J.-F. Seurin, C. L. Ghosh, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, G. Xu, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, and L. A. D’Asaro, “High-power high-efficiency 2D VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 690808 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. S. Bjorlin, T. Kimura, Q. Chen, C. Wang, and J. E. Bowers, “High output power 1540 nm vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 121–123 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Bouwmans, R. M. Percival, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “High-power Er:Yb fiber laser with very high numerical aperture pump-cladding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 817–818 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H.-P. D. Yang, I.-C. Hsu, F.-I. Lai, H.-C. Kuo, and J. Y. Chi, “High-power single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with multi-leaf holey structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L871–L873 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Zhou and L. J. Mawst, “High-power single-mode antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1599–1606(2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Chang, Y. Song, and Y. Lee, “Stable single-mode operation of VCSELs with a mode selective aperture,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 231–234 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. R. Hadley, K. L. Lear, M. E. Warren, K. D. Choquette, J. W. Scott, and S. W. Corzine, “Comprehensive numerical modeling of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 607–616 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Angelos, S. Hinckley, R. Michalzik, and V. Voignier, “Simulation of current spreading in bottom-emitting vertical cavity surface emitting lasers for high power operation,” Proc. SPIE 5277, 261–272 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J.-F. Seurin, C. L. Ghosh, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, G. Xu, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, and L. A. D’Asaro, “High-power high-efficiency 2D VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 690808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Iga, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser: its conception and evolution,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1–10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

K. Chang, Y. Song, and Y. Lee, “Stable single-mode operation of VCSELs with a mode selective aperture,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 231–234 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

H.-P. D. Yang, I.-C. Hsu, F.-I. Lai, H.-C. Kuo, and J. Y. Chi, “High-power single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with multi-leaf holey structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L871–L873 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

E. S. Bjorlin, T. Kimura, Q. Chen, C. Wang, and J. E. Bowers, “High output power 1540 nm vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 121–123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, Z. Jin, Y. Ning, L. Qin, C. Yan, G. Luo, G. Tao, Y. Liu, L. Wang, D. Cui, H. Li, and Z. Xu, “Fabrication and experimental characterization of high power bottom-emitting VCSELs,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 12, 449–453 (2004).

C. Angelos, S. Hinckley, R. Michalzik, and V. Voignier, “Simulation of current spreading in bottom-emitting vertical cavity surface emitting lasers for high power operation,” Proc. SPIE 5277, 261–272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

G. Bouwmans, R. M. Percival, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “High-power Er:Yb fiber laser with very high numerical aperture pump-cladding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 817–818 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

Y. P. Lan, Y.-F. Chen, K. F. Huang, H. C. Lai, and J. S. Pan, “Oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers pumped Nd:YVO4 microchip lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 272–274 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhou and L. J. Mawst, “High-power single-mode antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1599–1606(2002).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Amann, M. Ortsiefer, R. Shau, and J. Robkopf, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes for telecommunication wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 4871, 123–129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Wang, A. D. Rakić, and M. L. Majewski, “Design of microchannel free-space optical interconnects based on vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3469–3478(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

R. Jager, M. Grabherr, C. Jung, R. Michalzik, G. Reiner, B. Weigl, and K. J. Ebeling, “57% wallplug efficiency oxide-confined 850 nm wavelength GaAs VCSELs,” Electron. Lett. 33, 330–331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Chow, K. D. Choquette, M. H. Crawford, K. L. Lear, and G. R. Hadley, “Design, fabrication, and performance of infrared and visible vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1810–1824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

G. R. Hadley, K. L. Lear, M. E. Warren, K. D. Choquette, J. W. Scott, and S. W. Corzine, “Comprehensive numerical modeling of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 607–616 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

F. H. Peters, M. G. Peters, D. B. Young, J. W. Scott, B. J. Thibeault, S. W. Corzine, and L. A. Coldren, “High-power vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 200–201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Amann, M. C.

M. C. Amann, M. Ortsiefer, R. Shau, and J. Robkopf, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes for telecommunication wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 4871, 123–129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Angelos, C.

