Abstract

The 1.56μm eye-safe aerosol lidar at the Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung was upgraded, which resulted in a doubled laser pulse energy of 0.28J and an improved performance of the detection electronics. The high pulse energy, achieved by stimulated Raman backscattering of 0.9J from a Nd:YAG laser in deuterium (33% conversion efficiency when neglecting the residual optical losses), was mainly achieved by improving the beam quality of the pump beam. The Stokes pulses showed a subnanosecond peak with some underlying 10ns component. Because of the substantial increase in pulse energy, this reliable and simple method considerably gains in value. Examples are presented, demonstrating an operating range between 0.4 and more than 10km for quasi-horizontal measurements.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (1)

W. P. Hooper, G. M. Frick, and B. P. Michael, “Using backward Raman scattering from coupled deuterium cells,” Opt. Eng. 48, 084302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

S. D. Mayor, P. Benda, C. E. Murata, and R. J. Danzig, “Lidars: a key component of urban biodefense,” Biosec. Bioterr. Biodef. 6, 45–56 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Vogelmann and T. Trickl, “Wide-range sounding of free-tropospheric water vapor with a differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) at a high-altitude station,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2116–2132(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. De Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. L. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, B. M. Morley, and E. Loew, “Polarization lidar at 1.54 μm and observations of plumes from aerosol generators,” Opt. Eng. 46, 096201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spuler and S. D. Mayor, “Raman shifter optimized for lidar at a 1.5 μm wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2990–2995 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, B. M. Morley, and E. Loew, “Polarization lidar at 1.54 μm and observations of plumes from aerosol generators,” Opt. Eng. 46, 096201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. Amodeo, J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, D. V. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: the European Aerosol Lidar Network,” Optica Pura y Aplicada 39, 1–10 (2006).

2005 (2)

S. M. Spuler and S. D. Mayor, “Scanning eye-safe elastic backscatter lidar at 1.54 μm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 22, 696–703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, and B. M. Morley, “Scanning eye-safe depolarization lidar at 1.54 microns and potential usefulness in bioaerosol plume detection,” Proc. SPIE 5887, 58870N (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (2)

N. Takei, S. Suzuki, and F. Kannari, “20 Hz operation of an eye-safe cascade Raman laser with a Ba(NO3)2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 521–527 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Richter, N. S. Higdon, P. Ponsardin, D. Sanchez, T. H. Chyba, D. A. Temple, W. Gong, R. Battle, M. Edmondson, A. Futrell, D. Harper, L. Haughton, D. Johnson, K. Lewis, and R. S. Payne-Baggott, “Design validation of an eye-safe scanning aerosol lidar with the Center for Lidar and Atmospheric Sciences Students (CLASS) at Hampton University,” Proc. SPIE 4484, 8–16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotawa, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, and A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22887–22906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

W. Carnuth and T. Trickl, “Transport studies with the IFU three-wavelength aerosol lidar during the VOTALP Mesolcina experiment,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 1425–1434 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. Eisele, H. E. Scheel, R. Sladkovic, and T. Trickl, “High-resolution lidar measurements of stratosphere-troposphere exchange,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 319–330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. J. T. Milton, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, J. Bösenberg, W. Carnuth, F. Castagnoli, T. Trickl, H. Edner, L. Stefanutti, T. Schaberl, A. Sunesson, and C. Weitkamp, “Raman-shifted laser sources suitable for differential-absorption lidar measurements of ozone in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 105–113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Hartung, J. Seedorf, T. Trickl, and H. Gronauer, “Freisetzung partikelförmiger Stoffe aus einem Schweinestall mit zentraler Abluftführung in die Stallumgebung,” Dtsch. Ttierärztl. Wschr. 105, 244–245 (1998).

1997 (2)

M. R. Perrone, V. Piccinno, G. De Nunzio, and V. Nassisi, “Dependence of rotational and vibrational Raman scattering on focusing geometry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 938–944(1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, S. Chudamani, J. F. Cavanaugh, and J. L. Bufton, “Aerosol and cloud backscatter at 1.06, 1.54, and 0.53 mm by airborne hard-target-calibrated Nd:YAG/methane Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3475–3490 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (3)

Special section on Marine Aerosol Properties and Thermal Imager Performance (MAPTIP), Proc. SPIE 2828 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Roy and P. Mathieu, “Comparison of Raman and degenerated optical parametric oscillators for a high-energy and high-repetition-rate eye-safe laser,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3579–3584 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Kunz and T. Trickl, “Lidar measurements of atmospheric extinction during the MAPTIP trial,” Proc. SPIE 2828, 31–38(1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. R. Harrell, W. Wilcox, D. Killinger, G. A. Rines, and R. Schwarz, “High power, eye-safe 1.57 μm OPO lidar for atmospheric boundary layer measurements,” Proc. SPIE 2366, 354–357 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

W. Carnuth and T. Trickl, “A powerful eyesafe infrared aerosol lidar: application of stimulated Raman backscattering of 1.06 μm radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3324–3331 (1994).
[CrossRef]

U. Kempfer, W. Carnuth, R. Lotz, and T. Trickl, “A wide-range UV lidar system for tropospheric ozone measurements: development and application,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3145–3164 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

W. Carnuth and T. Trickl, “Development of an eyesafe infrared aerosol lidar,” Proc. SPIE 1714, 192–198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

1981 (1)

1966 (1)

M. Maier, W. Kaiser, and J. A. Giordmaine, “Intense light bursts in the stimulated Raman effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1275–1277 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

N. Bloembergen and Y. R. Shen, “Coupling between vibrations and light in Raman laser media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 504–507 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Althausen, D.

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotawa, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, and A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22887–22906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Amiridis, V.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. De Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. L. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Amodeo, A.

A. Amodeo, J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, D. V. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: the European Aerosol Lidar Network,” Optica Pura y Aplicada 39, 1–10 (2006).

Ancellet, G.

M. J. T. Milton, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, J. Bösenberg, W. Carnuth, F. Castagnoli, T. Trickl, H. Edner, L. Stefanutti, T. Schaberl, A. Sunesson, and C. Weitkamp, “Raman-shifted laser sources suitable for differential-absorption lidar measurements of ozone in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 105–113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, A.

A. Amodeo, J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, D. V. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: the European Aerosol Lidar Network,” Optica Pura y Aplicada 39, 1–10 (2006).

Apituley, A.

M. J. T. Milton, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, J. Bösenberg, W. Carnuth, F. Castagnoli, T. Trickl, H. Edner, L. Stefanutti, T. Schaberl, A. Sunesson, and C. Weitkamp, “Raman-shifted laser sources suitable for differential-absorption lidar measurements of ozone in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 105–113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Balis, D.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. De Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. L. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Amodeo, J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, D. V. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: the European Aerosol Lidar Network,” Optica Pura y Aplicada 39, 1–10 (2006).

