Abstract

Tissue optical properties can be determined with optical coherence tomography (OCT) by fitting a model to the OCT signal. Using calibrated samples in the fixed focus geometry, the validity of the single-scattering and multiple-scattering models for both highly scattering and weakly scattering media (scattering coefficients μs ranging from 1.25 to 25.11mm1) has been investigated. The results show that, with a proper correction for the confocal properties of the sample arm, both models are appropriate to extract the scattering coefficients of weakly scattering media. For highly scattering media, the multiple scattering should be taken into account, and the multiple-scattering model can provide higher accuracy. Finally, the scattering properties of in vitro rat liver and in vivo human skin are determined. The results are useful for quantitatively characterizing tissue scattering in biomedical research and clinical diagnosis.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (1)

Y. Wang, A. Lu, J. Gil-Flamer, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Measurement of total blood flow in the normal human retina using Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 634–637 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Frohman, J. G. Fujimoto, T. C. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, G. Cutter, and L. J. Balcer, “Optical coherence tomography: a window into the mechanisms of multiple sclerosis,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Neurol. 4, 664–675 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sakai, M. Yamanari, A. Miyazawa, M. Matsumoto, N. Nakagawa, T. Sugawara, K. Kawabata, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “In vivo three-dimensional birefringence analysis shows collagen differences between young and old photo-aged human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 128, 1641–1647 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12, 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photon. 1, 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Carrion, M. Lestrade, Z. Xu, G. Touma, R. Maciejko, and M. Bertrand, “Comparative study of optical sources in the near infrared for optical coherence tomography applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. M. Baraznji Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1369–1376(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

2003 (4)

2002 (1)

J. F. de Boer and T. E. Milner, “Review of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and Stokes vector determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 359–371 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

T. L. Troy and S. N. Thennadil, “Optical properties of human skin in the near infrared wavelength range of 1000 to 2200nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 167–176 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

1999 (2)

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95–105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Rylander, and A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 24, 133–141 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

1997 (2)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt and A. Knüttel, “Model of optical coherence tomography of heterogeneous tissue,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1231–1242 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

1991 (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. van Staveren, C. J. M. Moes, J. van Marle, S. A. Prahl, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Light scattering in Intralipid-10% in the wavelength range of 400–1100nm,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4507–4514 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

Aalders, M.

Aalders, M. C.

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. M. Baraznji Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1369–1376(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, D. J. Faber, and M. C. Aalders, “Measurement of the axial point spread function in scattering media using single-mode fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 227–233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adler, D. C.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photon. 1, 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, C.

Andersen, P.

Andersen, P. E.

Andersson-Engels, S.

Balcer, L. J.

E. M. Frohman, J. G. Fujimoto, T. C. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, G. Cutter, and L. J. Balcer, “Optical coherence tomography: a window into the mechanisms of multiple sclerosis,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Neurol. 4, 664–675 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baraznji Sassoon, D. M.

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. M. Baraznji Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1369–1376(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Rylander, and A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 24, 133–141 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertrand, M.

L. Carrion, M. Lestrade, Z. Xu, G. Touma, R. Maciejko, and M. Bertrand, “Comparative study of optical sources in the near infrared for optical coherence tomography applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boehlau-Godau, M.

A. Knüttel and M. Boehlau-Godau, “Spatially confined and temporally resolved refractive index and scattering evaluation in human skin performed with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 83–92 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonner, R. F.

Boppart, S.

Boppart, S. A.

C. Xu, J. Ye, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Near-infrared dyes as contrast-enhancing agents for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1647–1649 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borghese, F.

Bouma, B. E.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12, 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2258–2260 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bower, B. A.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2258–2260 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calabresi, P. A.

E. M. Frohman, J. G. Fujimoto, T. C. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, G. Cutter, and L. J. Balcer, “Optical coherence tomography: a window into the mechanisms of multiple sclerosis,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Neurol. 4, 664–675 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlier, S. G.

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carrion, L.

L. Carrion, M. Lestrade, Z. Xu, G. Touma, R. Maciejko, and M. Bertrand, “Comparative study of optical sources in the near infrared for optical coherence tomography applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, E. K.