C. Angelos, S. Hinckley, R. Michalzik, and V. Voignier, “Simulation of current spreading in bottom-emitting vertical cavity surface emitting lasers for high power operation,” Proc. SPIE 5277, 261–272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bjorlin, E. S.

E. S. Bjorlin, T. Kimura, Q. Chen, C. Wang, and J. E. Bowers, “High output power 1540 nm vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 121–123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bouwmans, G.

G. Bouwmans, R. M. Percival, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “High-power Er:Yb fiber laser with very high numerical aperture pump-cladding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 817–818 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

E. S. Bjorlin, T. Kimura, Q. Chen, C. Wang, and J. E. Bowers, “High output power 1540 nm vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 121–123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, K.

K. Chang, Y. Song, and Y. Lee, “Stable single-mode operation of VCSELs with a mode selective aperture,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 231–234 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-F.

Y. P. Lan, Y.-F. Chen, K. F. Huang, H. C. Lai, and J. S. Pan, “Oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers pumped Nd:YVO4 microchip lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 272–274 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

E. S. Bjorlin, T. Kimura, Q. Chen, C. Wang, and J. E. Bowers, “High output power 1540 nm vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 121–123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chi, J. Y.

H.-P. D. Yang, I.-C. Hsu, F.-I. Lai, H.-C. Kuo, and J. Y. Chi, “High-power single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with multi-leaf holey structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L871–L873 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choquette, K. D.

W. W. Chow, K. D. Choquette, M. H. Crawford, K. L. Lear, and G. R. Hadley, “Design, fabrication, and performance of infrared and visible vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1810–1824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Hadley, K. L. Lear, M. E. Warren, K. D. Choquette, J. W. Scott, and S. W. Corzine, “Comprehensive numerical modeling of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 607–616 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chow, W. W.

W. W. Chow, K. D. Choquette, M. H. Crawford, K. L. Lear, and G. R. Hadley, “Design, fabrication, and performance of infrared and visible vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1810–1824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

F. H. Peters, M. G. Peters, D. B. Young, J. W. Scott, B. J. Thibeault, S. W. Corzine, and L. A. Coldren, “High-power vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 200–201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Corzine, S. W.

G. R. Hadley, K. L. Lear, M. E. Warren, K. D. Choquette, J. W. Scott, and S. W. Corzine, “Comprehensive numerical modeling of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 607–616 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Peters, M. G. Peters, D. B. Young, J. W. Scott, B. J. Thibeault, S. W. Corzine, and L. A. Coldren, “High-power vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 200–201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M. H.

W. W. Chow, K. D. Choquette, M. H. Crawford, K. L. Lear, and G. R. Hadley, “Design, fabrication, and performance of infrared and visible vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1810–1824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cui, D.

Y. Sun, Z. Jin, Y. Ning, L. Qin, C. Yan, G. Luo, G. Tao, Y. Liu, L. Wang, D. Cui, H. Li, and Z. Xu, “Fabrication and experimental characterization of high power bottom-emitting VCSELs,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 12, 449–453 (2004).

D’Asaro, L. A.

J.-F. Seurin, C. L. Ghosh, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, G. Xu, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, and L. A. D’Asaro, “High-power high-efficiency 2D VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 690808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ebeling, K. J.

R. Jager, M. Grabherr, C. Jung, R. Michalzik, G. Reiner, B. Weigl, and K. J. Ebeling, “57% wallplug efficiency oxide-confined 850 nm wavelength GaAs VCSELs,” Electron. Lett. 33, 330–331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, C. L.

J.-F. Seurin, C. L. Ghosh, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, G. Xu, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, and L. A. D’Asaro, “High-power high-efficiency 2D VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 690808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grabherr, M.

R. Jager, M. Grabherr, C. Jung, R. Michalzik, G. Reiner, B. Weigl, and K. J. Ebeling, “57% wallplug efficiency oxide-confined 850 nm wavelength GaAs VCSELs,” Electron. Lett. 33, 330–331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hadley, G. R.