Battle, R.

D. A. Richter, N. S. Higdon, P. Ponsardin, D. Sanchez, T. H. Chyba, D. A. Temple, W. Gong, R. Battle, M. Edmondson, A. Futrell, D. Harper, L. Haughton, D. Johnson, K. Lewis, and R. S. Payne-Baggott, “Design validation of an eye-safe scanning aerosol lidar with the Center for Lidar and Atmospheric Sciences Students (CLASS) at Hampton University,” Proc. SPIE 4484, 8–16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Benda, P.

S. D. Mayor, P. Benda, C. E. Murata, and R. J. Danzig, “Lidars: a key component of urban biodefense,” Biosec. Bioterr. Biodef. 6, 45–56 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Birch, K. P.

K. P. Birch, “Refractive index of gases,” National Physics Laboratory, Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants, http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/general_physics/2_5/2_5_7.html.

Bissonnette, L.

L. Bissonnette, D. Hutt, Y. Hurtaud, K. Stein, K. Weisse-Wrana, T. Trickl, W. Carnuth, G. Kunz, M. Moerman, E. A. Murphy, V. Turner, and F. D. Eaton, Vertical Aerosol Structure Trial (VAST 1992) (Defense Establishment Valcartier, 1995), p. 199.

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen and Y. R. Shen, “Coupling between vibrations and light in Raman laser media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 504–507 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Böckmann, C.

A. Amodeo, J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, D. V. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: the European Aerosol Lidar Network,” Optica Pura y Aplicada 39, 1–10 (2006).

Bösenberg, J.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. De Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. L. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Amodeo, J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, D. V. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: the European Aerosol Lidar Network,” Optica Pura y Aplicada 39, 1–10 (2006).

M. J. T. Milton, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, J. Bösenberg, W. Carnuth, F. Castagnoli, T. Trickl, H. Edner, L. Stefanutti, T. Schaberl, A. Sunesson, and C. Weitkamp, “Raman-shifted laser sources suitable for differential-absorption lidar measurements of ozone in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 105–113 (1998).
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Brenner, P.

P. Brenner, O. Reitebuch, K. Schäfer, T. Trickl, and A. Stichternath, “A novel mobile vertical-sounding system for ozone studies in the lower troposphere,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference, Berlin (Germany), July 22–26, 1996A.Ansmann, R.Neuber, P.Rairoux, and U.Wandinger, eds. (Springer, 1997), pp. 383–386.

Bufton, J. L.

Carnuth, W.

W. Carnuth and T. Trickl, “Transport studies with the IFU three-wavelength aerosol lidar during the VOTALP Mesolcina experiment,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 1425–1434 (2000).
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M. J. T. Milton, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, J. Bösenberg, W. Carnuth, F. Castagnoli, T. Trickl, H. Edner, L. Stefanutti, T. Schaberl, A. Sunesson, and C. Weitkamp, “Raman-shifted laser sources suitable for differential-absorption lidar measurements of ozone in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 105–113 (1998).
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W. Carnuth and T. Trickl, “A powerful eyesafe infrared aerosol lidar: application of stimulated Raman backscattering of 1.06 μm radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3324–3331 (1994).
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U. Kempfer, W. Carnuth, R. Lotz, and T. Trickl, “A wide-range UV lidar system for tropospheric ozone measurements: development and application,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3145–3164 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. Carnuth and T. Trickl, “Development of an eyesafe infrared aerosol lidar,” Proc. SPIE 1714, 192–198 (1992).
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W. Carnuth and R. Reiter, “Cloud extinction profile measurements by lidar using Klett’s inversion method,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2899–2907 (1986).
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L. Bissonnette, D. Hutt, Y. Hurtaud, K. Stein, K. Weisse-Wrana, T. Trickl, W. Carnuth, G. Kunz, M. Moerman, E. A. Murphy, V. Turner, and F. D. Eaton, Vertical Aerosol Structure Trial (VAST 1992) (Defense Establishment Valcartier, 1995), p. 199.

R. Reiter, M. Littfass, W. Carnuth, W. Funk, “Lidar measurements of concentrations and size distribution profiles of tropospheric aerosol,” in Ninth International Laser Radar Conference, C.Werner, F.Köpp, eds. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft-und Raumfahrt, 1979), pp. 82–84.

R. Reiter, W. Carnuth, and R. Sladkovic, “Behavior of tropospheric aerosol profiles monitored by lidar, compared with independently recorded data of aerosol structure and aerological profiles,” in Twelfth International Laser Radar Conference, G.Mégie, ed. (CNRS, 1984), pp. 109–112.

Castagnoli, F.

M. J. T. Milton, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, J. Bösenberg, W. Carnuth, F. Castagnoli, T. Trickl, H. Edner, L. Stefanutti, T. Schaberl, A. Sunesson, and C. Weitkamp, “Raman-shifted laser sources suitable for differential-absorption lidar measurements of ozone in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 105–113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cavanaugh, J. F.

Chaikovsky, A.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. De Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. L. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D10204 (2008).
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A. Amodeo, J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, D. V. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: the European Aerosol Lidar Network,” Optica Pura y Aplicada 39, 1–10 (2006).

Chudamani, S.

Chyba, T. H.

D. A. Richter, N. S. Higdon, P. Ponsardin, D. Sanchez, T. H. Chyba, D. A. Temple, W. Gong, R. Battle, M. Edmondson, A. Futrell, D. Harper, L. Haughton, D. Johnson, K. Lewis, and R. S. Payne-Baggott, “Design validation of an eye-safe scanning aerosol lidar with the Center for Lidar and Atmospheric Sciences Students (CLASS) at Hampton University,” Proc. SPIE 4484, 8–16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Comeron, A.

A. Amodeo, J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, D. V. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: the European Aerosol Lidar Network,” Optica Pura y Aplicada 39, 1–10 (2006).

D’Amico, G.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. De Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. L. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Danzig, R. J.

S. D. Mayor, P. Benda, C. E. Murata, and R. J. Danzig, “Lidars: a key component of urban biodefense,” Biosec. Bioterr. Biodef. 6, 45–56 (2008).
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De Nunzio, G.

M. R. Perrone, V. Piccinno, G. De Nunzio, and V. Nassisi, “Dependence of rotational and vibrational Raman scattering on focusing geometry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 938–944(1997).
[CrossRef]

De Tomasi, F.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. De Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. L. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, M. D.

Eaton, F. D.

