Abstract

We report on the development of a low-cost and compact instrument for quantifying atmospheric NO2 concentrations by detecting NO2 fluorescence using a commercial light-emitting diode around 435nm as a fluorescence excitation light source. The minimum detectable limit of the NO2 instrument developed has been estimated to be 9.8 parts per billion of volume mixing ratio (ppbv) in a 60s integration time and with a signal-to-noise ratio of 2.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009

C. Dari-Salisburgo , P. Di Carlo , F. Giammaria , Y. Kajii , and A. D'Altorio , “Laser induced fluorescence instrument for NO2 measurements: Observations at a central Italy background site,” Atmos. Environ. 43, 970-977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Wu , W. Zhao , W. Chen , W. Zhang , and X. Gao , “Incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy for in situ measurements of NO2 with a blue light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 85-94 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

T. Gherman , D. S. Venables , S. Vaughan , J. Orphal , and A. A. Ruth , “Incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in the near-ultraviolet: application to HONO and NO2,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, 890-895 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Triki , P. Cermak , G. Méjean , and D. Romanini , “Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a red LED source for NOx trace analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 195-201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

E. J. Dunlea , S. C. Herndon , D. D. Nelson , R. M. Volkamer , F. San Martini , P. M. Sheehy , M. S. Zahniser , J. H. Shorter , J. C. Wormhoudt , B. K. Lamb , E. J. Allwine , J. S. Gaffney , N. A. Marley , M. Grutter , C. Marquez , S. Blanco , B. Cardenas , A. Retama , C. R. Ramos Villegas , C. E. Kolb , L. T. Molina , and M. Molina , “Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide chemiluminescence monitors in a polluted urban environment,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 2691-2704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Taketani , M. Kawai , K. Takahashi , and Y. Matsumi , “Trace detection of atmospheric NO2 by laser-induced fluorescence using a GaN diode laser and a diode-pumped YAG laser,” Appl. Opt. 46, 907-915 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

G. D. Santiago , M. G. González , A. L. Peuriot , F. González , and Verónica B. Slezak , “Blue light-emitting diode-based, enhanced resonant excitation of longitudinal acoustic modes in a closed pipe with application to NO2,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Langridge , S. M. Ball , and R. L. Jones , “A compact broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for detection of atmospheric NO2 using light emitting diodes,” Analyst (Amsterdam) 131, 916-922 (2006).

H. D. Osthoff , S. S. Brown , T. B. Ryerson , T. J. Fortin , B. M. Lerner , E. J. Williams , A. Pettersson , T. Baynard , W. P. Dubé , S. J. Ciciora , and A. R. Ravishankara , “Measurement of atmospheric NO2 by pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D12305 (2006), doi:10.1029/2005JD006942.
[CrossRef]

2005

R. Wada and A. J. Orr-Ewing , “Continuous wave cavity-ring down spectroscopy measurement of NO2 mixing ratios in ambient air,” Analyst (Amsterdam) 130, 1595-1600 (2005).

P. L. Kebabian , S. C. Herndon , and A. Freedman , “Detection of nitrogen dioxide by cavity attenuated phase shift spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 77, 724-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

R. Atkinson , D. L. Baulch , R. A. Cox , J. N. Crowley , R. F. Hampson , R. G. Hynes , M. E. Jenkin , M. J. Rossi , and J. Troe , “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: volume I--gas phase reactions of Ox, HOx, NOx and SOx species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1461-1738(2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. Orphal , “A critical review of the absorption cross-sections of O3 and NO2 in the ultraviolet and visible,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 157, 185-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Matsumoto and Y. Kajii , “Improved analyzer for nitrogen dioxide by laser-induced fluorescence technique,” Atmos. Environ. 37, 4847-4851 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Slezak , G. Santiago , and A. L. Peuriot , “Photoacoustic detection of NO2 traces with CW and pulsed green lasers,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 40, 33-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Kasyutich , C. S. E. Bale , C. E. Canosa-Mas , C. Perfang , S. Vaughan , and R. P. Wayne , “Cavity-enhanced absorption: detection of nitrogen dioxide and iodine monoxide using a violet laser diode,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 691-697 (2003).

2002

J. T. C. Liu , R. K. Hanson , and J. B. Jeffries , “High-sensitivity absorption diagnostic for NO2 using a blue diode laser,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 655-664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele , C. Hermans , S. Fally , M. Carleer , R. Colin , M.-F. Mérienne , A. Jenourier , and B. Coquart , “High-resolution Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 visible and near-infrared absorption cross sections: temperature and pressure effects,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4348 (2002), doi:10.1029/2001JD000971.
[CrossRef]

P. A. Cleary , P. J. Wooldridge , and R. C. Cohen , “Laser-induced fluorescence detection of atmospheric NO2 with a commercial diode laser and a supersonic expansion,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6950-6956 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

Y. Matsumi , S. Murakami , M. Kono , K. Takahashi , M. Koike , and Y. Kondo , “High-sensitivity instrument for measuring atmospheric NO2,” Anal. Chem. 73, 5485-5493 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. A. Thornton , P. J. Wooldridge , and R. C. Cohen , “Atmospheric NO2: in situ laser-induced fluorescence detection at parts per trillion mixing ratios,” Anal. Chem. 72, 528-539 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

1997

C. Fong and W. H. Brune , “A laser induced fluorescence instrument for measuring tropospheric NO2,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4253-4262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Gianfrani , G. Gagliardi , G. Pesce , and A. Sasso , “High-sensitivity detection of NO2 using a 740nm semiconductor diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 487-491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

1990

K. O. Patten, Jr., J. D. Burley , and H. S. Johnston , “Radiative lifetimes of nitrogen dioxide for excitation wavelengths from 400 to 750nm,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 7960-7969 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985

W. Lenth and M. Gehrtz , “Sensitive detection of NO2 using high-frequency heterodyne spectroscopy with a GaAlAs diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1263-1265 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1980

1979

V. M. Donnelly , D. G. Keil , and F. Kausman , “Fluorescence lifetime studies of NO2. III. Mechanism of fluorescence quenching,” J. Chem. Phys. 71, 659-673 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Allen, M. G.

Allwine, E. J.

E. J. Dunlea , S. C. Herndon , D. D. Nelson , R. M. Volkamer , F. San Martini , P. M. Sheehy , M. S. Zahniser , J. H. Shorter , J. C. Wormhoudt , B. K. Lamb , E. J. Allwine , J. S. Gaffney , N. A. Marley , M. Grutter , C. Marquez , S. Blanco , B. Cardenas , A. Retama , C. R. Ramos Villegas , C. E. Kolb , L. T. Molina , and M. Molina , “Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide chemiluminescence monitors in a polluted urban environment,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 2691-2704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, R.