W. W. Chow, K. D. Choquette, M. H. Crawford, K. L. Lear, and G. R. Hadley, “Design, fabrication, and performance of infrared and visible vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1810–1824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Hadley, K. L. Lear, M. E. Warren, K. D. Choquette, J. W. Scott, and S. W. Corzine, “Comprehensive numerical modeling of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 607–616 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hinckley, S.

C. Angelos, S. Hinckley, R. Michalzik, and V. Voignier, “Simulation of current spreading in bottom-emitting vertical cavity surface emitting lasers for high power operation,” Proc. SPIE 5277, 261–272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, I.-C.

H.-P. D. Yang, I.-C. Hsu, F.-I. Lai, H.-C. Kuo, and J. Y. Chi, “High-power single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with multi-leaf holey structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L871–L873 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K. F.

Y. P. Lan, Y.-F. Chen, K. F. Huang, H. C. Lai, and J. S. Pan, “Oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers pumped Nd:YVO4 microchip lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 272–274 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iga, K.

K. Iga, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser: its conception and evolution,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1–10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jager, R.

R. Jager, M. Grabherr, C. Jung, R. Michalzik, G. Reiner, B. Weigl, and K. J. Ebeling, “57% wallplug efficiency oxide-confined 850 nm wavelength GaAs VCSELs,” Electron. Lett. 33, 330–331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Z.

Y. Sun, Z. Jin, Y. Ning, L. Qin, C. Yan, G. Luo, G. Tao, Y. Liu, L. Wang, D. Cui, H. Li, and Z. Xu, “Fabrication and experimental characterization of high power bottom-emitting VCSELs,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 12, 449–453 (2004).

Jung, C.

R. Jager, M. Grabherr, C. Jung, R. Michalzik, G. Reiner, B. Weigl, and K. J. Ebeling, “57% wallplug efficiency oxide-confined 850 nm wavelength GaAs VCSELs,” Electron. Lett. 33, 330–331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Khalfin, V.

J.-F. Seurin, C. L. Ghosh, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, G. Xu, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, and L. A. D’Asaro, “High-power high-efficiency 2D VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 690808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, T.

E. S. Bjorlin, T. Kimura, Q. Chen, C. Wang, and J. E. Bowers, “High output power 1540 nm vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 121–123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

G. Bouwmans, R. M. Percival, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “High-power Er:Yb fiber laser with very high numerical aperture pump-cladding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 817–818 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H.-C.

H.-P. D. Yang, I.-C. Hsu, F.-I. Lai, H.-C. Kuo, and J. Y. Chi, “High-power single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with multi-leaf holey structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L871–L873 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lai, F.-I.

H.-P. D. Yang, I.-C. Hsu, F.-I. Lai, H.-C. Kuo, and J. Y. Chi, “High-power single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with multi-leaf holey structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L871–L873 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lai, H. C.

Y. P. Lan, Y.-F. Chen, K. F. Huang, H. C. Lai, and J. S. Pan, “Oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers pumped Nd:YVO4 microchip lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 272–274 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lan, Y. P.

Y. P. Lan, Y.-F. Chen, K. F. Huang, H. C. Lai, and J. S. Pan, “Oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers pumped Nd:YVO4 microchip lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 272–274 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lear, K. L.

W. W. Chow, K. D. Choquette, M. H. Crawford, K. L. Lear, and G. R. Hadley, “Design, fabrication, and performance of infrared and visible vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1810–1824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Hadley, K. L. Lear, M. E. Warren, K. D. Choquette, J. W. Scott, and S. W. Corzine, “Comprehensive numerical modeling of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 607–616 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

K. Chang, Y. Song, and Y. Lee, “Stable single-mode operation of VCSELs with a mode selective aperture,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 231–234 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Y. Sun, Z. Jin, Y. Ning, L. Qin, C. Yan, G. Luo, G. Tao, Y. Liu, L. Wang, D. Cui, H. Li, and Z. Xu, “Fabrication and experimental characterization of high power bottom-emitting VCSELs,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 12, 449–453 (2004).

Liu, Y.

