Abstract

Mineral sand is a major component of aerosols in the atmosphere. It is necessary to have a laboratory database to interpret the remote sensing measurements of light scattered by such grains. For this purpose, the PROGRA2 experiment is dedicated to the retrieval of polarization and brightness phase curves, in the visible wavelength domain, of various grains that can be found in Earth’s atmosphere and in space. The measurements of the scattered light by levitating clouds of grains are conducted at two wavelengths, 632.8 and 543.5nm, with PROGRA2-VIS. Large grains (at least tens of micrometers) are studied in microgravity conditions during parabolic flights; smaller (micrometer-sized) grains are lifted by an air draught in ground-based conditions. The PROGRA2-SURF instrument allows measurements on the grains deposited on a plane surface, at the same wavelengths. New data for the scattering properties are presented for sands of various origins, including fine clay. The polarimetric phase curves for levitating grains are close to each other for all the samples (except for black sands); small discrepancies are mainly due to grains’ light absorption differences. The polarization curves for levitating grains differ strongly from those of deposited grains (dry or wet). In particular, these curves can be used to interpret remote sensing measurements to distinguish between grains at ground and grains transported by winds.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009

K. Muinonen, T. Nousiainen, H. Lindqvist, O. Muñoz, and G. Videen, “Light scattering by Gaussian particles with internal inclusions and roughened surfaces using ray optics,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1628–1639 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J.-B. Renard, C. Brogniez, G. Berthet, Q. Bourgeois, B. Gaubicher, M. Chartier, J.-Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, F. Auriol, P. Francois, D. Daugeron, and C. Engrand, “Vertical distribution of the different types of aerosols in the stratosphere, detection of solid particles and analysis of their spatial variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D21303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, G. Guirado, F. Moreno, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Scattering matrix of large Saharan dust particles: experiment and computations,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D13215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, Y. G. Shkuratov, G. Videen, and G. Nelson, “Particle size effect on the opposition spike and negative polarization,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 101, 394–403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shkuratov, S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, C. Pieters, T. Hiroi, H. Volten, O. Muňoz, and G. Videen, “Comparative studies of the reflectance and degree of linear polarization of particulates surfaces and independently scattering particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 340–358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Daugeron, J.-B. Renard, B. Gaubicher, B. Couté, E. Hadamcik, F. Gensdarmes, G. Basso, and C. Fournier, “Scattering properties of sands. 1. Comparison between different techniques of measurements,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8331–8337 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, Y. G. Shkuratov, W. J. van der Zande, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Experimental and computational study of light scattering by irregular dust particles with extreme refractive indices: hematite and rutile,” Astron. Astrophys. 446, 525–535 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

I. Chiapello, C. Moulin, and J. M. Prospero, “Understanding the long-term variability of African dust transport as recorded in both Barbados surface concentrations and large-scale Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) optical thickness,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D18S10 (2005),
[CrossRef]

J. Curtius, R. Weigel, H.-J. Vössing, H. Wernli, A. Werner, C.-M. Volk, P. Konopka, M. Krebsbach, C. Schiller, A. Roiger, H. Schlager, V. Dreiling, and S. Borrmann, “Observations of meteoric material and implications for aerosol nucleation in the winter Arctic lower stratosphere derived from in situ particle measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3053–3069 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

G. S. Okin and T. H. Painter, “Effect of grains size on remotely sensed spectral reflectance of sandy desert surfaces,” Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 272–280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. M. Prospero and P. J. Lamb, “African droughts and dust transport to the Caribbean: climate change implications,” Science 302, 1024–1027 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Brogniez, N. Huret, S. Eckermann, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, M. Herman, J.-Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, N. Larsen, and B. Knudsen, “Polar stratospheric cloud microphysical properties measured by the microRADIBAL instrument on 25 January 2000 above Esrange and modelling interpretation,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kusaka, F. Satou, and Y. Hayato, “Optical properties of Kosa aerosols estimated from multispectral polarization,” Proc. SPIE 4891, 413–418 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Hovenier, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, W. J. van der Zande, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Laboratory studies of scattering matrices for randomly oriented particles: potentials, problems, and perspectives,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79–80, 741–755 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

E. Hadamcik, J.-B. Renard, J.-C. Worms, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, and M. Masson, “Polarization of light scattered by fluffy particles (PROGRA2 experiment),” Icarus 155, 497–508(2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, J.-C. Worms, T. Lemaire, E. Hadamcik, and N. Huret, “Light scattering by dust particles in microgravity: polarization and brightness imaging with the new version of the PROGRA2 instrument,” Appl. Opt. 41, 609–618 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

J.-C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, N. Brun-Huret, and A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, “Light scattering by dust particles with the PROGRA2 instrument—comparative measurements between clouds under microgravity and layers on the ground,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 493–505 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J.-C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, and J.-F. Gayet, “Results of the PROGRA2 experiment: an experimental study in microgravity of scattered polarized light by dust particles with a large size parameter,” Icarus 142, 281–297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. M. Murphy, D. S. Thomson, and M. J. Mahoney, “In situ measurements of organics, meteoritic material, mercury, and other elements in aerosols at 5 to 19 kilometers,” Science 282, 1664–1669 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

R. A. West, L. R. Doose, A. M. Eibl, M. G. Tomasko, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Laboratory measurements of mineral dust scattering phase function and linear polarization,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16871–16881 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, D. Tanré, and M. Herman, “Validation of spaceborne estimates of aerosol loading from Sun photometer measurements with emphasis on polarization,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17187–17195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

X. Li, H. Maring, D. Savoie, K. Voss, and J. M. Prospero, “Dominance of mineral dust in aerosol light scattering in the North Atlantic trade winds,” Nature 380, 416–419 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992

Y. G. Shkuratov, N. V. Opanasenko, and M. A. Kreslavsky, “Polarimetric and photometric properties of the Moon: telescope observation and laboratory simulation. 1. The negative polarization,” Icarus 95, 283–299 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Shkuratov and N. V. Opanasenko, “Polarimetric and photometric properties of the Moon: telescope observation and laboratory simulation. 2. The positive polarization,” Icarus 99, 468–484 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

Auriol, F.