R. Atkinson , D. L. Baulch , R. A. Cox , J. N. Crowley , R. F. Hampson , R. G. Hynes , M. E. Jenkin , M. J. Rossi , and J. Troe , “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: volume I--gas phase reactions of Ox, HOx, NOx and SOx species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1461-1738(2004).
[CrossRef]

Baer, D. S.

Bale, C. S. E.

V. L. Kasyutich , C. S. E. Bale , C. E. Canosa-Mas , C. Perfang , S. Vaughan , and R. P. Wayne , “Cavity-enhanced absorption: detection of nitrogen dioxide and iodine monoxide using a violet laser diode,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 691-697 (2003).

Ball, S. M.

J. M. Langridge , S. M. Ball , and R. L. Jones , “A compact broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for detection of atmospheric NO2 using light emitting diodes,” Analyst (Amsterdam) 131, 916-922 (2006).

Ballik, E. A.

Baulch, D. L.

R. Atkinson , D. L. Baulch , R. A. Cox , J. N. Crowley , R. F. Hampson , R. G. Hynes , M. E. Jenkin , M. J. Rossi , and J. Troe , “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: volume I--gas phase reactions of Ox, HOx, NOx and SOx species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1461-1738(2004).
[CrossRef]

Baynard, T.

H. D. Osthoff , S. S. Brown , T. B. Ryerson , T. J. Fortin , B. M. Lerner , E. J. Williams , A. Pettersson , T. Baynard , W. P. Dubé , S. J. Ciciora , and A. R. Ravishankara , “Measurement of atmospheric NO2 by pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D12305 (2006), doi:10.1029/2005JD006942.
[CrossRef]

Blanco, S.

E. J. Dunlea , S. C. Herndon , D. D. Nelson , R. M. Volkamer , F. San Martini , P. M. Sheehy , M. S. Zahniser , J. H. Shorter , J. C. Wormhoudt , B. K. Lamb , E. J. Allwine , J. S. Gaffney , N. A. Marley , M. Grutter , C. Marquez , S. Blanco , B. Cardenas , A. Retama , C. R. Ramos Villegas , C. E. Kolb , L. T. Molina , and M. Molina , “Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide chemiluminescence monitors in a polluted urban environment,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 2691-2704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S. S.

H. D. Osthoff , S. S. Brown , T. B. Ryerson , T. J. Fortin , B. M. Lerner , E. J. Williams , A. Pettersson , T. Baynard , W. P. Dubé , S. J. Ciciora , and A. R. Ravishankara , “Measurement of atmospheric NO2 by pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D12305 (2006), doi:10.1029/2005JD006942.
[CrossRef]

Brune, W. H.

C. Fong and W. H. Brune , “A laser induced fluorescence instrument for measuring tropospheric NO2,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4253-4262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burley, J. D.

K. O. Patten, Jr., J. D. Burley , and H. S. Johnston , “Radiative lifetimes of nitrogen dioxide for excitation wavelengths from 400 to 750nm,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 7960-7969 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Canosa-Mas, C. E.

V. L. Kasyutich , C. S. E. Bale , C. E. Canosa-Mas , C. Perfang , S. Vaughan , and R. P. Wayne , “Cavity-enhanced absorption: detection of nitrogen dioxide and iodine monoxide using a violet laser diode,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 691-697 (2003).

Cardenas, B.

E. J. Dunlea , S. C. Herndon , D. D. Nelson , R. M. Volkamer , F. San Martini , P. M. Sheehy , M. S. Zahniser , J. H. Shorter , J. C. Wormhoudt , B. K. Lamb , E. J. Allwine , J. S. Gaffney , N. A. Marley , M. Grutter , C. Marquez , S. Blanco , B. Cardenas , A. Retama , C. R. Ramos Villegas , C. E. Kolb , L. T. Molina , and M. Molina , “Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide chemiluminescence monitors in a polluted urban environment,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 2691-2704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M.

A. C. Vandaele , C. Hermans , S. Fally , M. Carleer , R. Colin , M.-F. Mérienne , A. Jenourier , and B. Coquart , “High-resolution Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 visible and near-infrared absorption cross sections: temperature and pressure effects,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4348 (2002), doi:10.1029/2001JD000971.
[CrossRef]

Carleton, K. L.

Cermak, P.

M. Triki , P. Cermak , G. Méjean , and D. Romanini , “Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a red LED source for NOx trace analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 195-201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

T. Wu , W. Zhao , W. Chen , W. Zhang , and X. Gao , “Incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy for in situ measurements of NO2 with a blue light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 85-94 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chilla, J. L. A.

Ciciora, S. J.

H. D. Osthoff , S. S. Brown , T. B. Ryerson , T. J. Fortin , B. M. Lerner , E. J. Williams , A. Pettersson , T. Baynard , W. P. Dubé , S. J. Ciciora , and A. R. Ravishankara , “Measurement of atmospheric NO2 by pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D12305 (2006), doi:10.1029/2005JD006942.
[CrossRef]

Cleary, P. A.

Cohen, R. C.

P. A. Cleary , P. J. Wooldridge , and R. C. Cohen , “Laser-induced fluorescence detection of atmospheric NO2 with a commercial diode laser and a supersonic expansion,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6950-6956 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Thornton , P. J. Wooldridge , and R. C. Cohen , “Atmospheric NO2: in situ laser-induced fluorescence detection at parts per trillion mixing ratios,” Anal. Chem. 72, 528-539 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colin, R.

A. C. Vandaele , C. Hermans , S. Fally , M. Carleer , R. Colin , M.-F. Mérienne , A. Jenourier , and B. Coquart , “High-resolution Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 visible and near-infrared absorption cross sections: temperature and pressure effects,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4348 (2002), doi:10.1029/2001JD000971.
[CrossRef]

Coquart, B.

A. C. Vandaele , C. Hermans , S. Fally , M. Carleer , R. Colin , M.-F. Mérienne , A. Jenourier , and B. Coquart , “High-resolution Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 visible and near-infrared absorption cross sections: temperature and pressure effects,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4348 (2002), doi:10.1029/2001JD000971.
[CrossRef]

Cox, R. A.

