Abstract

An off-axis optical system with an xy polynomial surface for a see-through head-mounted display (HMD) is presented. With the use of an xy polynomial surface, an off-axis see-through HMD system with one tilted spherical combiner and six relay optical lenses is designed. An off-axis see-through HMD with a 15mm exit pupil, a 40°×30° FOV, and 70mm eye relief is achieved. Furthermore, a binocular off-axis see-through HMD prototype is fabricated and the performance of the system is experimentally tested; 972cd/m2 of luminance is measured at the position of the exit pupil of the HMD. A typical augmented reality image captured outdoors with the HMD prototype is also demonstrated.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2009 (3)

P. L. Wisely, “Head up and head mounted display performance improvements through advanced techniques in the manipulation of light,” Proc. SPIE 7327, 732706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Cameron, “The application of holographic optical waveguide technology to the Q-Sight family of helmet-mounted displays,” Proc. SPIE 7326, 73260H (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Cheng, Y. Wang, H. Hua, and M. M. Talha1, “Design of an optical see-through head-mounted display with a low f-number and large field of view using a freeform prism,” Appl. Opt. 48, 2655–2668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

2005 (2)

E. Acosta and S. Bará, “Variable aberration generators using rotated Zernike plates,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1993–1996(2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Sisodia, A. Riser, J. R. Rogers, D. Hopper, E. Forsythe, D. Morton, C. Bradford, and H. Girolamo, “Design of an advanced helmet mounted display (AHMD),” Proc. SPIE 5801, 304–315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Y. Ha, V. Smirnov, L. Glebov, and J. P. Rolland, “Optical modeling of a holographic single-element head-mounted display,” Proc. SPIE 5442, 254–260 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. T. Hebson and L. Lee, “Advanced rotorcraft helmet-mounted display sighting system (HMDSS) optical distortion correction methodology,” Proc. SPIE 4711, 20–27 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. M. Aye, K. Yu, I. Tengara, P. W. Peppler, and B. J. Pierce, “Compact HMD optics based on multiplexed aberration compensated holographic optical elements,” Proc. SPIE 4361, 89–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. P. Rolland, “Wide-angle, off-axis, see-through head-mounted display,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1760–1767 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. Yamazaki, K. Inoguchi, Y. Saito, H. Morishima, and N. Taniguchi, “Thin wide-field-of-view HMD with freeform surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 453–462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1990 (1)

J. G. Droessler and D. J. Rotier, “Tilted cat helmet-mounted display,” Opt. Eng. 29, 849–854 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

Acosta, E.

Amitai, Y.

Aye, T. M.

T. M. Aye, K. Yu, I. Tengara, P. W. Peppler, and B. J. Pierce, “Compact HMD optics based on multiplexed aberration compensated holographic optical elements,” Proc. SPIE 4361, 89–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bará, S.

Barfield, W.

W. Barfield and T. Caudell, Fundamentals of Wearable Computers and Augmented Reality (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2001), Chap. 4.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 2003), Chap. 9.

Bradford, C.

A. Sisodia, A. Riser, J. R. Rogers, D. Hopper, E. Forsythe, D. Morton, C. Bradford, and H. Girolamo, “Design of an advanced helmet mounted display (AHMD),” Proc. SPIE 5801, 304–315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burdea, G. C.

G. C. Burdea and P. Coiffet, Virtual Reality Technology (Wiley, 2003), Chap. 3.

Cakmakci, O.

Cameron, A.

A. Cameron, “The application of holographic optical waveguide technology to the Q-Sight family of helmet-mounted displays,” Proc. SPIE 7326, 73260H (2009).
[CrossRef]

Caudell, T.

W. Barfield and T. Caudell, Fundamentals of Wearable Computers and Augmented Reality (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2001), Chap. 4.

Cheng, D.

Coiffet, P.

G. C. Burdea and P. Coiffet, Virtual Reality Technology (Wiley, 2003), Chap. 3.

Droessler, J. G.

J. G. Droessler and D. J. Rotier, “Tilted cat helmet-mounted display,” Opt. Eng. 29, 849–854 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Foroosh, H.

Forsythe, E.

A. Sisodia, A. Riser, J. R. Rogers, D. Hopper, E. Forsythe, D. Morton, C. Bradford, and H. Girolamo, “Design of an advanced helmet mounted display (AHMD),” Proc. SPIE 5801, 304–315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Friesem, A. A.

Gao, C.

Girolamo, H.

A. Sisodia, A. Riser, J. R. Rogers, D. Hopper, E. Forsythe, D. Morton, C. Bradford, and H. Girolamo, “Design of an advanced helmet mounted display (AHMD),” Proc. SPIE 5801, 304–315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Glebov, L.