J.-B. Renard, C. Brogniez, G. Berthet, Q. Bourgeois, B. Gaubicher, M. Chartier, J.-Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, F. Auriol, P. Francois, D. Daugeron, and C. Engrand, “Vertical distribution of the different types of aerosols in the stratosphere, detection of solid particles and analysis of their spatial variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D21303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Balois, J.-Y.

J.-B. Renard, C. Brogniez, G. Berthet, Q. Bourgeois, B. Gaubicher, M. Chartier, J.-Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, F. Auriol, P. Francois, D. Daugeron, and C. Engrand, “Vertical distribution of the different types of aerosols in the stratosphere, detection of solid particles and analysis of their spatial variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D21303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Brogniez, N. Huret, S. Eckermann, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, M. Herman, J.-Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, N. Larsen, and B. Knudsen, “Polar stratospheric cloud microphysical properties measured by the microRADIBAL instrument on 25 January 2000 above Esrange and modelling interpretation,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Basso, G.

Berthet, G.

J.-B. Renard, C. Brogniez, G. Berthet, Q. Bourgeois, B. Gaubicher, M. Chartier, J.-Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, F. Auriol, P. Francois, D. Daugeron, and C. Engrand, “Vertical distribution of the different types of aerosols in the stratosphere, detection of solid particles and analysis of their spatial variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D21303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bondarenko, S.

S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, Y. G. Shkuratov, G. Videen, and G. Nelson, “Particle size effect on the opposition spike and negative polarization,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 101, 394–403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shkuratov, S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, C. Pieters, T. Hiroi, H. Volten, O. Muňoz, and G. Videen, “Comparative studies of the reflectance and degree of linear polarization of particulates surfaces and independently scattering particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 340–358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Borrmann, S.

J. Curtius, R. Weigel, H.-J. Vössing, H. Wernli, A. Werner, C.-M. Volk, P. Konopka, M. Krebsbach, C. Schiller, A. Roiger, H. Schlager, V. Dreiling, and S. Borrmann, “Observations of meteoric material and implications for aerosol nucleation in the winter Arctic lower stratosphere derived from in situ particle measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3053–3069 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bourgeois, Q.

J.-B. Renard, C. Brogniez, G. Berthet, Q. Bourgeois, B. Gaubicher, M. Chartier, J.-Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, F. Auriol, P. Francois, D. Daugeron, and C. Engrand, “Vertical distribution of the different types of aerosols in the stratosphere, detection of solid particles and analysis of their spatial variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D21303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bréon, F. M.

F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, D. Tanré, and M. Herman, “Validation of spaceborne estimates of aerosol loading from Sun photometer measurements with emphasis on polarization,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17187–17195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brogniez, C.

J.-B. Renard, C. Brogniez, G. Berthet, Q. Bourgeois, B. Gaubicher, M. Chartier, J.-Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, F. Auriol, P. Francois, D. Daugeron, and C. Engrand, “Vertical distribution of the different types of aerosols in the stratosphere, detection of solid particles and analysis of their spatial variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D21303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Brogniez, N. Huret, S. Eckermann, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, M. Herman, J.-Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, N. Larsen, and B. Knudsen, “Polar stratospheric cloud microphysical properties measured by the microRADIBAL instrument on 25 January 2000 above Esrange and modelling interpretation,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brun-Huret, N.

J.-C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, N. Brun-Huret, and A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, “Light scattering by dust particles with the PROGRA2 instrument—comparative measurements between clouds under microgravity and layers on the ground,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 493–505 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chartier, M.

J.-B. Renard, C. Brogniez, G. Berthet, Q. Bourgeois, B. Gaubicher, M. Chartier, J.-Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, F. Auriol, P. Francois, D. Daugeron, and C. Engrand, “Vertical distribution of the different types of aerosols in the stratosphere, detection of solid particles and analysis of their spatial variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D21303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chiapello, I.

I. Chiapello, C. Moulin, and J. M. Prospero, “Understanding the long-term variability of African dust transport as recorded in both Barbados surface concentrations and large-scale Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) optical thickness,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D18S10 (2005),
[CrossRef]

Couté, B.

Curtius, J.

J. Curtius, R. Weigel, H.-J. Vössing, H. Wernli, A. Werner, C.-M. Volk, P. Konopka, M. Krebsbach, C. Schiller, A. Roiger, H. Schlager, V. Dreiling, and S. Borrmann, “Observations of meteoric material and implications for aerosol nucleation in the winter Arctic lower stratosphere derived from in situ particle measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3053–3069 (2005).
[CrossRef]

d’Almeida, G. A.

G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, and E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosol—Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak1991).

Daugeron, D.

J.-B. Renard, C. Brogniez, G. Berthet, Q. Bourgeois, B. Gaubicher, M. Chartier, J.-Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, F. Auriol, P. Francois, D. Daugeron, and C. Engrand, “Vertical distribution of the different types of aerosols in the stratosphere, detection of solid particles and analysis of their spatial variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D21303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Daugeron, J.-B. Renard, B. Gaubicher, B. Couté, E. Hadamcik, F. Gensdarmes, G. Basso, and C. Fournier, “Scattering properties of sands. 1. Comparison between different techniques of measurements,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8331–8337 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Haan, J. F.

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deuzé, J. L.

F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, D. Tanré, and M. Herman, “Validation of spaceborne estimates of aerosol loading from Sun photometer measurements with emphasis on polarization,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17187–17195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Doose, L. R.