R. Atkinson , D. L. Baulch , R. A. Cox , J. N. Crowley , R. F. Hampson , R. G. Hynes , M. E. Jenkin , M. J. Rossi , and J. Troe , “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: volume I--gas phase reactions of Ox, HOx, NOx and SOx species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1461-1738(2004).
[CrossRef]

Crowley, J. N.

R. Atkinson , D. L. Baulch , R. A. Cox , J. N. Crowley , R. F. Hampson , R. G. Hynes , M. E. Jenkin , M. J. Rossi , and J. Troe , “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: volume I--gas phase reactions of Ox, HOx, NOx and SOx species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1461-1738(2004).
[CrossRef]

D'Altorio, A.

C. Dari-Salisburgo , P. Di Carlo , F. Giammaria , Y. Kajii , and A. D'Altorio , “Laser induced fluorescence instrument for NO2 measurements: Observations at a central Italy background site,” Atmos. Environ. 43, 970-977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dari-Salisburgo, C.

C. Dari-Salisburgo , P. Di Carlo , F. Giammaria , Y. Kajii , and A. D'Altorio , “Laser induced fluorescence instrument for NO2 measurements: Observations at a central Italy background site,” Atmos. Environ. 43, 970-977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Davis, S. J.

Di Carlo, P.

C. Dari-Salisburgo , P. Di Carlo , F. Giammaria , Y. Kajii , and A. D'Altorio , “Laser induced fluorescence instrument for NO2 measurements: Observations at a central Italy background site,” Atmos. Environ. 43, 970-977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, V. M.

V. M. Donnelly , D. G. Keil , and F. Kausman , “Fluorescence lifetime studies of NO2. III. Mechanism of fluorescence quenching,” J. Chem. Phys. 71, 659-673 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Dubé, W. P.

H. D. Osthoff , S. S. Brown , T. B. Ryerson , T. J. Fortin , B. M. Lerner , E. J. Williams , A. Pettersson , T. Baynard , W. P. Dubé , S. J. Ciciora , and A. R. Ravishankara , “Measurement of atmospheric NO2 by pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D12305 (2006), doi:10.1029/2005JD006942.
[CrossRef]

Dunlea, E. J.

E. J. Dunlea , S. C. Herndon , D. D. Nelson , R. M. Volkamer , F. San Martini , P. M. Sheehy , M. S. Zahniser , J. H. Shorter , J. C. Wormhoudt , B. K. Lamb , E. J. Allwine , J. S. Gaffney , N. A. Marley , M. Grutter , C. Marquez , S. Blanco , B. Cardenas , A. Retama , C. R. Ramos Villegas , C. E. Kolb , L. T. Molina , and M. Molina , “Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide chemiluminescence monitors in a polluted urban environment,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 2691-2704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

El-Sherbiny, M.

Fally, S.

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P. L. Kebabian , S. C. Herndon , and A. Freedman , “Detection of nitrogen dioxide by cavity attenuated phase shift spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 77, 724-728 (2005).
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C. Dari-Salisburgo , P. Di Carlo , F. Giammaria , Y. Kajii , and A. D'Altorio , “Laser induced fluorescence instrument for NO2 measurements: Observations at a central Italy background site,” Atmos. Environ. 43, 970-977 (2009).
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G. D. Santiago , M. G. González , A. L. Peuriot , F. González , and Verónica B. Slezak , “Blue light-emitting diode-based, enhanced resonant excitation of longitudinal acoustic modes in a closed pipe with application to NO2,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023108 (2006).
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E. J. Dunlea , S. C. Herndon , D. D. Nelson , R. M. Volkamer , F. San Martini , P. M. Sheehy , M. S. Zahniser , J. H. Shorter , J. C. Wormhoudt , B. K. Lamb , E. J. Allwine , J. S. Gaffney , N. A. Marley , M. Grutter , C. Marquez , S. Blanco , B. Cardenas , A. Retama , C. R. Ramos Villegas , C. E. Kolb , L. T. Molina , and M. Molina , “Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide chemiluminescence monitors in a polluted urban environment,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 2691-2704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Kebabian , S. C. Herndon , and A. Freedman , “Detection of nitrogen dioxide by cavity attenuated phase shift spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 77, 724-728 (2005).
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S. P. Sander , R. R. Friedl , D. M. Golden , M. J. Kurylo , G. K. Moortgat , H. Keller-Rudek , P. H. Wine , A. R. Ravishankara , C. E. Kolb , M. J. Molina , B. J. Finlayson-Pitts , R. E. Huie , and V. L. Orkin , “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in atmospheric studies,” Evaluation No. 15, JPL Publication 06-2 (JPL, 2006).

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R. Atkinson , D. L. Baulch , R. A. Cox , J. N. Crowley , R. F. Hampson , R. G. Hynes , M. E. Jenkin , M. J. Rossi , and J. Troe , “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: volume I--gas phase reactions of Ox, HOx, NOx and SOx species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1461-1738(2004).
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J. T. C. Liu , R. K. Hanson , and J. B. Jeffries , “High-sensitivity absorption diagnostic for NO2 using a blue diode laser,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 655-664 (2002).
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A. C. Vandaele , C. Hermans , S. Fally , M. Carleer , R. Colin , M.-F. Mérienne , A. Jenourier , and B. Coquart , “High-resolution Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 visible and near-infrared absorption cross sections: temperature and pressure effects,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4348 (2002), doi:10.1029/2001JD000971.
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K. O. Patten, Jr., J. D. Burley , and H. S. Johnston , “Radiative lifetimes of nitrogen dioxide for excitation wavelengths from 400 to 750nm,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 7960-7969 (1990).
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J. M. Langridge , S. M. Ball , and R. L. Jones , “A compact broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for detection of atmospheric NO2 using light emitting diodes,” Analyst (Amsterdam) 131, 916-922 (2006).

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C. Dari-Salisburgo , P. Di Carlo , F. Giammaria , Y. Kajii , and A. D'Altorio , “Laser induced fluorescence instrument for NO2 measurements: Observations at a central Italy background site,” Atmos. Environ. 43, 970-977 (2009).
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J. Matsumoto and Y. Kajii , “Improved analyzer for nitrogen dioxide by laser-induced fluorescence technique,” Atmos. Environ. 37, 4847-4851 (2003).
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V. L. Kasyutich , C. S. E. Bale , C. E. Canosa-Mas , C. Perfang , S. Vaughan , and R. P. Wayne , “Cavity-enhanced absorption: detection of nitrogen dioxide and iodine monoxide using a violet laser diode,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 691-697 (2003).

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Kebabian, P. L.