Y. Sun, Z. Jin, Y. Ning, L. Qin, C. Yan, G. Luo, G. Tao, Y. Liu, L. Wang, D. Cui, H. Li, and Z. Xu, “Fabrication and experimental characterization of high power bottom-emitting VCSELs,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 12, 449–453 (2004).

Luo, G.

Y. Sun, Z. Jin, Y. Ning, L. Qin, C. Yan, G. Luo, G. Tao, Y. Liu, L. Wang, D. Cui, H. Li, and Z. Xu, “Fabrication and experimental characterization of high power bottom-emitting VCSELs,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 12, 449–453 (2004).

Majewski, M. L.

Mawst, L. J.

D. Zhou and L. J. Mawst, “High-power single-mode antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1599–1606(2002).
[CrossRef]

Michalzik, R.

C. Angelos, S. Hinckley, R. Michalzik, and V. Voignier, “Simulation of current spreading in bottom-emitting vertical cavity surface emitting lasers for high power operation,” Proc. SPIE 5277, 261–272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Jager, M. Grabherr, C. Jung, R. Michalzik, G. Reiner, B. Weigl, and K. J. Ebeling, “57% wallplug efficiency oxide-confined 850 nm wavelength GaAs VCSELs,” Electron. Lett. 33, 330–331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miglo, A.

J.-F. Seurin, C. L. Ghosh, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, G. Xu, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, and L. A. D’Asaro, “High-power high-efficiency 2D VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 690808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ning, Y.

Y. Sun, Z. Jin, Y. Ning, L. Qin, C. Yan, G. Luo, G. Tao, Y. Liu, L. Wang, D. Cui, H. Li, and Z. Xu, “Fabrication and experimental characterization of high power bottom-emitting VCSELs,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 12, 449–453 (2004).

Ortsiefer, M.

M. C. Amann, M. Ortsiefer, R. Shau, and J. Robkopf, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes for telecommunication wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 4871, 123–129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J. S.

Y. P. Lan, Y.-F. Chen, K. F. Huang, H. C. Lai, and J. S. Pan, “Oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers pumped Nd:YVO4 microchip lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 272–274 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Percival, R. M.

G. Bouwmans, R. M. Percival, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “High-power Er:Yb fiber laser with very high numerical aperture pump-cladding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 817–818 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peters, F. H.

F. H. Peters, M. G. Peters, D. B. Young, J. W. Scott, B. J. Thibeault, S. W. Corzine, and L. A. Coldren, “High-power vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 200–201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Peters, M. G.

F. H. Peters, M. G. Peters, D. B. Young, J. W. Scott, B. J. Thibeault, S. W. Corzine, and L. A. Coldren, “High-power vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 200–201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, P.

J.-F. Seurin, C. L. Ghosh, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, G. Xu, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, and L. A. D’Asaro, “High-power high-efficiency 2D VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 690808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qin, L.

Y. Sun, Z. Jin, Y. Ning, L. Qin, C. Yan, G. Luo, G. Tao, Y. Liu, L. Wang, D. Cui, H. Li, and Z. Xu, “Fabrication and experimental characterization of high power bottom-emitting VCSELs,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 12, 449–453 (2004).

Rakic, A. D.

Reiner, G.

R. Jager, M. Grabherr, C. Jung, R. Michalzik, G. Reiner, B. Weigl, and K. J. Ebeling, “57% wallplug efficiency oxide-confined 850 nm wavelength GaAs VCSELs,” Electron. Lett. 33, 330–331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Robkopf, J.

M. C. Amann, M. Ortsiefer, R. Shau, and J. Robkopf, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes for telecommunication wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 4871, 123–129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

G. Bouwmans, R. M. Percival, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “High-power Er:Yb fiber laser with very high numerical aperture pump-cladding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 817–818 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scott, J. W.

F. H. Peters, M. G. Peters, D. B. Young, J. W. Scott, B. J. Thibeault, S. W. Corzine, and L. A. Coldren, “High-power vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 200–201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Scott, J. W.