R. A. West, L. R. Doose, A. M. Eibl, M. G. Tomasko, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Laboratory measurements of mineral dust scattering phase function and linear polarization,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16871–16881 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dreiling, V.

J. Curtius, R. Weigel, H.-J. Vössing, H. Wernli, A. Werner, C.-M. Volk, P. Konopka, M. Krebsbach, C. Schiller, A. Roiger, H. Schlager, V. Dreiling, and S. Borrmann, “Observations of meteoric material and implications for aerosol nucleation in the winter Arctic lower stratosphere derived from in situ particle measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3053–3069 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dulac, F.

F. Dulac, LSCE/CEA, CEA-Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France (personal communication).

Eckermann, S.

C. Brogniez, N. Huret, S. Eckermann, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, M. Herman, J.-Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, N. Larsen, and B. Knudsen, “Polar stratospheric cloud microphysical properties measured by the microRADIBAL instrument on 25 January 2000 above Esrange and modelling interpretation,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eibl, A. M.

R. A. West, L. R. Doose, A. M. Eibl, M. G. Tomasko, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Laboratory measurements of mineral dust scattering phase function and linear polarization,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16871–16881 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ema, T.

T. Kusaka, T. Ema, and N. Taniguchi, “Extraction of optical properties of yellow sand dust from satellite-level data over east Asia,” in Proceedings of Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium IGARSS’98 (IEEE, 1998), Vol 2, pp. 876–878.

Engrand, C.

J.-B. Renard, C. Brogniez, G. Berthet, Q. Bourgeois, B. Gaubicher, M. Chartier, J.-Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, F. Auriol, P. Francois, D. Daugeron, and C. Engrand, “Vertical distribution of the different types of aerosols in the stratosphere, detection of solid particles and analysis of their spatial variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D21303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, C.

Francois, P.

J.-B. Renard, C. Brogniez, G. Berthet, Q. Bourgeois, B. Gaubicher, M. Chartier, J.-Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, F. Auriol, P. Francois, D. Daugeron, and C. Engrand, “Vertical distribution of the different types of aerosols in the stratosphere, detection of solid particles and analysis of their spatial variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D21303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gaubicher, B.

J.-B. Renard, C. Brogniez, G. Berthet, Q. Bourgeois, B. Gaubicher, M. Chartier, J.-Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, F. Auriol, P. Francois, D. Daugeron, and C. Engrand, “Vertical distribution of the different types of aerosols in the stratosphere, detection of solid particles and analysis of their spatial variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D21303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Daugeron, J.-B. Renard, B. Gaubicher, B. Couté, E. Hadamcik, F. Gensdarmes, G. Basso, and C. Fournier, “Scattering properties of sands. 1. Comparison between different techniques of measurements,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8331–8337 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gayet, J.-F.

J.-C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, and J.-F. Gayet, “Results of the PROGRA2 experiment: an experimental study in microgravity of scattered polarized light by dust particles with a large size parameter,” Icarus 142, 281–297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gensdarmes, F.

Guirado, G.

O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, G. Guirado, F. Moreno, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Scattering matrix of large Saharan dust particles: experiment and computations,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D13215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hadamcik, E.

D. Daugeron, J.-B. Renard, B. Gaubicher, B. Couté, E. Hadamcik, F. Gensdarmes, G. Basso, and C. Fournier, “Scattering properties of sands. 1. Comparison between different techniques of measurements,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8331–8337 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Hadamcik, J.-B. Renard, J.-C. Worms, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, and M. Masson, “Polarization of light scattered by fluffy particles (PROGRA2 experiment),” Icarus 155, 497–508(2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, J.-C. Worms, T. Lemaire, E. Hadamcik, and N. Huret, “Light scattering by dust particles in microgravity: polarization and brightness imaging with the new version of the PROGRA2 instrument,” Appl. Opt. 41, 609–618 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, N. Brun-Huret, and A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, “Light scattering by dust particles with the PROGRA2 instrument—comparative measurements between clouds under microgravity and layers on the ground,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 493–505 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, and J.-F. Gayet, “Results of the PROGRA2 experiment: an experimental study in microgravity of scattered polarized light by dust particles with a large size parameter,” Icarus 142, 281–297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Hadamcik, J.-B. Renard, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, and J.-C. Worms, “Laboratory measurements of the light scattered by clouds of solid particles by imaging technique,” in Light Scattering Review 4, A.A.Kokhanovsky, ed. (Springer/Praxis, 2009), pp. 31–70.
[CrossRef]

Hapke, B.

B. Hapke, Theory of Reflectance and Emittance Spectroscopy, Vol. 3 of Topics in Remote Sensing (Cambridge U. Press, 1993).
[CrossRef]

Hayato, Y.

T. Kusaka, F. Satou, and Y. Hayato, “Optical properties of Kosa aerosols estimated from multispectral polarization,” Proc. SPIE 4891, 413–418 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

C. Brogniez, N. Huret, S. Eckermann, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, M. Herman, J.-Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, N. Larsen, and B. Knudsen, “Polar stratospheric cloud microphysical properties measured by the microRADIBAL instrument on 25 January 2000 above Esrange and modelling interpretation,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, D. Tanré, and M. Herman, “Validation of spaceborne estimates of aerosol loading from Sun photometer measurements with emphasis on polarization,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17187–17195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hiroi, T.

Y. Shkuratov, S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, C. Pieters, T. Hiroi, H. Volten, O. Muňoz, and G. Videen, “Comparative studies of the reflectance and degree of linear polarization of particulates surfaces and independently scattering particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 340–358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hovenier, J. W.

O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, Y. G. Shkuratov, W. J. van der Zande, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Experimental and computational study of light scattering by irregular dust particles with extreme refractive indices: hematite and rutile,” Astron. Astrophys. 446, 525–535 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, G. Guirado, F. Moreno, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Scattering matrix of large Saharan dust particles: experiment and computations,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D13215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Hovenier, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, W. J. van der Zande, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Laboratory studies of scattering matrices for randomly oriented particles: potentials, problems, and perspectives,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79–80, 741–755 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Kuik, P. Stammes, and J. W. Hovenier, “Experimental determination of scattering matrices of water droplets and quartz particles,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4872–4881 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huret, N.