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V. M. Donnelly , D. G. Keil , and F. Kausman , “Fluorescence lifetime studies of NO2. III. Mechanism of fluorescence quenching,” J. Chem. Phys. 71, 659-673 (1979).
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S. P. Sander , R. R. Friedl , D. M. Golden , M. J. Kurylo , G. K. Moortgat , H. Keller-Rudek , P. H. Wine , A. R. Ravishankara , C. E. Kolb , M. J. Molina , B. J. Finlayson-Pitts , R. E. Huie , and V. L. Orkin , “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in atmospheric studies,” Evaluation No. 15, JPL Publication 06-2 (JPL, 2006).

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Koike, M.

Y. Matsumi , S. Murakami , M. Kono , K. Takahashi , M. Koike , and Y. Kondo , “High-sensitivity instrument for measuring atmospheric NO2,” Anal. Chem. 73, 5485-5493 (2001).
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E. J. Dunlea , S. C. Herndon , D. D. Nelson , R. M. Volkamer , F. San Martini , P. M. Sheehy , M. S. Zahniser , J. H. Shorter , J. C. Wormhoudt , B. K. Lamb , E. J. Allwine , J. S. Gaffney , N. A. Marley , M. Grutter , C. Marquez , S. Blanco , B. Cardenas , A. Retama , C. R. Ramos Villegas , C. E. Kolb , L. T. Molina , and M. Molina , “Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide chemiluminescence monitors in a polluted urban environment,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 2691-2704 (2007).
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Y. Matsumi , S. Murakami , M. Kono , K. Takahashi , M. Koike , and Y. Kondo , “High-sensitivity instrument for measuring atmospheric NO2,” Anal. Chem. 73, 5485-5493 (2001).
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Y. Matsumi , S. Murakami , M. Kono , K. Takahashi , M. Koike , and Y. Kondo , “High-sensitivity instrument for measuring atmospheric NO2,” Anal. Chem. 73, 5485-5493 (2001).
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S. P. Sander , R. R. Friedl , D. M. Golden , M. J. Kurylo , G. K. Moortgat , H. Keller-Rudek , P. H. Wine , A. R. Ravishankara , C. E. Kolb , M. J. Molina , B. J. Finlayson-Pitts , R. E. Huie , and V. L. Orkin , “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in atmospheric studies,” Evaluation No. 15, JPL Publication 06-2 (JPL, 2006).

Lamb, B. K.

E. J. Dunlea , S. C. Herndon , D. D. Nelson , R. M. Volkamer , F. San Martini , P. M. Sheehy , M. S. Zahniser , J. H. Shorter , J. C. Wormhoudt , B. K. Lamb , E. J. Allwine , J. S. Gaffney , N. A. Marley , M. Grutter , C. Marquez , S. Blanco , B. Cardenas , A. Retama , C. R. Ramos Villegas , C. E. Kolb , L. T. Molina , and M. Molina , “Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide chemiluminescence monitors in a polluted urban environment,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 2691-2704 (2007).
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J. M. Langridge , S. M. Ball , and R. L. Jones , “A compact broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for detection of atmospheric NO2 using light emitting diodes,” Analyst (Amsterdam) 131, 916-922 (2006).

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W. Lenth and M. Gehrtz , “Sensitive detection of NO2 using high-frequency heterodyne spectroscopy with a GaAlAs diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1263-1265 (1985).
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H. D. Osthoff , S. S. Brown , T. B. Ryerson , T. J. Fortin , B. M. Lerner , E. J. Williams , A. Pettersson , T. Baynard , W. P. Dubé , S. J. Ciciora , and A. R. Ravishankara , “Measurement of atmospheric NO2 by pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D12305 (2006), doi:10.1029/2005JD006942.
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. T. C.

J. T. C. Liu , R. K. Hanson , and J. B. Jeffries , “High-sensitivity absorption diagnostic for NO2 using a blue diode laser,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 655-664 (2002).
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E. J. Dunlea , S. C. Herndon , D. D. Nelson , R. M. Volkamer , F. San Martini , P. M. Sheehy , M. S. Zahniser , J. H. Shorter , J. C. Wormhoudt , B. K. Lamb , E. J. Allwine , J. S. Gaffney , N. A. Marley , M. Grutter , C. Marquez , S. Blanco , B. Cardenas , A. Retama , C. R. Ramos Villegas , C. E. Kolb , L. T. Molina , and M. Molina , “Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide chemiluminescence monitors in a polluted urban environment,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 2691-2704 (2007).
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E. J. Dunlea , S. C. Herndon , D. D. Nelson , R. M. Volkamer , F. San Martini , P. M. Sheehy , M. S. Zahniser , J. H. Shorter , J. C. Wormhoudt , B. K. Lamb , E. J. Allwine , J. S. Gaffney , N. A. Marley , M. Grutter , C. Marquez , S. Blanco , B. Cardenas , A. Retama , C. R. Ramos Villegas , C. E. Kolb , L. T. Molina , and M. Molina , “Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide chemiluminescence monitors in a polluted urban environment,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 2691-2704 (2007).
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F. Taketani , M. Kawai , K. Takahashi , and Y. Matsumi , “Trace detection of atmospheric NO2 by laser-induced fluorescence using a GaN diode laser and a diode-pumped YAG laser,” Appl. Opt. 46, 907-915 (2007).
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Y. Matsumi , S. Murakami , M. Kono , K. Takahashi , M. Koike , and Y. Kondo , “High-sensitivity instrument for measuring atmospheric NO2,” Anal. Chem. 73, 5485-5493 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, J.

J. Matsumoto and Y. Kajii , “Improved analyzer for nitrogen dioxide by laser-induced fluorescence technique,” Atmos. Environ. 37, 4847-4851 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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M. Triki , P. Cermak , G. Méjean , and D. Romanini , “Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a red LED source for NOx trace analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 195-201 (2008).
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A. C. Vandaele , C. Hermans , S. Fally , M. Carleer , R. Colin , M.-F. Mérienne , A. Jenourier , and B. Coquart , “High-resolution Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 visible and near-infrared absorption cross sections: temperature and pressure effects,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4348 (2002), doi:10.1029/2001JD000971.
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Miao, L.

Mihalcea, R. M.

Molina, L. T.

E. J. Dunlea , S. C. Herndon , D. D. Nelson , R. M. Volkamer , F. San Martini , P. M. Sheehy , M. S. Zahniser , J. H. Shorter , J. C. Wormhoudt , B. K. Lamb , E. J. Allwine , J. S. Gaffney , N. A. Marley , M. Grutter , C. Marquez , S. Blanco , B. Cardenas , A. Retama , C. R. Ramos Villegas , C. E. Kolb , L. T. Molina , and M. Molina , “Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide chemiluminescence monitors in a polluted urban environment,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 2691-2704 (2007).
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Molina, M.