L. Bissonnette, D. Hutt, Y. Hurtaud, K. Stein, K. Weisse-Wrana, T. Trickl, W. Carnuth, G. Kunz, M. Moerman, E. A. Murphy, V. Turner, and F. D. Eaton, Vertical Aerosol Structure Trial (VAST 1992) (Defense Establishment Valcartier, 1995), p. 199.

Edmondson, M.

D. A. Richter, N. S. Higdon, P. Ponsardin, D. Sanchez, T. H. Chyba, D. A. Temple, W. Gong, R. Battle, M. Edmondson, A. Futrell, D. Harper, L. Haughton, D. Johnson, K. Lewis, and R. S. Payne-Baggott, “Design validation of an eye-safe scanning aerosol lidar with the Center for Lidar and Atmospheric Sciences Students (CLASS) at Hampton University,” Proc. SPIE 4484, 8–16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Edner, H.

M. J. T. Milton, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, J. Bösenberg, W. Carnuth, F. Castagnoli, T. Trickl, H. Edner, L. Stefanutti, T. Schaberl, A. Sunesson, and C. Weitkamp, “Raman-shifted laser sources suitable for differential-absorption lidar measurements of ozone in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 105–113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eisele, H.

H. Eisele, H. E. Scheel, R. Sladkovic, and T. Trickl, “High-resolution lidar measurements of stratosphere-troposphere exchange,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 319–330 (1999).
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H. Eisele, and T. Trickl, “Second generation of the IFU stationary tropospheric ozone lidar,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference, Berlin (Germany), July 22–26, 1996, A.Ansmann, R.Neuber, P.Rairoux, and U.Wandinger, eds. (Springer, 1997), pp. 379–382

Forster, C.

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotawa, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, and A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22887–22906 (2001).
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Frick, G. M.

W. P. Hooper, G. M. Frick, and B. P. Michael, “Using backward Raman scattering from coupled deuterium cells,” Opt. Eng. 48, 084302 (2009).
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Funk, W.

R. Reiter, M. Littfass, W. Carnuth, W. Funk, “Lidar measurements of concentrations and size distribution profiles of tropospheric aerosol,” in Ninth International Laser Radar Conference, C.Werner, F.Köpp, eds. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft-und Raumfahrt, 1979), pp. 82–84.

Futrell, A.

D. A. Richter, N. S. Higdon, P. Ponsardin, D. Sanchez, T. H. Chyba, D. A. Temple, W. Gong, R. Battle, M. Edmondson, A. Futrell, D. Harper, L. Haughton, D. Johnson, K. Lewis, and R. S. Payne-Baggott, “Design validation of an eye-safe scanning aerosol lidar with the Center for Lidar and Atmospheric Sciences Students (CLASS) at Hampton University,” Proc. SPIE 4484, 8–16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gerding, M.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. De Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. L. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giordmaine, J. A.

M. Maier, W. Kaiser, and J. A. Giordmaine, “Intense light bursts in the stimulated Raman effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1275–1277 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Gong, W.

D. A. Richter, N. S. Higdon, P. Ponsardin, D. Sanchez, T. H. Chyba, D. A. Temple, W. Gong, R. Battle, M. Edmondson, A. Futrell, D. Harper, L. Haughton, D. Johnson, K. Lewis, and R. S. Payne-Baggott, “Design validation of an eye-safe scanning aerosol lidar with the Center for Lidar and Atmospheric Sciences Students (CLASS) at Hampton University,” Proc. SPIE 4484, 8–16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grigorov, I.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. De Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. L. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gronauer, H.

J. Hartung, J. Seedorf, T. Trickl, and H. Gronauer, “Freisetzung partikelförmiger Stoffe aus einem Schweinestall mit zentraler Abluftführung in die Stallumgebung,” Dtsch. Ttierärztl. Wschr. 105, 244–245 (1998).

Harper, D.

D. A. Richter, N. S. Higdon, P. Ponsardin, D. Sanchez, T. H. Chyba, D. A. Temple, W. Gong, R. Battle, M. Edmondson, A. Futrell, D. Harper, L. Haughton, D. Johnson, K. Lewis, and R. S. Payne-Baggott, “Design validation of an eye-safe scanning aerosol lidar with the Center for Lidar and Atmospheric Sciences Students (CLASS) at Hampton University,” Proc. SPIE 4484, 8–16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harrell, S. R.

S. R. Harrell, W. Wilcox, D. Killinger, G. A. Rines, and R. Schwarz, “High power, eye-safe 1.57 μm OPO lidar for atmospheric boundary layer measurements,” Proc. SPIE 2366, 354–357 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hartung, J.

J. Hartung, J. Seedorf, T. Trickl, and H. Gronauer, “Freisetzung partikelförmiger Stoffe aus einem Schweinestall mit zentraler Abluftführung in die Stallumgebung,” Dtsch. Ttierärztl. Wschr. 105, 244–245 (1998).

Haughton, L.

D. A. Richter, N. S. Higdon, P. Ponsardin, D. Sanchez, T. H. Chyba, D. A. Temple, W. Gong, R. Battle, M. Edmondson, A. Futrell, D. Harper, L. Haughton, D. Johnson, K. Lewis, and R. S. Payne-Baggott, “Design validation of an eye-safe scanning aerosol lidar with the Center for Lidar and Atmospheric Sciences Students (CLASS) at Hampton University,” Proc. SPIE 4484, 8–16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Higdon, N. S.

D. A. Richter, N. S. Higdon, P. Ponsardin, D. Sanchez, T. H. Chyba, D. A. Temple, W. Gong, R. Battle, M. Edmondson, A. Futrell, D. Harper, L. Haughton, D. Johnson, K. Lewis, and R. S. Payne-Baggott, “Design validation of an eye-safe scanning aerosol lidar with the Center for Lidar and Atmospheric Sciences Students (CLASS) at Hampton University,” Proc. SPIE 4484, 8–16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hooper, W. P.

W. P. Hooper, G. M. Frick, and B. P. Michael, “Using backward Raman scattering from coupled deuterium cells,” Opt. Eng. 48, 084302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hurtaud, Y.

L. Bissonnette, D. Hutt, Y. Hurtaud, K. Stein, K. Weisse-Wrana, T. Trickl, W. Carnuth, G. Kunz, M. Moerman, E. A. Murphy, V. Turner, and F. D. Eaton, Vertical Aerosol Structure Trial (VAST 1992) (Defense Establishment Valcartier, 1995), p. 199.

Hutt, D.

L. Bissonnette, D. Hutt, Y. Hurtaud, K. Stein, K. Weisse-Wrana, T. Trickl, W. Carnuth, G. Kunz, M. Moerman, E. A. Murphy, V. Turner, and F. D. Eaton, Vertical Aerosol Structure Trial (VAST 1992) (Defense Establishment Valcartier, 1995), p. 199.