C. Brogniez, N. Huret, S. Eckermann, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, M. Herman, J.-Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, N. Larsen, and B. Knudsen, “Polar stratospheric cloud microphysical properties measured by the microRADIBAL instrument on 25 January 2000 above Esrange and modelling interpretation,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, J.-C. Worms, T. Lemaire, E. Hadamcik, and N. Huret, “Light scattering by dust particles in microgravity: polarization and brightness imaging with the new version of the PROGRA2 instrument,” Appl. Opt. 41, 609–618 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knudsen, B.

C. Brogniez, N. Huret, S. Eckermann, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, M. Herman, J.-Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, N. Larsen, and B. Knudsen, “Polar stratospheric cloud microphysical properties measured by the microRADIBAL instrument on 25 January 2000 above Esrange and modelling interpretation,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koepke, P.

G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, and E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosol—Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak1991).

Konopka, P.

J. Curtius, R. Weigel, H.-J. Vössing, H. Wernli, A. Werner, C.-M. Volk, P. Konopka, M. Krebsbach, C. Schiller, A. Roiger, H. Schlager, V. Dreiling, and S. Borrmann, “Observations of meteoric material and implications for aerosol nucleation in the winter Arctic lower stratosphere derived from in situ particle measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3053–3069 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krebsbach, M.

J. Curtius, R. Weigel, H.-J. Vössing, H. Wernli, A. Werner, C.-M. Volk, P. Konopka, M. Krebsbach, C. Schiller, A. Roiger, H. Schlager, V. Dreiling, and S. Borrmann, “Observations of meteoric material and implications for aerosol nucleation in the winter Arctic lower stratosphere derived from in situ particle measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3053–3069 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kreslavsky, M. A.

Y. G. Shkuratov, N. V. Opanasenko, and M. A. Kreslavsky, “Polarimetric and photometric properties of the Moon: telescope observation and laboratory simulation. 1. The negative polarization,” Icarus 95, 283–299 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kuik, F.

Kusaka, T.

T. Kusaka, F. Satou, and Y. Hayato, “Optical properties of Kosa aerosols estimated from multispectral polarization,” Proc. SPIE 4891, 413–418 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kusaka, T. Ema, and N. Taniguchi, “Extraction of optical properties of yellow sand dust from satellite-level data over east Asia,” in Proceedings of Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium IGARSS’98 (IEEE, 1998), Vol 2, pp. 876–878.

Lamb, P. J.

J. M. Prospero and P. J. Lamb, “African droughts and dust transport to the Caribbean: climate change implications,” Science 302, 1024–1027 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larsen, N.

C. Brogniez, N. Huret, S. Eckermann, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, M. Herman, J.-Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, N. Larsen, and B. Knudsen, “Polar stratospheric cloud microphysical properties measured by the microRADIBAL instrument on 25 January 2000 above Esrange and modelling interpretation,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lasue, J.

J. Lasue, Lunar and Planetary Institute, 3600 Bay Area Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77058 (personal communication).

Lemaire, T.

Levasseur-Regourd, A.-C.

E. Hadamcik, J.-B. Renard, J.-C. Worms, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, and M. Masson, “Polarization of light scattered by fluffy particles (PROGRA2 experiment),” Icarus 155, 497–508(2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, N. Brun-Huret, and A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, “Light scattering by dust particles with the PROGRA2 instrument—comparative measurements between clouds under microgravity and layers on the ground,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 493–505 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, and J.-F. Gayet, “Results of the PROGRA2 experiment: an experimental study in microgravity of scattered polarized light by dust particles with a large size parameter,” Icarus 142, 281–297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Hadamcik, J.-B. Renard, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, and J.-C. Worms, “Laboratory measurements of the light scattered by clouds of solid particles by imaging technique,” in Light Scattering Review 4, A.A.Kokhanovsky, ed. (Springer/Praxis, 2009), pp. 31–70.
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

X. Li, H. Maring, D. Savoie, K. Voss, and J. M. Prospero, “Dominance of mineral dust in aerosol light scattering in the North Atlantic trade winds,” Nature 380, 416–419 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lindqvist, H.

K. Muinonen, T. Nousiainen, H. Lindqvist, O. Muñoz, and G. Videen, “Light scattering by Gaussian particles with internal inclusions and roughened surfaces using ray optics,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1628–1639 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mahoney, M. J.

D. M. Murphy, D. S. Thomson, and M. J. Mahoney, “In situ measurements of organics, meteoritic material, mercury, and other elements in aerosols at 5 to 19 kilometers,” Science 282, 1664–1669 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maring, H.

X. Li, H. Maring, D. Savoie, K. Voss, and J. M. Prospero, “Dominance of mineral dust in aerosol light scattering in the North Atlantic trade winds,” Nature 380, 416–419 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Masson, M.

E. Hadamcik, J.-B. Renard, J.-C. Worms, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, and M. Masson, “Polarization of light scattered by fluffy particles (PROGRA2 experiment),” Icarus 155, 497–508(2002).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M. I.

R. A. West, L. R. Doose, A. M. Eibl, M. G. Tomasko, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Laboratory measurements of mineral dust scattering phase function and linear polarization,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16871–16881 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, F.

O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, G. Guirado, F. Moreno, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Scattering matrix of large Saharan dust particles: experiment and computations,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D13215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moulin, C.

I. Chiapello, C. Moulin, and J. M. Prospero, “Understanding the long-term variability of African dust transport as recorded in both Barbados surface concentrations and large-scale Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) optical thickness,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D18S10 (2005),
[CrossRef]

Muinonen, K.