E. J. Dunlea , S. C. Herndon , D. D. Nelson , R. M. Volkamer , F. San Martini , P. M. Sheehy , M. S. Zahniser , J. H. Shorter , J. C. Wormhoudt , B. K. Lamb , E. J. Allwine , J. S. Gaffney , N. A. Marley , M. Grutter , C. Marquez , S. Blanco , B. Cardenas , A. Retama , C. R. Ramos Villegas , C. E. Kolb , L. T. Molina , and M. Molina , “Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide chemiluminescence monitors in a polluted urban environment,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 2691-2704 (2007).
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Molina, M. J.

S. P. Sander , R. R. Friedl , D. M. Golden , M. J. Kurylo , G. K. Moortgat , H. Keller-Rudek , P. H. Wine , A. R. Ravishankara , C. E. Kolb , M. J. Molina , B. J. Finlayson-Pitts , R. E. Huie , and V. L. Orkin , “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in atmospheric studies,” Evaluation No. 15, JPL Publication 06-2 (JPL, 2006).

Moortgat, G. K.

S. P. Sander , R. R. Friedl , D. M. Golden , M. J. Kurylo , G. K. Moortgat , H. Keller-Rudek , P. H. Wine , A. R. Ravishankara , C. E. Kolb , M. J. Molina , B. J. Finlayson-Pitts , R. E. Huie , and V. L. Orkin , “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in atmospheric studies,” Evaluation No. 15, JPL Publication 06-2 (JPL, 2006).

Murakami, S.

Y. Matsumi , S. Murakami , M. Kono , K. Takahashi , M. Koike , and Y. Kondo , “High-sensitivity instrument for measuring atmospheric NO2,” Anal. Chem. 73, 5485-5493 (2001).
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E. J. Dunlea , S. C. Herndon , D. D. Nelson , R. M. Volkamer , F. San Martini , P. M. Sheehy , M. S. Zahniser , J. H. Shorter , J. C. Wormhoudt , B. K. Lamb , E. J. Allwine , J. S. Gaffney , N. A. Marley , M. Grutter , C. Marquez , S. Blanco , B. Cardenas , A. Retama , C. R. Ramos Villegas , C. E. Kolb , L. T. Molina , and M. Molina , “Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide chemiluminescence monitors in a polluted urban environment,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 2691-2704 (2007).
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S. P. Sander , R. R. Friedl , D. M. Golden , M. J. Kurylo , G. K. Moortgat , H. Keller-Rudek , P. H. Wine , A. R. Ravishankara , C. E. Kolb , M. J. Molina , B. J. Finlayson-Pitts , R. E. Huie , and V. L. Orkin , “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in atmospheric studies,” Evaluation No. 15, JPL Publication 06-2 (JPL, 2006).

Orphal, J.

T. Gherman , D. S. Venables , S. Vaughan , J. Orphal , and A. A. Ruth , “Incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in the near-ultraviolet: application to HONO and NO2,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, 890-895 (2008).
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H. D. Osthoff , S. S. Brown , T. B. Ryerson , T. J. Fortin , B. M. Lerner , E. J. Williams , A. Pettersson , T. Baynard , W. P. Dubé , S. J. Ciciora , and A. R. Ravishankara , “Measurement of atmospheric NO2 by pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D12305 (2006), doi:10.1029/2005JD006942.
[CrossRef]

Otis, C. E.

Palombo, D. A.

Patten, K. O.

K. O. Patten, Jr., J. D. Burley , and H. S. Johnston , “Radiative lifetimes of nitrogen dioxide for excitation wavelengths from 400 to 750nm,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 7960-7969 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Perfang, C.

V. L. Kasyutich , C. S. E. Bale , C. E. Canosa-Mas , C. Perfang , S. Vaughan , and R. P. Wayne , “Cavity-enhanced absorption: detection of nitrogen dioxide and iodine monoxide using a violet laser diode,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 691-697 (2003).

Pesce, G.

L. Gianfrani , G. Gagliardi , G. Pesce , and A. Sasso , “High-sensitivity detection of NO2 using a 740nm semiconductor diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 487-491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pettersson, A.

H. D. Osthoff , S. S. Brown , T. B. Ryerson , T. J. Fortin , B. M. Lerner , E. J. Williams , A. Pettersson , T. Baynard , W. P. Dubé , S. J. Ciciora , and A. R. Ravishankara , “Measurement of atmospheric NO2 by pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D12305 (2006), doi:10.1029/2005JD006942.
[CrossRef]

Peuriot, A. L.

G. D. Santiago , M. G. González , A. L. Peuriot , F. González , and Verónica B. Slezak , “Blue light-emitting diode-based, enhanced resonant excitation of longitudinal acoustic modes in a closed pipe with application to NO2,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023108 (2006).
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V. Slezak , G. Santiago , and A. L. Peuriot , “Photoacoustic detection of NO2 traces with CW and pulsed green lasers,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 40, 33-41 (2003).
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Pitts, J. N.

B. J. Finlayson-Pitts and J. N. Pitts, Jr., Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere (Academic, 2000).

Ramos Villegas, C. R.

E. J. Dunlea , S. C. Herndon , D. D. Nelson , R. M. Volkamer , F. San Martini , P. M. Sheehy , M. S. Zahniser , J. H. Shorter , J. C. Wormhoudt , B. K. Lamb , E. J. Allwine , J. S. Gaffney , N. A. Marley , M. Grutter , C. Marquez , S. Blanco , B. Cardenas , A. Retama , C. R. Ramos Villegas , C. E. Kolb , L. T. Molina , and M. Molina , “Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide chemiluminescence monitors in a polluted urban environment,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 2691-2704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ravishankara, A. R.

H. D. Osthoff , S. S. Brown , T. B. Ryerson , T. J. Fortin , B. M. Lerner , E. J. Williams , A. Pettersson , T. Baynard , W. P. Dubé , S. J. Ciciora , and A. R. Ravishankara , “Measurement of atmospheric NO2 by pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D12305 (2006), doi:10.1029/2005JD006942.
[CrossRef]

S. P. Sander , R. R. Friedl , D. M. Golden , M. J. Kurylo , G. K. Moortgat , H. Keller-Rudek , P. H. Wine , A. R. Ravishankara , C. E. Kolb , M. J. Molina , B. J. Finlayson-Pitts , R. E. Huie , and V. L. Orkin , “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in atmospheric studies,” Evaluation No. 15, JPL Publication 06-2 (JPL, 2006).