G. R. Hadley, K. L. Lear, M. E. Warren, K. D. Choquette, J. W. Scott, and S. W. Corzine, “Comprehensive numerical modeling of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 607–616 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Seurin, J.-F.

J.-F. Seurin, C. L. Ghosh, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, G. Xu, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, and L. A. D’Asaro, “High-power high-efficiency 2D VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 690808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shau, R.

M. C. Amann, M. Ortsiefer, R. Shau, and J. Robkopf, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes for telecommunication wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 4871, 123–129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.

K. Chang, Y. Song, and Y. Lee, “Stable single-mode operation of VCSELs with a mode selective aperture,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 231–234 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, Z. Jin, Y. Ning, L. Qin, C. Yan, G. Luo, G. Tao, Y. Liu, L. Wang, D. Cui, H. Li, and Z. Xu, “Fabrication and experimental characterization of high power bottom-emitting VCSELs,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 12, 449–453 (2004).

Tao, G.

Y. Sun, Z. Jin, Y. Ning, L. Qin, C. Yan, G. Luo, G. Tao, Y. Liu, L. Wang, D. Cui, H. Li, and Z. Xu, “Fabrication and experimental characterization of high power bottom-emitting VCSELs,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 12, 449–453 (2004).

Thibeault, B. J.

F. H. Peters, M. G. Peters, D. B. Young, J. W. Scott, B. J. Thibeault, S. W. Corzine, and L. A. Coldren, “High-power vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 200–201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Voignier, V.

C. Angelos, S. Hinckley, R. Michalzik, and V. Voignier, “Simulation of current spreading in bottom-emitting vertical cavity surface emitting lasers for high power operation,” Proc. SPIE 5277, 261–272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

G. Bouwmans, R. M. Percival, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “High-power Er:Yb fiber laser with very high numerical aperture pump-cladding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 817–818 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

E. S. Bjorlin, T. Kimura, Q. Chen, C. Wang, and J. E. Bowers, “High output power 1540 nm vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 121–123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Y. Sun, Z. Jin, Y. Ning, L. Qin, C. Yan, G. Luo, G. Tao, Y. Liu, L. Wang, D. Cui, H. Li, and Z. Xu, “Fabrication and experimental characterization of high power bottom-emitting VCSELs,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 12, 449–453 (2004).

Wang, R.

Warren, M. E.

G. R. Hadley, K. L. Lear, M. E. Warren, K. D. Choquette, J. W. Scott, and S. W. Corzine, “Comprehensive numerical modeling of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 607–616 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weigl, B.

R. Jager, M. Grabherr, C. Jung, R. Michalzik, G. Reiner, B. Weigl, and K. J. Ebeling, “57% wallplug efficiency oxide-confined 850 nm wavelength GaAs VCSELs,” Electron. Lett. 33, 330–331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wynn, J. D.

J.-F. Seurin, C. L. Ghosh, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, G. Xu, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, and L. A. D’Asaro, “High-power high-efficiency 2D VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 690808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G.

J.-F. Seurin, C. L. Ghosh, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, G. Xu, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, and L. A. D’Asaro, “High-power high-efficiency 2D VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 690808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Y. Sun, Z. Jin, Y. Ning, L. Qin, C. Yan, G. Luo, G. Tao, Y. Liu, L. Wang, D. Cui, H. Li, and Z. Xu, “Fabrication and experimental characterization of high power bottom-emitting VCSELs,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 12, 449–453 (2004).

Yan, C.

Y. Sun, Z. Jin, Y. Ning, L. Qin, C. Yan, G. Luo, G. Tao, Y. Liu, L. Wang, D. Cui, H. Li, and Z. Xu, “Fabrication and experimental characterization of high power bottom-emitting VCSELs,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 12, 449–453 (2004).

Yang, H.-P. D.

H.-P. D. Yang, I.-C. Hsu, F.-I. Lai, H.-C. Kuo, and J. Y. Chi, “High-power single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with multi-leaf holey structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L871–L873 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Young, D. B.