K. Muinonen, T. Nousiainen, H. Lindqvist, O. Muñoz, and G. Videen, “Light scattering by Gaussian particles with internal inclusions and roughened surfaces using ray optics,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1628–1639 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, G. Guirado, F. Moreno, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Scattering matrix of large Saharan dust particles: experiment and computations,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D13215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Munoz, O.

Y. Shkuratov, S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, C. Pieters, T. Hiroi, H. Volten, O. Muňoz, and G. Videen, “Comparative studies of the reflectance and degree of linear polarization of particulates surfaces and independently scattering particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 340–358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Muñoz, O.

K. Muinonen, T. Nousiainen, H. Lindqvist, O. Muñoz, and G. Videen, “Light scattering by Gaussian particles with internal inclusions and roughened surfaces using ray optics,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1628–1639 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, G. Guirado, F. Moreno, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Scattering matrix of large Saharan dust particles: experiment and computations,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D13215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, Y. G. Shkuratov, W. J. van der Zande, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Experimental and computational study of light scattering by irregular dust particles with extreme refractive indices: hematite and rutile,” Astron. Astrophys. 446, 525–535 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Hovenier, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, W. J. van der Zande, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Laboratory studies of scattering matrices for randomly oriented particles: potentials, problems, and perspectives,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79–80, 741–755 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, D. M.

D. M. Murphy, D. S. Thomson, and M. J. Mahoney, “In situ measurements of organics, meteoritic material, mercury, and other elements in aerosols at 5 to 19 kilometers,” Science 282, 1664–1669 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, G.

S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, Y. G. Shkuratov, G. Videen, and G. Nelson, “Particle size effect on the opposition spike and negative polarization,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 101, 394–403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nousiainen, T.

K. Muinonen, T. Nousiainen, H. Lindqvist, O. Muñoz, and G. Videen, “Light scattering by Gaussian particles with internal inclusions and roughened surfaces using ray optics,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1628–1639 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Okin, G. S.

G. S. Okin and T. H. Painter, “Effect of grains size on remotely sensed spectral reflectance of sandy desert surfaces,” Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 272–280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opanasenko, N. V.

Y. G. Shkuratov, N. V. Opanasenko, and M. A. Kreslavsky, “Polarimetric and photometric properties of the Moon: telescope observation and laboratory simulation. 1. The negative polarization,” Icarus 95, 283–299 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Shkuratov and N. V. Opanasenko, “Polarimetric and photometric properties of the Moon: telescope observation and laboratory simulation. 2. The positive polarization,” Icarus 99, 468–484 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ovcharenko, A.

S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, Y. G. Shkuratov, G. Videen, and G. Nelson, “Particle size effect on the opposition spike and negative polarization,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 101, 394–403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shkuratov, S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, C. Pieters, T. Hiroi, H. Volten, O. Muňoz, and G. Videen, “Comparative studies of the reflectance and degree of linear polarization of particulates surfaces and independently scattering particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 340–358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Painter, T. H.

G. S. Okin and T. H. Painter, “Effect of grains size on remotely sensed spectral reflectance of sandy desert surfaces,” Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 272–280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pieters, C.

Y. Shkuratov, S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, C. Pieters, T. Hiroi, H. Volten, O. Muňoz, and G. Videen, “Comparative studies of the reflectance and degree of linear polarization of particulates surfaces and independently scattering particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 340–358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pirre, M.

C. Brogniez, N. Huret, S. Eckermann, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, M. Herman, J.-Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, N. Larsen, and B. Knudsen, “Polar stratospheric cloud microphysical properties measured by the microRADIBAL instrument on 25 January 2000 above Esrange and modelling interpretation,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prospero, J. M.

I. Chiapello, C. Moulin, and J. M. Prospero, “Understanding the long-term variability of African dust transport as recorded in both Barbados surface concentrations and large-scale Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) optical thickness,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D18S10 (2005),
[CrossRef]

J. M. Prospero and P. J. Lamb, “African droughts and dust transport to the Caribbean: climate change implications,” Science 302, 1024–1027 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Li, H. Maring, D. Savoie, K. Voss, and J. M. Prospero, “Dominance of mineral dust in aerosol light scattering in the North Atlantic trade winds,” Nature 380, 416–419 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Renard, J.-B.

J.-B. Renard, C. Brogniez, G. Berthet, Q. Bourgeois, B. Gaubicher, M. Chartier, J.-Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, F. Auriol, P. Francois, D. Daugeron, and C. Engrand, “Vertical distribution of the different types of aerosols in the stratosphere, detection of solid particles and analysis of their spatial variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D21303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Daugeron, J.-B. Renard, B. Gaubicher, B. Couté, E. Hadamcik, F. Gensdarmes, G. Basso, and C. Fournier, “Scattering properties of sands. 1. Comparison between different techniques of measurements,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8331–8337 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-B. Renard, J.-C. Worms, T. Lemaire, E. Hadamcik, and N. Huret, “Light scattering by dust particles in microgravity: polarization and brightness imaging with the new version of the PROGRA2 instrument,” Appl. Opt. 41, 609–618 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Hadamcik, J.-B. Renard, J.-C. Worms, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, and M. Masson, “Polarization of light scattered by fluffy particles (PROGRA2 experiment),” Icarus 155, 497–508(2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, N. Brun-Huret, and A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, “Light scattering by dust particles with the PROGRA2 instrument—comparative measurements between clouds under microgravity and layers on the ground,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 493–505 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, and J.-F. Gayet, “Results of the PROGRA2 experiment: an experimental study in microgravity of scattered polarized light by dust particles with a large size parameter,” Icarus 142, 281–297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Hadamcik, J.-B. Renard, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, and J.-C. Worms, “Laboratory measurements of the light scattered by clouds of solid particles by imaging technique,” in Light Scattering Review 4, A.A.Kokhanovsky, ed. (Springer/Praxis, 2009), pp. 31–70.
[CrossRef]

Rivière, E. D.