Y. Ha, V. Smirnov, L. Glebov, and J. P. Rolland, “Optical modeling of a holographic single-element head-mounted display,” Proc. SPIE 5442, 254–260 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ha, Y.

R. Martins, V. Shaoulov, Y. Ha, and J. Rolland, “A mobile head-worn projection display,” Opt. Express 15, 14530–14538(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ha, V. Smirnov, L. Glebov, and J. P. Rolland, “Optical modeling of a holographic single-element head-mounted display,” Proc. SPIE 5442, 254–260 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hebson, R. T.

R. T. Hebson and L. Lee, “Advanced rotorcraft helmet-mounted display sighting system (HMDSS) optical distortion correction methodology,” Proc. SPIE 4711, 20–27 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hopper, D.

A. Sisodia, A. Riser, J. R. Rogers, D. Hopper, E. Forsythe, D. Morton, C. Bradford, and H. Girolamo, “Design of an advanced helmet mounted display (AHMD),” Proc. SPIE 5801, 304–315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hua, H.

Inoguchi, K.

S. Yamazaki, K. Inoguchi, Y. Saito, H. Morishima, and N. Taniguchi, “Thin wide-field-of-view HMD with freeform surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 453–462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L.

R. T. Hebson and L. Lee, “Advanced rotorcraft helmet-mounted display sighting system (HMDSS) optical distortion correction methodology,” Proc. SPIE 4711, 20–27 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Martins, R.

Moore, B.

Morishima, H.

S. Yamazaki, K. Inoguchi, Y. Saito, H. Morishima, and N. Taniguchi, “Thin wide-field-of-view HMD with freeform surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 453–462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morton, D.

A. Sisodia, A. Riser, J. R. Rogers, D. Hopper, E. Forsythe, D. Morton, C. Bradford, and H. Girolamo, “Design of an advanced helmet mounted display (AHMD),” Proc. SPIE 5801, 304–315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peppler, P. W.

T. M. Aye, K. Yu, I. Tengara, P. W. Peppler, and B. J. Pierce, “Compact HMD optics based on multiplexed aberration compensated holographic optical elements,” Proc. SPIE 4361, 89–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, B. J.

T. M. Aye, K. Yu, I. Tengara, P. W. Peppler, and B. J. Pierce, “Compact HMD optics based on multiplexed aberration compensated holographic optical elements,” Proc. SPIE 4361, 89–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reinhorn, S.

Riser, A.

A. Sisodia, A. Riser, J. R. Rogers, D. Hopper, E. Forsythe, D. Morton, C. Bradford, and H. Girolamo, “Design of an advanced helmet mounted display (AHMD),” Proc. SPIE 5801, 304–315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

Rogers, J. R.

A. Sisodia, A. Riser, J. R. Rogers, D. Hopper, E. Forsythe, D. Morton, C. Bradford, and H. Girolamo, “Design of an advanced helmet mounted display (AHMD),” Proc. SPIE 5801, 304–315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, J. P.

Y. Ha, V. Smirnov, L. Glebov, and J. P. Rolland, “Optical modeling of a holographic single-element head-mounted display,” Proc. SPIE 5442, 254–260 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, J.

Rolland, J. P.

Rotier, D. J.

J. G. Droessler and D. J. Rotier, “Tilted cat helmet-mounted display,” Opt. Eng. 29, 849–854 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Saito, Y.

S. Yamazaki, K. Inoguchi, Y. Saito, H. Morishima, and N. Taniguchi, “Thin wide-field-of-view HMD with freeform surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 453–462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shaoulov, V.

Sisodia, A.

A. Sisodia, A. Riser, J. R. Rogers, D. Hopper, E. Forsythe, D. Morton, C. Bradford, and H. Girolamo, “Design of an advanced helmet mounted display (AHMD),” Proc. SPIE 5801, 304–315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, V.

Y. Ha, V. Smirnov, L. Glebov, and J. P. Rolland, “Optical modeling of a holographic single-element head-mounted display,” Proc. SPIE 5442, 254–260 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T.,

T.Takayoshi, “Visual display apparatus comprising a decentered correcting optical system,” U.S. patent 5,513,041 (30 April 1996).

Takayoshi,

T.Takayoshi, “Visual display apparatus comprising a decentered correcting optical system,” U.S. patent 5,513,041 (30 April 1996).

Talha1, M. M.

Taniguchi, N.