Reid, J.

Retama, A.

E. J. Dunlea , S. C. Herndon , D. D. Nelson , R. M. Volkamer , F. San Martini , P. M. Sheehy , M. S. Zahniser , J. H. Shorter , J. C. Wormhoudt , B. K. Lamb , E. J. Allwine , J. S. Gaffney , N. A. Marley , M. Grutter , C. Marquez , S. Blanco , B. Cardenas , A. Retama , C. R. Ramos Villegas , C. E. Kolb , L. T. Molina , and M. Molina , “Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide chemiluminescence monitors in a polluted urban environment,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 2691-2704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Romanini, D.

M. Triki , P. Cermak , G. Méjean , and D. Romanini , “Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a red LED source for NOx trace analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 195-201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, M. J.

R. Atkinson , D. L. Baulch , R. A. Cox , J. N. Crowley , R. F. Hampson , R. G. Hynes , M. E. Jenkin , M. J. Rossi , and J. Troe , “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: volume I--gas phase reactions of Ox, HOx, NOx and SOx species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1461-1738(2004).
[CrossRef]

Ruth, A. A.

T. Gherman , D. S. Venables , S. Vaughan , J. Orphal , and A. A. Ruth , “Incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in the near-ultraviolet: application to HONO and NO2,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, 890-895 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryerson, T. B.

H. D. Osthoff , S. S. Brown , T. B. Ryerson , T. J. Fortin , B. M. Lerner , E. J. Williams , A. Pettersson , T. Baynard , W. P. Dubé , S. J. Ciciora , and A. R. Ravishankara , “Measurement of atmospheric NO2 by pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D12305 (2006), doi:10.1029/2005JD006942.
[CrossRef]

San Martini, F.

E. J. Dunlea , S. C. Herndon , D. D. Nelson , R. M. Volkamer , F. San Martini , P. M. Sheehy , M. S. Zahniser , J. H. Shorter , J. C. Wormhoudt , B. K. Lamb , E. J. Allwine , J. S. Gaffney , N. A. Marley , M. Grutter , C. Marquez , S. Blanco , B. Cardenas , A. Retama , C. R. Ramos Villegas , C. E. Kolb , L. T. Molina , and M. Molina , “Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide chemiluminescence monitors in a polluted urban environment,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 2691-2704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sander, S. P.

S. P. Sander , R. R. Friedl , D. M. Golden , M. J. Kurylo , G. K. Moortgat , H. Keller-Rudek , P. H. Wine , A. R. Ravishankara , C. E. Kolb , M. J. Molina , B. J. Finlayson-Pitts , R. E. Huie , and V. L. Orkin , “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in atmospheric studies,” Evaluation No. 15, JPL Publication 06-2 (JPL, 2006).

Santiago, G.

V. Slezak , G. Santiago , and A. L. Peuriot , “Photoacoustic detection of NO2 traces with CW and pulsed green lasers,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 40, 33-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Santiago, G. D.

G. D. Santiago , M. G. González , A. L. Peuriot , F. González , and Verónica B. Slezak , “Blue light-emitting diode-based, enhanced resonant excitation of longitudinal acoustic modes in a closed pipe with application to NO2,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sasso, A.

L. Gianfrani , G. Gagliardi , G. Pesce , and A. Sasso , “High-sensitivity detection of NO2 using a 740nm semiconductor diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 487-491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sheehy, P. M.

E. J. Dunlea , S. C. Herndon , D. D. Nelson , R. M. Volkamer , F. San Martini , P. M. Sheehy , M. S. Zahniser , J. H. Shorter , J. C. Wormhoudt , B. K. Lamb , E. J. Allwine , J. S. Gaffney , N. A. Marley , M. Grutter , C. Marquez , S. Blanco , B. Cardenas , A. Retama , C. R. Ramos Villegas , C. E. Kolb , L. T. Molina , and M. Molina , “Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide chemiluminescence monitors in a polluted urban environment,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 2691-2704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shorter, J. H.

E. J. Dunlea , S. C. Herndon , D. D. Nelson , R. M. Volkamer , F. San Martini , P. M. Sheehy , M. S. Zahniser , J. H. Shorter , J. C. Wormhoudt , B. K. Lamb , E. J. Allwine , J. S. Gaffney , N. A. Marley , M. Grutter , C. Marquez , S. Blanco , B. Cardenas , A. Retama , C. R. Ramos Villegas , C. E. Kolb , L. T. Molina , and M. Molina , “Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide chemiluminescence monitors in a polluted urban environment,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 2691-2704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Slezak, V.

V. Slezak , G. Santiago , and A. L. Peuriot , “Photoacoustic detection of NO2 traces with CW and pulsed green lasers,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 40, 33-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Slezak, Verónica B.

G. D. Santiago , M. G. González , A. L. Peuriot , F. González , and Verónica B. Slezak , “Blue light-emitting diode-based, enhanced resonant excitation of longitudinal acoustic modes in a closed pipe with application to NO2,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sonnenfroh, D. M.

Takahashi, K.

F. Taketani , M. Kawai , K. Takahashi , and Y. Matsumi , “Trace detection of atmospheric NO2 by laser-induced fluorescence using a GaN diode laser and a diode-pumped YAG laser,” Appl. Opt. 46, 907-915 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Matsumi , S. Murakami , M. Kono , K. Takahashi , M. Koike , and Y. Kondo , “High-sensitivity instrument for measuring atmospheric NO2,” Anal. Chem. 73, 5485-5493 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taketani, F.

Thornton, J. A.

J. A. Thornton , P. J. Wooldridge , and R. C. Cohen , “Atmospheric NO2: in situ laser-induced fluorescence detection at parts per trillion mixing ratios,” Anal. Chem. 72, 528-539 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Triki, M.

M. Triki , P. Cermak , G. Méjean , and D. Romanini , “Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a red LED source for NOx trace analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 195-201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Troe, J.

R. Atkinson , D. L. Baulch , R. A. Cox , J. N. Crowley , R. F. Hampson , R. G. Hynes , M. E. Jenkin , M. J. Rossi , and J. Troe , “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: volume I--gas phase reactions of Ox, HOx, NOx and SOx species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1461-1738(2004).
[CrossRef]

Vandaele, A. C.