C. Brogniez, N. Huret, S. Eckermann, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, M. Herman, J.-Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, N. Larsen, and B. Knudsen, “Polar stratospheric cloud microphysical properties measured by the microRADIBAL instrument on 25 January 2000 above Esrange and modelling interpretation,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roiger, A.

J. Curtius, R. Weigel, H.-J. Vössing, H. Wernli, A. Werner, C.-M. Volk, P. Konopka, M. Krebsbach, C. Schiller, A. Roiger, H. Schlager, V. Dreiling, and S. Borrmann, “Observations of meteoric material and implications for aerosol nucleation in the winter Arctic lower stratosphere derived from in situ particle measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3053–3069 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rol, E.

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Satou, F.

T. Kusaka, F. Satou, and Y. Hayato, “Optical properties of Kosa aerosols estimated from multispectral polarization,” Proc. SPIE 4891, 413–418 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Savoie, D.

X. Li, H. Maring, D. Savoie, K. Voss, and J. M. Prospero, “Dominance of mineral dust in aerosol light scattering in the North Atlantic trade winds,” Nature 380, 416–419 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, C.

J. Curtius, R. Weigel, H.-J. Vössing, H. Wernli, A. Werner, C.-M. Volk, P. Konopka, M. Krebsbach, C. Schiller, A. Roiger, H. Schlager, V. Dreiling, and S. Borrmann, “Observations of meteoric material and implications for aerosol nucleation in the winter Arctic lower stratosphere derived from in situ particle measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3053–3069 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schlager, H.

J. Curtius, R. Weigel, H.-J. Vössing, H. Wernli, A. Werner, C.-M. Volk, P. Konopka, M. Krebsbach, C. Schiller, A. Roiger, H. Schlager, V. Dreiling, and S. Borrmann, “Observations of meteoric material and implications for aerosol nucleation in the winter Arctic lower stratosphere derived from in situ particle measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3053–3069 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, and E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosol—Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak1991).

Shkuratov, Y.

Y. Shkuratov, S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, C. Pieters, T. Hiroi, H. Volten, O. Muňoz, and G. Videen, “Comparative studies of the reflectance and degree of linear polarization of particulates surfaces and independently scattering particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 340–358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shkuratov, Y. G.

S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, Y. G. Shkuratov, G. Videen, and G. Nelson, “Particle size effect on the opposition spike and negative polarization,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 101, 394–403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, Y. G. Shkuratov, W. J. van der Zande, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Experimental and computational study of light scattering by irregular dust particles with extreme refractive indices: hematite and rutile,” Astron. Astrophys. 446, 525–535 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Shkuratov, N. V. Opanasenko, and M. A. Kreslavsky, “Polarimetric and photometric properties of the Moon: telescope observation and laboratory simulation. 1. The negative polarization,” Icarus 95, 283–299 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Shkuratov and N. V. Opanasenko, “Polarimetric and photometric properties of the Moon: telescope observation and laboratory simulation. 2. The positive polarization,” Icarus 99, 468–484 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stammes, P.

Taniguchi, N.

T. Kusaka, T. Ema, and N. Taniguchi, “Extraction of optical properties of yellow sand dust from satellite-level data over east Asia,” in Proceedings of Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium IGARSS’98 (IEEE, 1998), Vol 2, pp. 876–878.

Tanré, D.

F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, D. Tanré, and M. Herman, “Validation of spaceborne estimates of aerosol loading from Sun photometer measurements with emphasis on polarization,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17187–17195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, D. S.

D. M. Murphy, D. S. Thomson, and M. J. Mahoney, “In situ measurements of organics, meteoritic material, mercury, and other elements in aerosols at 5 to 19 kilometers,” Science 282, 1664–1669 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomasko, M. G.

R. A. West, L. R. Doose, A. M. Eibl, M. G. Tomasko, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Laboratory measurements of mineral dust scattering phase function and linear polarization,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16871–16881 (1997).
[CrossRef]

van der Zande, W. J.

O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, Y. G. Shkuratov, W. J. van der Zande, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Experimental and computational study of light scattering by irregular dust particles with extreme refractive indices: hematite and rutile,” Astron. Astrophys. 446, 525–535 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Hovenier, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, W. J. van der Zande, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Laboratory studies of scattering matrices for randomly oriented particles: potentials, problems, and perspectives,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79–80, 741–755 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vassen, W.

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Verwaerde, C.

J.-B. Renard, C. Brogniez, G. Berthet, Q. Bourgeois, B. Gaubicher, M. Chartier, J.-Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, F. Auriol, P. Francois, D. Daugeron, and C. Engrand, “Vertical distribution of the different types of aerosols in the stratosphere, detection of solid particles and analysis of their spatial variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D21303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Brogniez, N. Huret, S. Eckermann, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, M. Herman, J.-Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, N. Larsen, and B. Knudsen, “Polar stratospheric cloud microphysical properties measured by the microRADIBAL instrument on 25 January 2000 above Esrange and modelling interpretation,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Videen, G.

K. Muinonen, T. Nousiainen, H. Lindqvist, O. Muñoz, and G. Videen, “Light scattering by Gaussian particles with internal inclusions and roughened surfaces using ray optics,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1628–1639 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shkuratov, S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, C. Pieters, T. Hiroi, H. Volten, O. Muňoz, and G. Videen, “Comparative studies of the reflectance and degree of linear polarization of particulates surfaces and independently scattering particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 340–358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, Y. G. Shkuratov, G. Videen, and G. Nelson, “Particle size effect on the opposition spike and negative polarization,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 101, 394–403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Volk, C.-M.