Jäger, H.

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotawa, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, and A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22887–22906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

James, P.

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotawa, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, and A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22887–22906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jennings, S. G.

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotawa, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, and A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22887–22906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D.

D. A. Richter, N. S. Higdon, P. Ponsardin, D. Sanchez, T. H. Chyba, D. A. Temple, W. Gong, R. Battle, M. Edmondson, A. Futrell, D. Harper, L. Haughton, D. Johnson, K. Lewis, and R. S. Payne-Baggott, “Design validation of an eye-safe scanning aerosol lidar with the Center for Lidar and Atmospheric Sciences Students (CLASS) at Hampton University,” Proc. SPIE 4484, 8–16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, W.

M. Maier, W. Kaiser, and J. A. Giordmaine, “Intense light bursts in the stimulated Raman effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1275–1277 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Kannari, F.

N. Takei, S. Suzuki, and F. Kannari, “20 Hz operation of an eye-safe cascade Raman laser with a Ba(NO3)2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 521–527 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kempfer, U.

U. Kempfer, W. Carnuth, R. Lotz, and T. Trickl, “A wide-range UV lidar system for tropospheric ozone measurements: development and application,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3145–3164 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Killinger, D.

S. R. Harrell, W. Wilcox, D. Killinger, G. A. Rines, and R. Schwarz, “High power, eye-safe 1.57 μm OPO lidar for atmospheric boundary layer measurements,” Proc. SPIE 2366, 354–357 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kleefeld, C.

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotawa, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, and A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22887–22906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Klett, J. D.

Kreipl, S.

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotawa, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, and A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22887–22906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, G.

L. Bissonnette, D. Hutt, Y. Hurtaud, K. Stein, K. Weisse-Wrana, T. Trickl, W. Carnuth, G. Kunz, M. Moerman, E. A. Murphy, V. Turner, and F. D. Eaton, Vertical Aerosol Structure Trial (VAST 1992) (Defense Establishment Valcartier, 1995), p. 199.

Kunz, G. J.

G. J. Kunz and T. Trickl, “Lidar measurements of atmospheric extinction during the MAPTIP trial,” Proc. SPIE 2828, 31–38(1996).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, K.

D. A. Richter, N. S. Higdon, P. Ponsardin, D. Sanchez, T. H. Chyba, D. A. Temple, W. Gong, R. Battle, M. Edmondson, A. Futrell, D. Harper, L. Haughton, D. Johnson, K. Lewis, and R. S. Payne-Baggott, “Design validation of an eye-safe scanning aerosol lidar with the Center for Lidar and Atmospheric Sciences Students (CLASS) at Hampton University,” Proc. SPIE 4484, 8–16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Littfass, M.

R. Reiter, M. Littfass, W. Carnuth, W. Funk, “Lidar measurements of concentrations and size distribution profiles of tropospheric aerosol,” in Ninth International Laser Radar Conference, C.Werner, F.Köpp, eds. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft-und Raumfahrt, 1979), pp. 82–84.

Loew, E.

S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, B. M. Morley, and E. Loew, “Polarization lidar at 1.54 μm and observations of plumes from aerosol generators,” Opt. Eng. 46, 096201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, B. M. Morley, and E. Loew, “Polarization lidar at 1.54 μm and observations of plumes from aerosol generators,” Opt. Eng. 46, 096201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lotz, R.

U. Kempfer, W. Carnuth, R. Lotz, and T. Trickl, “A wide-range UV lidar system for tropospheric ozone measurements: development and application,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3145–3164 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mahon, R.

Maier, M.

M. Maier, W. Kaiser, and J. A. Giordmaine, “Intense light bursts in the stimulated Raman effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1275–1277 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Mamouri, R. E.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. De Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. L. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mathieu, P.

G. Roy and P. Mathieu, “Comparison of Raman and degenerated optical parametric oscillators for a high-energy and high-repetition-rate eye-safe laser,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3579–3584 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mattis, I.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. De Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. L. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotawa, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, and A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22887–22906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mayor, S. D.

S. D. Mayor, P. Benda, C. E. Murata, and R. J. Danzig, “Lidars: a key component of urban biodefense,” Biosec. Bioterr. Biodef. 6, 45–56 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spuler and S. D. Mayor, “Raman shifter optimized for lidar at a 1.5 μm wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2990–2995 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, B. M. Morley, and E. Loew, “Polarization lidar at 1.54 μm and observations of plumes from aerosol generators,” Opt. Eng. 46, 096201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, B. M. Morley, and E. Loew, “Polarization lidar at 1.54 μm and observations of plumes from aerosol generators,” Opt. Eng. 46, 096201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, and B. M. Morley, “Scanning eye-safe depolarization lidar at 1.54 microns and potential usefulness in bioaerosol plume detection,” Proc. SPIE 5887, 58870N (2005).
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S. M. Spuler and S. D. Mayor, “Scanning eye-safe elastic backscatter lidar at 1.54 μm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 22, 696–703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Mayor and S. M. Spuler, “Raman-shifted eye-safe aerosol lidar,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3915–3924 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michael, B. P.

W. P. Hooper, G. M. Frick, and B. P. Michael, “Using backward Raman scattering from coupled deuterium cells,” Opt. Eng. 48, 084302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Milton, M. J. T.

M. J. T. Milton, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, J. Bösenberg, W. Carnuth, F. Castagnoli, T. Trickl, H. Edner, L. Stefanutti, T. Schaberl, A. Sunesson, and C. Weitkamp, “Raman-shifted laser sources suitable for differential-absorption lidar measurements of ozone in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 105–113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitev, V.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. De Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. L. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Amodeo, J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, D. V. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: the European Aerosol Lidar Network,” Optica Pura y Aplicada 39, 1–10 (2006).

Moerman, M.

L. Bissonnette, D. Hutt, Y. Hurtaud, K. Stein, K. Weisse-Wrana, T. Trickl, W. Carnuth, G. Kunz, M. Moerman, E. A. Murphy, V. Turner, and F. D. Eaton, Vertical Aerosol Structure Trial (VAST 1992) (Defense Establishment Valcartier, 1995), p. 199.

Mona, L.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. De Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. L. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morley, B. M.

S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, B. M. Morley, and E. Loew, “Polarization lidar at 1.54 μm and observations of plumes from aerosol generators,” Opt. Eng. 46, 096201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, B. M. Morley, and E. Loew, “Polarization lidar at 1.54 μm and observations of plumes from aerosol generators,” Opt. Eng. 46, 096201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, and B. M. Morley, “Scanning eye-safe depolarization lidar at 1.54 microns and potential usefulness in bioaerosol plume detection,” Proc. SPIE 5887, 58870N (2005).
[CrossRef]

Müller, D.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. De Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. L. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Murata, C. E.