F. H. Peters, M. G. Peters, D. B. Young, J. W. Scott, B. J. Thibeault, S. W. Corzine, and L. A. Coldren, “High-power vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 200–201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, D.

D. Zhou and L. J. Mawst, “High-power single-mode antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1599–1606(2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

K. Chang, Y. Song, and Y. Lee, “Stable single-mode operation of VCSELs with a mode selective aperture,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 231–234 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Bouwmans, R. M. Percival, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “High-power Er:Yb fiber laser with very high numerical aperture pump-cladding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 817–818 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

E. S. Bjorlin, T. Kimura, Q. Chen, C. Wang, and J. E. Bowers, “High output power 1540 nm vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 121–123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Peters, M. G. Peters, D. B. Young, J. W. Scott, B. J. Thibeault, S. W. Corzine, and L. A. Coldren, “High-power vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 200–201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Jager, M. Grabherr, C. Jung, R. Michalzik, G. Reiner, B. Weigl, and K. J. Ebeling, “57% wallplug efficiency oxide-confined 850 nm wavelength GaAs VCSELs,” Electron. Lett. 33, 330–331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

G. R. Hadley, K. L. Lear, M. E. Warren, K. D. Choquette, J. W. Scott, and S. W. Corzine, “Comprehensive numerical modeling of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 607–616 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Chow, K. D. Choquette, M. H. Crawford, K. L. Lear, and G. R. Hadley, “Design, fabrication, and performance of infrared and visible vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1810–1824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhou and L. J. Mawst, “High-power single-mode antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1599–1606(2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. P. Lan, Y.-F. Chen, K. F. Huang, H. C. Lai, and J. S. Pan, “Oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers pumped Nd:YVO4 microchip lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 272–274 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

H.-P. D. Yang, I.-C. Hsu, F.-I. Lai, H.-C. Kuo, and J. Y. Chi, “High-power single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with multi-leaf holey structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L871–L873 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Iga, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser: its conception and evolution,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1–10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Precis. Eng. (1)

Y. Sun, Z. Jin, Y. Ning, L. Qin, C. Yan, G. Luo, G. Tao, Y. Liu, L. Wang, D. Cui, H. Li, and Z. Xu, “Fabrication and experimental characterization of high power bottom-emitting VCSELs,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 12, 449–453 (2004).

Proc. SPIE (3)

M. C. Amann, M. Ortsiefer, R. Shau, and J. Robkopf, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes for telecommunication wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 4871, 123–129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Seurin, C. L. Ghosh, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, G. Xu, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, and L. A. D’Asaro, “High-power high-efficiency 2D VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 690808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Angelos, S. Hinckley, R. Michalzik, and V. Voignier, “Simulation of current spreading in bottom-emitting vertical cavity surface emitting lasers for high power operation,” Proc. SPIE 5277, 261–272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the device structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Current density profiles for VCSEL of a 600 μm oxide aperture diameter with varying p-contact diameters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the measured far-field pattern at different injection currents ( I = 1 , 2 , and 4 A ) between devices with 650 and 580 μm p-contact diameters: dotted curve, 1 A; dashed curve, 2 A; solid curve, 4 A. (a) Devices with a 650 μm p-contact diameter; inset, near-field pattern at I = 4 A . (b) Devices with a 580 μm p-contact diameter; inset, near-field pattern at I = 4 A .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of optical output power characteristics between devices with a 650 and a 580 μm p-contact diameter: solid curve, 650 μm ; dashed curve, 580 μm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical output power characteristics of the device; inset, measured lasing wavelength at an injection current of 6 A .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Homogeneous Radial and Longitudinal Conductivity Values in ( Ω · m ) 1 for Each Region of the VCSEL

Equations (4)

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· ( σ · · U ) = 0.
σ z = 1 ρ = J c d reg V ( Ω · m ) 1 ,
σ r = 1 ρ r = ( d 1 ρ 1 + d 2 ρ 2 + d 3 ρ 3 + + d n ρ n ) ( d 1 + d 2 + d 3 + + d n ) , n = 1 , 2 , 3 , , n + 1 ,
J z = σ z · U .

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