J. Curtius, R. Weigel, H.-J. Vössing, H. Wernli, A. Werner, C.-M. Volk, P. Konopka, M. Krebsbach, C. Schiller, A. Roiger, H. Schlager, V. Dreiling, and S. Borrmann, “Observations of meteoric material and implications for aerosol nucleation in the winter Arctic lower stratosphere derived from in situ particle measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3053–3069 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Volten, H.

Y. Shkuratov, S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, C. Pieters, T. Hiroi, H. Volten, O. Muňoz, and G. Videen, “Comparative studies of the reflectance and degree of linear polarization of particulates surfaces and independently scattering particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 340–358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, G. Guirado, F. Moreno, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Scattering matrix of large Saharan dust particles: experiment and computations,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D13215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, Y. G. Shkuratov, W. J. van der Zande, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Experimental and computational study of light scattering by irregular dust particles with extreme refractive indices: hematite and rutile,” Astron. Astrophys. 446, 525–535 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Hovenier, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, W. J. van der Zande, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Laboratory studies of scattering matrices for randomly oriented particles: potentials, problems, and perspectives,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79–80, 741–755 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K.

X. Li, H. Maring, D. Savoie, K. Voss, and J. M. Prospero, “Dominance of mineral dust in aerosol light scattering in the North Atlantic trade winds,” Nature 380, 416–419 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vössing, H.-J.

J. Curtius, R. Weigel, H.-J. Vössing, H. Wernli, A. Werner, C.-M. Volk, P. Konopka, M. Krebsbach, C. Schiller, A. Roiger, H. Schlager, V. Dreiling, and S. Borrmann, “Observations of meteoric material and implications for aerosol nucleation in the winter Arctic lower stratosphere derived from in situ particle measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3053–3069 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Waters, L. B. F. M.

O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, Y. G. Shkuratov, W. J. van der Zande, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Experimental and computational study of light scattering by irregular dust particles with extreme refractive indices: hematite and rutile,” Astron. Astrophys. 446, 525–535 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, G. Guirado, F. Moreno, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Scattering matrix of large Saharan dust particles: experiment and computations,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D13215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Hovenier, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, W. J. van der Zande, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Laboratory studies of scattering matrices for randomly oriented particles: potentials, problems, and perspectives,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79–80, 741–755 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weigel, R.

J. Curtius, R. Weigel, H.-J. Vössing, H. Wernli, A. Werner, C.-M. Volk, P. Konopka, M. Krebsbach, C. Schiller, A. Roiger, H. Schlager, V. Dreiling, and S. Borrmann, “Observations of meteoric material and implications for aerosol nucleation in the winter Arctic lower stratosphere derived from in situ particle measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3053–3069 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Werner, A.

J. Curtius, R. Weigel, H.-J. Vössing, H. Wernli, A. Werner, C.-M. Volk, P. Konopka, M. Krebsbach, C. Schiller, A. Roiger, H. Schlager, V. Dreiling, and S. Borrmann, “Observations of meteoric material and implications for aerosol nucleation in the winter Arctic lower stratosphere derived from in situ particle measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3053–3069 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wernli, H.

J. Curtius, R. Weigel, H.-J. Vössing, H. Wernli, A. Werner, C.-M. Volk, P. Konopka, M. Krebsbach, C. Schiller, A. Roiger, H. Schlager, V. Dreiling, and S. Borrmann, “Observations of meteoric material and implications for aerosol nucleation in the winter Arctic lower stratosphere derived from in situ particle measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3053–3069 (2005).
[CrossRef]

West, R. A.

R. A. West, L. R. Doose, A. M. Eibl, M. G. Tomasko, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Laboratory measurements of mineral dust scattering phase function and linear polarization,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16871–16881 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Worms, J.-C.

J.-B. Renard, J.-C. Worms, T. Lemaire, E. Hadamcik, and N. Huret, “Light scattering by dust particles in microgravity: polarization and brightness imaging with the new version of the PROGRA2 instrument,” Appl. Opt. 41, 609–618 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Hadamcik, J.-B. Renard, J.-C. Worms, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, and M. Masson, “Polarization of light scattered by fluffy particles (PROGRA2 experiment),” Icarus 155, 497–508(2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, N. Brun-Huret, and A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, “Light scattering by dust particles with the PROGRA2 instrument—comparative measurements between clouds under microgravity and layers on the ground,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 493–505 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, and J.-F. Gayet, “Results of the PROGRA2 experiment: an experimental study in microgravity of scattered polarized light by dust particles with a large size parameter,” Icarus 142, 281–297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Hadamcik, J.-B. Renard, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, and J.-C. Worms, “Laboratory measurements of the light scattered by clouds of solid particles by imaging technique,” in Light Scattering Review 4, A.A.Kokhanovsky, ed. (Springer/Praxis, 2009), pp. 31–70.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astron. Astrophys.

O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, Y. G. Shkuratov, W. J. van der Zande, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Experimental and computational study of light scattering by irregular dust particles with extreme refractive indices: hematite and rutile,” Astron. Astrophys. 446, 525–535 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Chem. Phys.