S. D. Mayor, P. Benda, C. E. Murata, and R. J. Danzig, “Lidars: a key component of urban biodefense,” Biosec. Bioterr. Biodef. 6, 45–56 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, E. A.

L. Bissonnette, D. Hutt, Y. Hurtaud, K. Stein, K. Weisse-Wrana, T. Trickl, W. Carnuth, G. Kunz, M. Moerman, E. A. Murphy, V. Turner, and F. D. Eaton, Vertical Aerosol Structure Trial (VAST 1992) (Defense Establishment Valcartier, 1995), p. 199.

Nassisi, V.

M. R. Perrone, V. Piccinno, G. De Nunzio, and V. Nassisi, “Dependence of rotational and vibrational Raman scattering on focusing geometry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 938–944(1997).
[CrossRef]

Nickovic, S.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. De Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. L. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O’Doherty, S.

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotawa, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, and A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22887–22906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Papayannis, A.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. De Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. L. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Amodeo, J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, D. V. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: the European Aerosol Lidar Network,” Optica Pura y Aplicada 39, 1–10 (2006).

Pappalardo, G.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. De Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. L. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Amodeo, J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, D. V. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: the European Aerosol Lidar Network,” Optica Pura y Aplicada 39, 1–10 (2006).

Payne-Baggott, R. S.

D. A. Richter, N. S. Higdon, P. Ponsardin, D. Sanchez, T. H. Chyba, D. A. Temple, W. Gong, R. Battle, M. Edmondson, A. Futrell, D. Harper, L. Haughton, D. Johnson, K. Lewis, and R. S. Payne-Baggott, “Design validation of an eye-safe scanning aerosol lidar with the Center for Lidar and Atmospheric Sciences Students (CLASS) at Hampton University,” Proc. SPIE 4484, 8–16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pérez, C.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. De Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. L. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perrone, M. R.

A. Amodeo, J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, D. V. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: the European Aerosol Lidar Network,” Optica Pura y Aplicada 39, 1–10 (2006).

M. R. Perrone, V. Piccinno, G. De Nunzio, and V. Nassisi, “Dependence of rotational and vibrational Raman scattering on focusing geometry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 938–944(1997).
[CrossRef]

Piccinno, V.

M. R. Perrone, V. Piccinno, G. De Nunzio, and V. Nassisi, “Dependence of rotational and vibrational Raman scattering on focusing geometry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 938–944(1997).
[CrossRef]

Pietruczuk, A.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. De Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. L. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pisani, G. L.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. De Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. L. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ponsardin, P.

D. A. Richter, N. S. Higdon, P. Ponsardin, D. Sanchez, T. H. Chyba, D. A. Temple, W. Gong, R. Battle, M. Edmondson, A. Futrell, D. Harper, L. Haughton, D. Johnson, K. Lewis, and R. S. Payne-Baggott, “Design validation of an eye-safe scanning aerosol lidar with the Center for Lidar and Atmospheric Sciences Students (CLASS) at Hampton University,” Proc. SPIE 4484, 8–16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ravetta, F.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. De Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. L. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D10204 (2008).
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Reintjes, J.

Reitebuch, O.

P. Brenner, O. Reitebuch, K. Schäfer, T. Trickl, and A. Stichternath, “A novel mobile vertical-sounding system for ozone studies in the lower troposphere,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference, Berlin (Germany), July 22–26, 1996A.Ansmann, R.Neuber, P.Rairoux, and U.Wandinger, eds. (Springer, 1997), pp. 383–386.

Reiter, R.

W. Carnuth and R. Reiter, “Cloud extinction profile measurements by lidar using Klett’s inversion method,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2899–2907 (1986).
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R. Reiter, M. Littfass, W. Carnuth, W. Funk, “Lidar measurements of concentrations and size distribution profiles of tropospheric aerosol,” in Ninth International Laser Radar Conference, C.Werner, F.Köpp, eds. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft-und Raumfahrt, 1979), pp. 82–84.

R. Reiter, W. Carnuth, and R. Sladkovic, “Behavior of tropospheric aerosol profiles monitored by lidar, compared with independently recorded data of aerosol structure and aerological profiles,” in Twelfth International Laser Radar Conference, G.Mégie, ed. (CNRS, 1984), pp. 109–112.

Richter, D. A.

D. A. Richter, N. S. Higdon, P. Ponsardin, D. Sanchez, T. H. Chyba, D. A. Temple, W. Gong, R. Battle, M. Edmondson, A. Futrell, D. Harper, L. Haughton, D. Johnson, K. Lewis, and R. S. Payne-Baggott, “Design validation of an eye-safe scanning aerosol lidar with the Center for Lidar and Atmospheric Sciences Students (CLASS) at Hampton University,” Proc. SPIE 4484, 8–16 (2002).
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Rines, G. A.

S. R. Harrell, W. Wilcox, D. Killinger, G. A. Rines, and R. Schwarz, “High power, eye-safe 1.57 μm OPO lidar for atmospheric boundary layer measurements,” Proc. SPIE 2366, 354–357 (1995).
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Rizi, V.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. De Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. L. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D10204 (2008).
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A. Amodeo, J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, D. V. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: the European Aerosol Lidar Network,” Optica Pura y Aplicada 39, 1–10 (2006).

Roy, G.

G. Roy and P. Mathieu, “Comparison of Raman and degenerated optical parametric oscillators for a high-energy and high-repetition-rate eye-safe laser,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3579–3584 (1996).
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Sanchez, D.

D. A. Richter, N. S. Higdon, P. Ponsardin, D. Sanchez, T. H. Chyba, D. A. Temple, W. Gong, R. Battle, M. Edmondson, A. Futrell, D. Harper, L. Haughton, D. Johnson, K. Lewis, and R. S. Payne-Baggott, “Design validation of an eye-safe scanning aerosol lidar with the Center for Lidar and Atmospheric Sciences Students (CLASS) at Hampton University,” Proc. SPIE 4484, 8–16 (2002).
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Schaberl, T.

M. J. T. Milton, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, J. Bösenberg, W. Carnuth, F. Castagnoli, T. Trickl, H. Edner, L. Stefanutti, T. Schaberl, A. Sunesson, and C. Weitkamp, “Raman-shifted laser sources suitable for differential-absorption lidar measurements of ozone in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 105–113 (1998).
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Schäfer, K.

P. Brenner, O. Reitebuch, K. Schäfer, T. Trickl, and A. Stichternath, “A novel mobile vertical-sounding system for ozone studies in the lower troposphere,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference, Berlin (Germany), July 22–26, 1996A.Ansmann, R.Neuber, P.Rairoux, and U.Wandinger, eds. (Springer, 1997), pp. 383–386.