S. Yamazaki, K. Inoguchi, Y. Saito, H. Morishima, and N. Taniguchi, “Thin wide-field-of-view HMD with freeform surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 453–462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tengara, I.

T. M. Aye, K. Yu, I. Tengara, P. W. Peppler, and B. J. Pierce, “Compact HMD optics based on multiplexed aberration compensated holographic optical elements,” Proc. SPIE 4361, 89–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Wisely, P. L.

P. L. Wisely, “Head up and head mounted display performance improvements through advanced techniques in the manipulation of light,” Proc. SPIE 7327, 732706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 2003), Chap. 9.

Yamazaki, S.

S. Yamazaki, K. Inoguchi, Y. Saito, H. Morishima, and N. Taniguchi, “Thin wide-field-of-view HMD with freeform surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 453–462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, K.

T. M. Aye, K. Yu, I. Tengara, P. W. Peppler, and B. J. Pierce, “Compact HMD optics based on multiplexed aberration compensated holographic optical elements,” Proc. SPIE 4361, 89–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Eng. (2)

J. G. Droessler and D. J. Rotier, “Tilted cat helmet-mounted display,” Opt. Eng. 29, 849–854 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Rolland, “Wide-angle, off-axis, see-through head-mounted display,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1760–1767 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (7)

P. L. Wisely, “Head up and head mounted display performance improvements through advanced techniques in the manipulation of light,” Proc. SPIE 7327, 732706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Cameron, “The application of holographic optical waveguide technology to the Q-Sight family of helmet-mounted displays,” Proc. SPIE 7326, 73260H (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Hebson and L. Lee, “Advanced rotorcraft helmet-mounted display sighting system (HMDSS) optical distortion correction methodology,” Proc. SPIE 4711, 20–27 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamazaki, K. Inoguchi, Y. Saito, H. Morishima, and N. Taniguchi, “Thin wide-field-of-view HMD with freeform surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 453–462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Sisodia, A. Riser, J. R. Rogers, D. Hopper, E. Forsythe, D. Morton, C. Bradford, and H. Girolamo, “Design of an advanced helmet mounted display (AHMD),” Proc. SPIE 5801, 304–315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Aye, K. Yu, I. Tengara, P. W. Peppler, and B. J. Pierce, “Compact HMD optics based on multiplexed aberration compensated holographic optical elements,” Proc. SPIE 4361, 89–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ha, V. Smirnov, L. Glebov, and J. P. Rolland, “Optical modeling of a holographic single-element head-mounted display,” Proc. SPIE 5442, 254–260 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 2003), Chap. 9.

T.Takayoshi, “Visual display apparatus comprising a decentered correcting optical system,” U.S. patent 5,513,041 (30 April 1996).

W. Barfield and T. Caudell, Fundamentals of Wearable Computers and Augmented Reality (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2001), Chap. 4.

G. C. Burdea and P. Coiffet, Virtual Reality Technology (Wiley, 2003), Chap. 3.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layout of the off-axis see-through HMD optical system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of the designs of (a), (c) the aspheric surface and (b), (d) the x y polynomial surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of ray aberrations using (a) the aspheric surface and (b) the x y polynomial surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the properties between the x y polynomial surface with the other surface types: (a) residual merit function and (b) MTF at 30 line pairs/mm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical properties of the design: (a) spot diagram and (b) rms wavefront error.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Profile of the x y polynomial surface: (a) three-dimensional diagram of the Sag and (b) contours of the surface.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Distortion of the design.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Design of the see-through combiner: (a) layout and (b) MTF of the design.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Arrangement of the binocular off-axis see-through HMD optical system.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Appearance of the x y polynomial surface lens.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Prototype of the optical system: (a) appearance and (b) photo of the system being worn.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Demonstration image as viewed from the exit pupil.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Specification of Off-Axis See-Through HMD Optical System

Tables Icon

Table 2 Luminance Measurement of the Optical System

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Z ( x , y ) = c r 2 1 + 1 ( 1 + k ) c 2 r 2 + Σ i = 1 N A i E i ( x , y ) ,
Σ i = 1 N A i E i ( x , y ) = A 1 x 1 y 0 + A 2 x 0 y 1 + A 3 x 2 y 0 + A 4 x 1 y 1 + A 5 x 0 y 2 + + A N x i j y j .
Z ( x , y ) = c r 2 1 + 1 ( 1 + k ) c 2 r 2 + A 1 x 0 y 1 + A 2 x 2 y 0 + A 3 x 0 y 2 + A 4 x 2 y 1 + A 5 x 0 y 3 + A 6 x 4 y 0 + A 7 x 2 y 2 + A 8 x 0 y 4 .

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