J. Curtius, R. Weigel, H.-J. Vössing, H. Wernli, A. Werner, C.-M. Volk, P. Konopka, M. Krebsbach, C. Schiller, A. Roiger, H. Schlager, V. Dreiling, and S. Borrmann, “Observations of meteoric material and implications for aerosol nucleation in the winter Arctic lower stratosphere derived from in situ particle measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3053–3069 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Icarus

E. Hadamcik, J.-B. Renard, J.-C. Worms, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, and M. Masson, “Polarization of light scattered by fluffy particles (PROGRA2 experiment),” Icarus 155, 497–508(2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, and J.-F. Gayet, “Results of the PROGRA2 experiment: an experimental study in microgravity of scattered polarized light by dust particles with a large size parameter,” Icarus 142, 281–297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Shkuratov, N. V. Opanasenko, and M. A. Kreslavsky, “Polarimetric and photometric properties of the Moon: telescope observation and laboratory simulation. 1. The negative polarization,” Icarus 95, 283–299 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Shkuratov and N. V. Opanasenko, “Polarimetric and photometric properties of the Moon: telescope observation and laboratory simulation. 2. The positive polarization,” Icarus 99, 468–484 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, G. Guirado, F. Moreno, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Scattering matrix of large Saharan dust particles: experiment and computations,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D13215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Brogniez, N. Huret, S. Eckermann, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, M. Herman, J.-Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, N. Larsen, and B. Knudsen, “Polar stratospheric cloud microphysical properties measured by the microRADIBAL instrument on 25 January 2000 above Esrange and modelling interpretation,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Chiapello, C. Moulin, and J. M. Prospero, “Understanding the long-term variability of African dust transport as recorded in both Barbados surface concentrations and large-scale Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) optical thickness,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D18S10 (2005),
[CrossRef]

F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, D. Tanré, and M. Herman, “Validation of spaceborne estimates of aerosol loading from Sun photometer measurements with emphasis on polarization,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17187–17195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. A. West, L. R. Doose, A. M. Eibl, M. G. Tomasko, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Laboratory measurements of mineral dust scattering phase function and linear polarization,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16871–16881 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, C. Brogniez, G. Berthet, Q. Bourgeois, B. Gaubicher, M. Chartier, J.-Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, F. Auriol, P. Francois, D. Daugeron, and C. Engrand, “Vertical distribution of the different types of aerosols in the stratosphere, detection of solid particles and analysis of their spatial variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D21303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

J. W. Hovenier, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, W. J. van der Zande, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Laboratory studies of scattering matrices for randomly oriented particles: potentials, problems, and perspectives,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79–80, 741–755 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Muinonen, T. Nousiainen, H. Lindqvist, O. Muñoz, and G. Videen, “Light scattering by Gaussian particles with internal inclusions and roughened surfaces using ray optics,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1628–1639 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, Y. G. Shkuratov, G. Videen, and G. Nelson, “Particle size effect on the opposition spike and negative polarization,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 101, 394–403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shkuratov, S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, C. Pieters, T. Hiroi, H. Volten, O. Muňoz, and G. Videen, “Comparative studies of the reflectance and degree of linear polarization of particulates surfaces and independently scattering particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 340–358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

X. Li, H. Maring, D. Savoie, K. Voss, and J. M. Prospero, “Dominance of mineral dust in aerosol light scattering in the North Atlantic trade winds,” Nature 380, 416–419 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci.

J.-C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, N. Brun-Huret, and A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, “Light scattering by dust particles with the PROGRA2 instrument—comparative measurements between clouds under microgravity and layers on the ground,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 493–505 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

T. Kusaka, F. Satou, and Y. Hayato, “Optical properties of Kosa aerosols estimated from multispectral polarization,” Proc. SPIE 4891, 413–418 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ.

G. S. Okin and T. H. Painter, “Effect of grains size on remotely sensed spectral reflectance of sandy desert surfaces,” Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 272–280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science

J. M. Prospero and P. J. Lamb, “African droughts and dust transport to the Caribbean: climate change implications,” Science 302, 1024–1027 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Murphy, D. S. Thomson, and M. J. Mahoney, “In situ measurements of organics, meteoritic material, mercury, and other elements in aerosols at 5 to 19 kilometers,” Science 282, 1664–1669 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

F. Dulac, LSCE/CEA, CEA-Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France (personal communication).

G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, and E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosol—Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak1991).

J. Lasue, Lunar and Planetary Institute, 3600 Bay Area Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77058 (personal communication).

T. Kusaka, T. Ema, and N. Taniguchi, “Extraction of optical properties of yellow sand dust from satellite-level data over east Asia,” in Proceedings of Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium IGARSS’98 (IEEE, 1998), Vol 2, pp. 876–878.

E. Hadamcik, J.-B. Renard, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, and J.-C. Worms, “Laboratory measurements of the light scattered by clouds of solid particles by imaging technique,” in Light Scattering Review 4, A.A.Kokhanovsky, ed. (Springer/Praxis, 2009), pp. 31–70.
[CrossRef]

B. Hapke, Theory of Reflectance and Emittance Spectroscopy, Vol. 3 of Topics in Remote Sensing (Cambridge U. Press, 1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Electron-microscope image of Niger sand grains.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Maps from PROGRA2-VIS images for the China sand at a scattering angle of 120 ° . The field of view is 7 mm in length. Top, brightness map (linear scale); bottom, polarization map (dark gray corresponds to 20 % and white corresponds to 100%).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarization curves for the various deposited samples, measured at λ = 632.8 nm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Polarization curves for the various deposited samples, measured at λ = 543.5 nm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Brightness curves for the various deposited samples, measured at λ = 632.8 nm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Brightness curves for the deposited samples, measured at λ = 543.5 nm .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Polarization curves for the wet deposited samples, measured at λ = 632.8 nm .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Brightness curves for the various wet deposited samples, measured at λ = 632.8 nm .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Polarization curves for large grains levitating in microgravity conditions, measured at λ = 632.8 nm .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Polarization curves for large grains levitating in microgravity conditions, measured at λ = 543.5 nm .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Polarization curves for small grains lifted by air draught, measured at λ = 632.8 nm .

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Brightness curves for small grains levitating by air draught, measured at λ = 632.8 nm .

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Synthetic curves for deposited and levitating large sand grains (excluding black sand). The error bars correspond to the dispersion of the individual curves.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Comparison between polarization curves for deposited and levitating fine clay.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Comparison between brightness curves for deposited and levitating fine clay.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Description of the Various Samples of Sand

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P = ( I 1 I 2 ) / ( I 1 + I 2 ) ,
B = I 1 + I 2
B = ( I 1 + I 2 ) / I 3 .

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