Scheel, H. E.

H. Eisele, H. E. Scheel, R. Sladkovic, and T. Trickl, “High-resolution lidar measurements of stratosphere-troposphere exchange,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 319–330 (1999).
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Schneider, J.

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotawa, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, and A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22887–22906 (2001).
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Schwarz, R.

S. R. Harrell, W. Wilcox, D. Killinger, G. A. Rines, and R. Schwarz, “High power, eye-safe 1.57 μm OPO lidar for atmospheric boundary layer measurements,” Proc. SPIE 2366, 354–357 (1995).
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Seedorf, J.

J. Hartung, J. Seedorf, T. Trickl, and H. Gronauer, “Freisetzung partikelförmiger Stoffe aus einem Schweinestall mit zentraler Abluftführung in die Stallumgebung,” Dtsch. Ttierärztl. Wschr. 105, 244–245 (1998).

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N. Bloembergen and Y. R. Shen, “Coupling between vibrations and light in Raman laser media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 504–507 (1964).
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Sicard, M.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. De Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. L. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D10204 (2008).
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Simeonov, V.

A. Amodeo, J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, D. V. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: the European Aerosol Lidar Network,” Optica Pura y Aplicada 39, 1–10 (2006).

Simmonds, P.

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotawa, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, and A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22887–22906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sladkovic, R.

H. Eisele, H. E. Scheel, R. Sladkovic, and T. Trickl, “High-resolution lidar measurements of stratosphere-troposphere exchange,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 319–330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Reiter, W. Carnuth, and R. Sladkovic, “Behavior of tropospheric aerosol profiles monitored by lidar, compared with independently recorded data of aerosol structure and aerological profiles,” in Twelfth International Laser Radar Conference, G.Mégie, ed. (CNRS, 1984), pp. 109–112.

Sobolewski, P.

A. Amodeo, J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, D. V. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: the European Aerosol Lidar Network,” Optica Pura y Aplicada 39, 1–10 (2006).

Spinelli, N.

A. Amodeo, J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, D. V. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: the European Aerosol Lidar Network,” Optica Pura y Aplicada 39, 1–10 (2006).

Spinhirne, J. D.

Spuler, S. M.

S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, B. M. Morley, and E. Loew, “Polarization lidar at 1.54 μm and observations of plumes from aerosol generators,” Opt. Eng. 46, 096201 (2007).
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S. M. Spuler and S. D. Mayor, “Raman shifter optimized for lidar at a 1.5 μm wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2990–2995 (2007).
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S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, B. M. Morley, and E. Loew, “Polarization lidar at 1.54 μm and observations of plumes from aerosol generators,” Opt. Eng. 46, 096201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, and B. M. Morley, “Scanning eye-safe depolarization lidar at 1.54 microns and potential usefulness in bioaerosol plume detection,” Proc. SPIE 5887, 58870N (2005).
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S. M. Spuler and S. D. Mayor, “Scanning eye-safe elastic backscatter lidar at 1.54 μm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 22, 696–703 (2005).
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S. D. Mayor and S. M. Spuler, “Raman-shifted eye-safe aerosol lidar,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3915–3924 (2004).
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Stefanutti, L.

M. J. T. Milton, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, J. Bösenberg, W. Carnuth, F. Castagnoli, T. Trickl, H. Edner, L. Stefanutti, T. Schaberl, A. Sunesson, and C. Weitkamp, “Raman-shifted laser sources suitable for differential-absorption lidar measurements of ozone in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 105–113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stein, K.

L. Bissonnette, D. Hutt, Y. Hurtaud, K. Stein, K. Weisse-Wrana, T. Trickl, W. Carnuth, G. Kunz, M. Moerman, E. A. Murphy, V. Turner, and F. D. Eaton, Vertical Aerosol Structure Trial (VAST 1992) (Defense Establishment Valcartier, 1995), p. 199.

Stichternath, A.

P. Brenner, O. Reitebuch, K. Schäfer, T. Trickl, and A. Stichternath, “A novel mobile vertical-sounding system for ozone studies in the lower troposphere,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference, Berlin (Germany), July 22–26, 1996A.Ansmann, R.Neuber, P.Rairoux, and U.Wandinger, eds. (Springer, 1997), pp. 383–386.

Stohl, A.

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotawa, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, and A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22887–22906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stoyanov, D. V.

A. Amodeo, J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, D. V. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: the European Aerosol Lidar Network,” Optica Pura y Aplicada 39, 1–10 (2006).

Sunesson, A.

M. J. T. Milton, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, J. Bösenberg, W. Carnuth, F. Castagnoli, T. Trickl, H. Edner, L. Stefanutti, T. Schaberl, A. Sunesson, and C. Weitkamp, “Raman-shifted laser sources suitable for differential-absorption lidar measurements of ozone in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 105–113 (1998).
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Suzuki, S.

N. Takei, S. Suzuki, and F. Kannari, “20 Hz operation of an eye-safe cascade Raman laser with a Ba(NO3)2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 521–527 (2002).
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Takei, N.

N. Takei, S. Suzuki, and F. Kannari, “20 Hz operation of an eye-safe cascade Raman laser with a Ba(NO3)2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 521–527 (2002).
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Tankersley, L. L.

Temple, D. A.

D. A. Richter, N. S. Higdon, P. Ponsardin, D. Sanchez, T. H. Chyba, D. A. Temple, W. Gong, R. Battle, M. Edmondson, A. Futrell, D. Harper, L. Haughton, D. Johnson, K. Lewis, and R. S. Payne-Baggott, “Design validation of an eye-safe scanning aerosol lidar with the Center for Lidar and Atmospheric Sciences Students (CLASS) at Hampton University,” Proc. SPIE 4484, 8–16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Trickl, T.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. De Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. L. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Vogelmann and T. Trickl, “Wide-range sounding of free-tropospheric water vapor with a differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) at a high-altitude station,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2116–2132(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amodeo, J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, D. V. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: the European Aerosol Lidar Network,” Optica Pura y Aplicada 39, 1–10 (2006).

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotawa, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, and A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22887–22906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Carnuth and T. Trickl, “Transport studies with the IFU three-wavelength aerosol lidar during the VOTALP Mesolcina experiment,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 1425–1434 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Eisele, H. E. Scheel, R. Sladkovic, and T. Trickl, “High-resolution lidar measurements of stratosphere-troposphere exchange,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 319–330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. J. T. Milton, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, J. Bösenberg, W. Carnuth, F. Castagnoli, T. Trickl, H. Edner, L. Stefanutti, T. Schaberl, A. Sunesson, and C. Weitkamp, “Raman-shifted laser sources suitable for differential-absorption lidar measurements of ozone in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 105–113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Hartung, J. Seedorf, T. Trickl, and H. Gronauer, “Freisetzung partikelförmiger Stoffe aus einem Schweinestall mit zentraler Abluftführung in die Stallumgebung,” Dtsch. Ttierärztl. Wschr. 105, 244–245 (1998).