A. C. Vandaele , C. Hermans , S. Fally , M. Carleer , R. Colin , M.-F. Mérienne , A. Jenourier , and B. Coquart , “High-resolution Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 visible and near-infrared absorption cross sections: temperature and pressure effects,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4348 (2002), doi:10.1029/2001JD000971.
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, S.

T. Gherman , D. S. Venables , S. Vaughan , J. Orphal , and A. A. Ruth , “Incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in the near-ultraviolet: application to HONO and NO2,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, 890-895 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. L. Kasyutich , C. S. E. Bale , C. E. Canosa-Mas , C. Perfang , S. Vaughan , and R. P. Wayne , “Cavity-enhanced absorption: detection of nitrogen dioxide and iodine monoxide using a violet laser diode,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 691-697 (2003).

Venables, D. S.

T. Gherman , D. S. Venables , S. Vaughan , J. Orphal , and A. A. Ruth , “Incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in the near-ultraviolet: application to HONO and NO2,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, 890-895 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volkamer, R. M.

E. J. Dunlea , S. C. Herndon , D. D. Nelson , R. M. Volkamer , F. San Martini , P. M. Sheehy , M. S. Zahniser , J. H. Shorter , J. C. Wormhoudt , B. K. Lamb , E. J. Allwine , J. S. Gaffney , N. A. Marley , M. Grutter , C. Marquez , S. Blanco , B. Cardenas , A. Retama , C. R. Ramos Villegas , C. E. Kolb , L. T. Molina , and M. Molina , “Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide chemiluminescence monitors in a polluted urban environment,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 2691-2704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wada, R.

R. Wada and A. J. Orr-Ewing , “Continuous wave cavity-ring down spectroscopy measurement of NO2 mixing ratios in ambient air,” Analyst (Amsterdam) 130, 1595-1600 (2005).

Wayne, R. P.

V. L. Kasyutich , C. S. E. Bale , C. E. Canosa-Mas , C. Perfang , S. Vaughan , and R. P. Wayne , “Cavity-enhanced absorption: detection of nitrogen dioxide and iodine monoxide using a violet laser diode,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 691-697 (2003).

Williams, E. J.

H. D. Osthoff , S. S. Brown , T. B. Ryerson , T. J. Fortin , B. M. Lerner , E. J. Williams , A. Pettersson , T. Baynard , W. P. Dubé , S. J. Ciciora , and A. R. Ravishankara , “Measurement of atmospheric NO2 by pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D12305 (2006), doi:10.1029/2005JD006942.
[CrossRef]

Wine, P. H.

S. P. Sander , R. R. Friedl , D. M. Golden , M. J. Kurylo , G. K. Moortgat , H. Keller-Rudek , P. H. Wine , A. R. Ravishankara , C. E. Kolb , M. J. Molina , B. J. Finlayson-Pitts , R. E. Huie , and V. L. Orkin , “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in atmospheric studies,” Evaluation No. 15, JPL Publication 06-2 (JPL, 2006).

Wooldridge, P. J.

P. A. Cleary , P. J. Wooldridge , and R. C. Cohen , “Laser-induced fluorescence detection of atmospheric NO2 with a commercial diode laser and a supersonic expansion,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6950-6956 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Thornton , P. J. Wooldridge , and R. C. Cohen , “Atmospheric NO2: in situ laser-induced fluorescence detection at parts per trillion mixing ratios,” Anal. Chem. 72, 528-539 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wormhoudt, J. C.

E. J. Dunlea , S. C. Herndon , D. D. Nelson , R. M. Volkamer , F. San Martini , P. M. Sheehy , M. S. Zahniser , J. H. Shorter , J. C. Wormhoudt , B. K. Lamb , E. J. Allwine , J. S. Gaffney , N. A. Marley , M. Grutter , C. Marquez , S. Blanco , B. Cardenas , A. Retama , C. R. Ramos Villegas , C. E. Kolb , L. T. Molina , and M. Molina , “Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide chemiluminescence monitors in a polluted urban environment,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 2691-2704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T.

T. Wu , W. Zhao , W. Chen , W. Zhang , and X. Gao , “Incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy for in situ measurements of NO2 with a blue light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 85-94 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zahniser, M. S.

E. J. Dunlea , S. C. Herndon , D. D. Nelson , R. M. Volkamer , F. San Martini , P. M. Sheehy , M. S. Zahniser , J. H. Shorter , J. C. Wormhoudt , B. K. Lamb , E. J. Allwine , J. S. Gaffney , N. A. Marley , M. Grutter , C. Marquez , S. Blanco , B. Cardenas , A. Retama , C. R. Ramos Villegas , C. E. Kolb , L. T. Molina , and M. Molina , “Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide chemiluminescence monitors in a polluted urban environment,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 2691-2704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

T. Wu , W. Zhao , W. Chen , W. Zhang , and X. Gao , “Incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy for in situ measurements of NO2 with a blue light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 85-94 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W.

T. Wu , W. Zhao , W. Chen , W. Zhang , and X. Gao , “Incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy for in situ measurements of NO2 with a blue light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 85-94 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

P. L. Kebabian , S. C. Herndon , and A. Freedman , “Detection of nitrogen dioxide by cavity attenuated phase shift spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 77, 724-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

J. A. Thornton , P. J. Wooldridge , and R. C. Cohen , “Atmospheric NO2: in situ laser-induced fluorescence detection at parts per trillion mixing ratios,” Anal. Chem. 72, 528-539 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Matsumi , S. Murakami , M. Kono , K. Takahashi , M. Koike , and Y. Kondo , “High-sensitivity instrument for measuring atmospheric NO2,” Anal. Chem. 73, 5485-5493 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Analyst (Amsterdam)

R. Wada and A. J. Orr-Ewing , “Continuous wave cavity-ring down spectroscopy measurement of NO2 mixing ratios in ambient air,” Analyst (Amsterdam) 130, 1595-1600 (2005).

J. M. Langridge , S. M. Ball , and R. L. Jones , “A compact broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for detection of atmospheric NO2 using light emitting diodes,” Analyst (Amsterdam) 131, 916-922 (2006).