G. J. Kunz and T. Trickl, “Lidar measurements of atmospheric extinction during the MAPTIP trial,” Proc. SPIE 2828, 31–38(1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Kempfer, W. Carnuth, R. Lotz, and T. Trickl, “A wide-range UV lidar system for tropospheric ozone measurements: development and application,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3145–3164 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. Carnuth and T. Trickl, “A powerful eyesafe infrared aerosol lidar: application of stimulated Raman backscattering of 1.06 μm radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3324–3331 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. Carnuth and T. Trickl, “Development of an eyesafe infrared aerosol lidar,” Proc. SPIE 1714, 192–198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Bissonnette, D. Hutt, Y. Hurtaud, K. Stein, K. Weisse-Wrana, T. Trickl, W. Carnuth, G. Kunz, M. Moerman, E. A. Murphy, V. Turner, and F. D. Eaton, Vertical Aerosol Structure Trial (VAST 1992) (Defense Establishment Valcartier, 1995), p. 199.

P. Brenner, O. Reitebuch, K. Schäfer, T. Trickl, and A. Stichternath, “A novel mobile vertical-sounding system for ozone studies in the lower troposphere,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference, Berlin (Germany), July 22–26, 1996A.Ansmann, R.Neuber, P.Rairoux, and U.Wandinger, eds. (Springer, 1997), pp. 383–386.

H. Eisele, and T. Trickl, “Second generation of the IFU stationary tropospheric ozone lidar,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference, Berlin (Germany), July 22–26, 1996, A.Ansmann, R.Neuber, P.Rairoux, and U.Wandinger, eds. (Springer, 1997), pp. 379–382

Tsaknakis, G.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. De Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. L. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Turner, V.

L. Bissonnette, D. Hutt, Y. Hurtaud, K. Stein, K. Weisse-Wrana, T. Trickl, W. Carnuth, G. Kunz, M. Moerman, E. A. Murphy, V. Turner, and F. D. Eaton, Vertical Aerosol Structure Trial (VAST 1992) (Defense Establishment Valcartier, 1995), p. 199.

Vogelmann, H.

Wandinger, U.

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotawa, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, and A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22887–22906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weisse-Wrana, K.

L. Bissonnette, D. Hutt, Y. Hurtaud, K. Stein, K. Weisse-Wrana, T. Trickl, W. Carnuth, G. Kunz, M. Moerman, E. A. Murphy, V. Turner, and F. D. Eaton, Vertical Aerosol Structure Trial (VAST 1992) (Defense Establishment Valcartier, 1995), p. 199.

Weitkamp, C.

M. J. T. Milton, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, J. Bösenberg, W. Carnuth, F. Castagnoli, T. Trickl, H. Edner, L. Stefanutti, T. Schaberl, A. Sunesson, and C. Weitkamp, “Raman-shifted laser sources suitable for differential-absorption lidar measurements of ozone in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 105–113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wiegner, M.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. De Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. L. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Amodeo, J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, D. V. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: the European Aerosol Lidar Network,” Optica Pura y Aplicada 39, 1–10 (2006).

Wilcox, W.

S. R. Harrell, W. Wilcox, D. Killinger, G. A. Rines, and R. Schwarz, “High power, eye-safe 1.57 μm OPO lidar for atmospheric boundary layer measurements,” Proc. SPIE 2366, 354–357 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wotawa, G.

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotawa, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, and A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22887–22906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

M. J. T. Milton, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, J. Bösenberg, W. Carnuth, F. Castagnoli, T. Trickl, H. Edner, L. Stefanutti, T. Schaberl, A. Sunesson, and C. Weitkamp, “Raman-shifted laser sources suitable for differential-absorption lidar measurements of ozone in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 105–113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Takei, S. Suzuki, and F. Kannari, “20 Hz operation of an eye-safe cascade Raman laser with a Ba(NO3)2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 521–527 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Environ. (1)

W. Carnuth and T. Trickl, “Transport studies with the IFU three-wavelength aerosol lidar during the VOTALP Mesolcina experiment,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 1425–1434 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Biosec. Bioterr. Biodef. (1)

S. D. Mayor, P. Benda, C. E. Murata, and R. J. Danzig, “Lidars: a key component of urban biodefense,” Biosec. Bioterr. Biodef. 6, 45–56 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dtsch. Ttierärztl. Wschr. (1)

J. Hartung, J. Seedorf, T. Trickl, and H. Gronauer, “Freisetzung partikelförmiger Stoffe aus einem Schweinestall mit zentraler Abluftführung in die Stallumgebung,” Dtsch. Ttierärztl. Wschr. 105, 244–245 (1998).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. R. Perrone, V. Piccinno, G. De Nunzio, and V. Nassisi, “Dependence of rotational and vibrational Raman scattering on focusing geometry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 938–944(1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (1)

S. M. Spuler and S. D. Mayor, “Scanning eye-safe elastic backscatter lidar at 1.54 μm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 22, 696–703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

H. Eisele, H. E. Scheel, R. Sladkovic, and T. Trickl, “High-resolution lidar measurements of stratosphere-troposphere exchange,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 319–330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotawa, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, and A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22887–22906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. De Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. L. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (4)

S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, B. M. Morley, and E. Loew, “Polarization lidar at 1.54 μm and observations of plumes from aerosol generators,” Opt. Eng. 46, 096201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, B. M. Morley, and E. Loew, “Polarization lidar at 1.54 μm and observations of plumes from aerosol generators,” Opt. Eng. 46, 096201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Hooper, G. M. Frick, and B. P. Michael, “Using backward Raman scattering from coupled deuterium cells,” Opt. Eng. 48, 084302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Roy and P. Mathieu, “Comparison of Raman and degenerated optical parametric oscillators for a high-energy and high-repetition-rate eye-safe laser,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3579–3584 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica Pura y Aplicada (1)

A. Amodeo, J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, D. V. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: the European Aerosol Lidar Network,” Optica Pura y Aplicada 39, 1–10 (2006).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. Maier, W. Kaiser, and J. A. Giordmaine, “Intense light bursts in the stimulated Raman effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1275–1277 (1966).
[CrossRef]

N. Bloembergen and Y. R. Shen, “Coupling between vibrations and light in Raman laser media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 504–507 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (6)

G. J. Kunz and T. Trickl, “Lidar measurements of atmospheric extinction during the MAPTIP trial,” Proc. SPIE 2828, 31–38(1996).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Harrell, W. Wilcox, D. Killinger, G. A. Rines, and R. Schwarz, “High power, eye-safe 1.57 μm OPO lidar for atmospheric boundary layer measurements,” Proc. SPIE 2366, 354–357 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Richter, N. S. Higdon, P. Ponsardin, D. Sanchez, T. H. Chyba, D. A. Temple, W. Gong, R. Battle, M. Edmondson, A. Futrell, D. Harper, L. Haughton, D. Johnson, K. Lewis, and R. S. Payne-Baggott, “Design validation of an eye-safe scanning aerosol lidar with the Center for Lidar and Atmospheric Sciences Students (CLASS) at Hampton University,” Proc. SPIE 4484, 8–16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, and B. M. Morley, “Scanning eye-safe depolarization lidar at 1.54 microns and potential usefulness in bioaerosol plume detection,” Proc. SPIE 5887, 58870N (2005).
[CrossRef]

Special section on Marine Aerosol Properties and Thermal Imager Performance (MAPTIP), Proc. SPIE 2828 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Carnuth and T. Trickl, “Development of an eyesafe infrared aerosol lidar,” Proc. SPIE 1714, 192–198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

W. Carnuth and T. Trickl, “A powerful eyesafe infrared aerosol lidar: application of stimulated Raman backscattering of 1.06 μm radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3324–3331 (1994).
[CrossRef]

U. Kempfer, W. Carnuth, R. Lotz, and T. Trickl, “A wide-range UV lidar system for tropospheric ozone measurements: development and application,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3145–3164 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

K. P. Birch, “Refractive index of gases,” National Physics Laboratory, Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants, http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/general_physics/2_5/2_5_7.html.

L. Bissonnette, D. Hutt, Y. Hurtaud, K. Stein, K. Weisse-Wrana, T. Trickl, W. Carnuth, G. Kunz, M. Moerman, E. A. Murphy, V. Turner, and F. D. Eaton, Vertical Aerosol Structure Trial (VAST 1992) (Defense Establishment Valcartier, 1995), p. 199.

H. Eisele, and T. Trickl, “Second generation of the IFU stationary tropospheric ozone lidar,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference, Berlin (Germany), July 22–26, 1996, A.Ansmann, R.Neuber, P.Rairoux, and U.Wandinger, eds. (Springer, 1997), pp. 379–382

P. Brenner, O. Reitebuch, K. Schäfer, T. Trickl, and A. Stichternath, “A novel mobile vertical-sounding system for ozone studies in the lower troposphere,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference, Berlin (Germany), July 22–26, 1996A.Ansmann, R.Neuber, P.Rairoux, and U.Wandinger, eds. (Springer, 1997), pp. 383–386.

“American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers,” Tech. Rep. ANSI Z136.1-2000 (American National Standards Institute, 2000), p. 38 and p. 45.

R. Reiter, M. Littfass, W. Carnuth, W. Funk, “Lidar measurements of concentrations and size distribution profiles of tropospheric aerosol,” in Ninth International Laser Radar Conference, C.Werner, F.Köpp, eds. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft-und Raumfahrt, 1979), pp. 82–84.

R. Reiter, W. Carnuth, and R. Sladkovic, “Behavior of tropospheric aerosol profiles monitored by lidar, compared with independently recorded data of aerosol structure and aerological profiles,” in Twelfth International Laser Radar Conference, G.Mégie, ed. (CNRS, 1984), pp. 109–112.

Fernmessverfahren, Messungen in der Atmosphäre nach dem LIDAR-Prinzip, Messen gasförmiger Luftverunreinigungen mit dem DAS-LIDAR / Remote sensing, Atmospheric measurements with LIDAR, Measuring gaseous air pollution with DAS LIDAR, Guideline VDI 4210, Part 1, Verein Deutscher Ingenieure (Düsseldorf, Germany, 1999), p. 47.

Umweltmeteorologie, Bodengebundene Fernmessung der Sichtweite, Sichtweiten-Lidar / Environmental meteorology, Ground-based remote sensing of visual range, Visual-range lidar (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure, 1999), Guideline VDI 3786, Part 15, p. 32.
[PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layout of the transmitter section of the 1.56 μm lidar: M1–M4, high-reflecting mirrors; P, Glan polarizer; FR, Faraday rotator; FRb, Fresnel rhomb; PB, Pellin–Broca prism; DB, dichroic beam splitter; IA, iris aperture; F, filter; FG, Cajon VCR fitting with filter gasket; GC, gas circulator; V, valve; and B, beam stop.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temporal shape of the 1.56 μm emission for different levels of output pulse energy, measured with a digital oscilloscope with 500 MHz analog bandwidth; the length of the 1.064 μm pump pulse is 10 ns . The 1.56 μm pulse energy of 220 mJ corresponds to the full pump intensity and includes the optical losses for the preliminary adjustment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Energy budgets for different GCR 3 pump pulse energies: the pump pulse energy inside the Raman shifter is taken ( E in ). “Without losses” means that corrections for the losses in the dichroic beam splitter and the cell window were made.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Wavelength dependence of the extinction coefficients retrieved from horizontal lidar measurements in homogeneously distributed moderate coastal fog (Katwijk, the Netherlands, 3 November 1993).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Slant-path measurement on 14 August 1997 at an elevation angle of 20 ° , showing the marine boundary layer up to about 2.84 km ( r = 8.3 km ) and the onset of cirrus clouds at 6.94 km ( r = 20.3 km ) and beyond. The data were smoothed with a seven- channel gliding average. The times are given in Central European Time ( CET = UTC + 1 h ).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Two horizontal measurements on 12 August 1997, demonstrating the high variability of the near-coastal aerosol on that evening. The third trace shows the extinction coefficient for a slant-path measurement during that period, indicating a soft upper boundary (center: 0.3 km ) of the low boundary layer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Quasi-horizontal measurements over the sea surface revealing a substantial complexity of the surface layers. The two arrows mark distances corresponding to the same altitude in the 0.5 ° and 1.2 ° profiles ( 68 m ).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( n 1 ) × 10 6 = 134.2778 + 9.75037 × 10 5 × λ 2 + 1.15615 × 10 10 × λ 4 , λ   in nm .
( n 1 ) × 10 6 = 136.1915 + 1.00046 × 10 6 × λ 2 + 1.21766 × 10 10 × λ 4 , λ   in nm .
cos ϑ S = ( 2 k P ) 2 + k S 2 k a S 2 2 ( 2 k P ) k S ,
cos ϑ a S = ( 2 k P ) 2 k S 2 + k a S 2 2 ( 2 k P ) k a S ,

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