Appl. Phys. B

L. Gianfrani , G. Gagliardi , G. Pesce , and A. Sasso , “High-sensitivity detection of NO2 using a 740nm semiconductor diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 487-491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

D. M. Sonnenfroh and M. G. Allen , “Ultrasensitive, visible tunable diode laser detection of NO2,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4053-4058(1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Allen , K. L. Carleton , S. J. Davis , W. J. Kessler , C. E. Otis , D. A. Palombo , and D. M. Sonnenfroh , “Ultrasensitive dual-beam absorption and gain spectroscopy: applications for near-infrared and visible diode laser sensors,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3240-3249 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Cleary , P. J. Wooldridge , and R. C. Cohen , “Laser-induced fluorescence detection of atmospheric NO2 with a commercial diode laser and a supersonic expansion,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6950-6956 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Taketani , M. Kawai , K. Takahashi , and Y. Matsumi , “Trace detection of atmospheric NO2 by laser-induced fluorescence using a GaN diode laser and a diode-pumped YAG laser,” Appl. Opt. 46, 907-915 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Fetzer , L. Miao , J. L. A. Chilla , J. M. Pikal , and C. S. Menoni , “NO2 photometer based on solid-state light sources,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5590-5595 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

M. Triki , P. Cermak , G. Méjean , and D. Romanini , “Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a red LED source for NOx trace analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 195-201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Kasyutich , C. S. E. Bale , C. E. Canosa-Mas , C. Perfang , S. Vaughan , and R. P. Wayne , “Cavity-enhanced absorption: detection of nitrogen dioxide and iodine monoxide using a violet laser diode,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 691-697 (2003).

Appl. Phys. B

T. Wu , W. Zhao , W. Chen , W. Zhang , and X. Gao , “Incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy for in situ measurements of NO2 with a blue light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 85-94 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. Lenth and M. Gehrtz , “Sensitive detection of NO2 using high-frequency heterodyne spectroscopy with a GaAlAs diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1263-1265 (1985).
[CrossRef]

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J. Matsumoto and Y. Kajii , “Improved analyzer for nitrogen dioxide by laser-induced fluorescence technique,” Atmos. Environ. 37, 4847-4851 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Dari-Salisburgo , P. Di Carlo , F. Giammaria , Y. Kajii , and A. D'Altorio , “Laser induced fluorescence instrument for NO2 measurements: Observations at a central Italy background site,” Atmos. Environ. 43, 970-977 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Chem. Phys.

E. J. Dunlea , S. C. Herndon , D. D. Nelson , R. M. Volkamer , F. San Martini , P. M. Sheehy , M. S. Zahniser , J. H. Shorter , J. C. Wormhoudt , B. K. Lamb , E. J. Allwine , J. S. Gaffney , N. A. Marley , M. Grutter , C. Marquez , S. Blanco , B. Cardenas , A. Retama , C. R. Ramos Villegas , C. E. Kolb , L. T. Molina , and M. Molina , “Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide chemiluminescence monitors in a polluted urban environment,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 2691-2704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Atkinson , D. L. Baulch , R. A. Cox , J. N. Crowley , R. F. Hampson , R. G. Hynes , M. E. Jenkin , M. J. Rossi , and J. Troe , “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: volume I--gas phase reactions of Ox, HOx, NOx and SOx species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1461-1738(2004).
[CrossRef]

Environ. Sci. Technol.

T. Gherman , D. S. Venables , S. Vaughan , J. Orphal , and A. A. Ruth , “Incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in the near-ultraviolet: application to HONO and NO2,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, 890-895 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Geophys. Res.

A. C. Vandaele , C. Hermans , S. Fally , M. Carleer , R. Colin , M.-F. Mérienne , A. Jenourier , and B. Coquart , “High-resolution Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 visible and near-infrared absorption cross sections: temperature and pressure effects,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4348 (2002), doi:10.1029/2001JD000971.
[CrossRef]

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J. T. C. Liu , R. K. Hanson , and J. B. Jeffries , “High-sensitivity absorption diagnostic for NO2 using a blue diode laser,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 655-664 (2002).
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H. D. Osthoff , S. S. Brown , T. B. Ryerson , T. J. Fortin , B. M. Lerner , E. J. Williams , A. Pettersson , T. Baynard , W. P. Dubé , S. J. Ciciora , and A. R. Ravishankara , “Measurement of atmospheric NO2 by pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D12305 (2006), doi:10.1029/2005JD006942.
[CrossRef]

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J. Orphal , “A critical review of the absorption cross-sections of O3 and NO2 in the ultraviolet and visible,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 157, 185-209 (2003).
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Opt. Lasers Eng.

V. Slezak , G. Santiago , and A. L. Peuriot , “Photoacoustic detection of NO2 traces with CW and pulsed green lasers,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 40, 33-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

C. Fong and W. H. Brune , “A laser induced fluorescence instrument for measuring tropospheric NO2,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4253-4262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Santiago , M. G. González , A. L. Peuriot , F. González , and Verónica B. Slezak , “Blue light-emitting diode-based, enhanced resonant excitation of longitudinal acoustic modes in a closed pipe with application to NO2,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. P. Sander , R. R. Friedl , D. M. Golden , M. J. Kurylo , G. K. Moortgat , H. Keller-Rudek , P. H. Wine , A. R. Ravishankara , C. E. Kolb , M. J. Molina , B. J. Finlayson-Pitts , R. E. Huie , and V. L. Orkin , “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in atmospheric studies,” Evaluation No. 15, JPL Publication 06-2 (JPL, 2006).

B. J. Finlayson-Pitts and J. N. Pitts, Jr., Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere (Academic, 2000).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption cross-section spectrum of NO 2 taken from Ref. [29] and the emission spectrum of the LED we employed as an excitation light source.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the instrument developed in this study.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross section of the fluorescence cell, the excitation light source, and the fluorescence detection system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical example of the photon-counting measurements of the fluorescence intensities using our NO 2 instrument, in which the standard NO 2 gas was diluted with the synthetic air to obtain different mixing ratios of NO 2 in the fluorescence cell under total pressure of 0.3 Torr . The vertical scale is the fluorescence intensity in counts per unit time ( count s 1 ), and the horizontal axis is time. Numbers inserted in the plots are the concentration of NO 2 in parts per million of volume. The inserted figure shows the plots for 0.3 ppm NO 2 and zero levels using the expanded vertical scale for clarity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fluorescence intensity versus the NO 2 concentration. The concentration range of NO 2 is 0 7.2 ppmv . The slope is calculated to be 0.471 count s 1 ppbv 1 .

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 LEDs Tested in this Study

Tables Icon

Table 2 Specifications of the NO 2 Instruments Based on the Fluorescence Detection Technique

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

NO 2 + h ν ( λ 398 nm ) NO + O ( P 3 ) .
S NO 2 Φ f ( P cell / P ambient ) .
Φ f = k r k r + k q M [ M ] ,
[ NO 2 ] min = ( S / N ) C S bg t .

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