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Rylander, and A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 24, 133–141 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, R. C.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12, 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photon. 1, 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Connolly, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photon. 1, 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cutter, G.

E. M. Frohman, J. G. Fujimoto, T. C. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, G. Cutter, and L. J. Balcer, “Optical coherence tomography: a window into the mechanisms of multiple sclerosis,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Neurol. 4, 664–675 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12, 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Strasswimmer, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, V. Neel, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of invasive basal cell carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 292–298(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer and T. E. Milner, “Review of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and Stokes vector determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 359–371 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, “Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 25, 114–116 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Del Bianco, S.

Denti, P.

Desjardins, A. E.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12, 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Do, M.

Esenaliev, R. O.

Evans, J. A.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12, 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Faber, D.

Faber, D. J.

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. M. Baraznji Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1369–1376(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, D. J. Faber, and M. C. Aalders, “Measurement of the axial point spread function in scattering media using single-mode fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 227–233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frohman, E. M.

E. M. Frohman, J. G. Fujimoto, T. C. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, G. Cutter, and L. J. Balcer, “Optical coherence tomography: a window into the mechanisms of multiple sclerosis,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Neurol. 4, 664–675 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frohman, T. C.

E. M. Frohman, J. G. Fujimoto, T. C. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, G. Cutter, and L. J. Balcer, “Optical coherence tomography: a window into the mechanisms of multiple sclerosis,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Neurol. 4, 664–675 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frosz, M.

Fujimoto, J. G.

E. M. Frohman, J. G. Fujimoto, T. C. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, G. Cutter, and L. J. Balcer, “Optical coherence tomography: a window into the mechanisms of multiple sclerosis,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Neurol. 4, 664–675 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photon. 1, 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2258–2260 (1995).
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Y. Wang, A. Lu, J. Gil-Flamer, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Measurement of total blood flow in the normal human retina using Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 634–637 (2009).
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Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
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G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2258–2260 (1995).
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Y. Wang, A. Lu, J. Gil-Flamer, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Measurement of total blood flow in the normal human retina using Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 634–637 (2009).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
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Y. Wang, A. Lu, J. Gil-Flamer, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Measurement of total blood flow in the normal human retina using Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 634–637 (2009).
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Appl. Opt. (6)

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

Y. Wang, A. Lu, J. Gil-Flamer, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Measurement of total blood flow in the normal human retina using Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 634–637 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. G. van Leeuwen, D. J. Faber, and M. C. Aalders, “Measurement of the axial point spread function in scattering media using single-mode fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 227–233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. M. Baraznji Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1369–1376(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (8)

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Troy and S. N. Thennadil, “Optical properties of human skin in the near infrared wavelength range of 1000 to 2200nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 167–176 (2001).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Strasswimmer, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, V. Neel, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of invasive basal cell carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 292–298(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Carrion, M. Lestrade, Z. Xu, G. Touma, R. Maciejko, and M. Bertrand, “Comparative study of optical sources in the near infrared for optical coherence tomography applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95–105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

S. Sakai, M. Yamanari, A. Miyazawa, M. Matsumoto, N. Nakagawa, T. Sugawara, K. Kawabata, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “In vivo three-dimensional birefringence analysis shows collagen differences between young and old photo-aged human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 128, 1641–1647 (2008).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Rylander, and A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 24, 133–141 (1999).
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Nat. Clin. Pract. Neurol. (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of OCT system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot of the extracted μ s ( mean ± standard deviations) against the volume particle concentration ρ of Intralipid solution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of the extracted μ s ( mean ± standard deviations) against the volume particle concentration ρ of Intralipid solution with a proper correction for the effect of the confocal properties of the sample arm optics.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

In vitro OCT image of rat liver.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plot of the averaged OCT in-depth signal of the rat liver and the fitted curve using the EHF model.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

In vivo OCT images of human skin of the fingertip.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Plot of the averaged OCT in-depth signal of the fingertip and the fitted curve for the epidermis using the EHF model.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Averaged Scattering Coefficients of Various Skin Layers of Fingertip Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography at 834 nm a

Equations (8)

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i ( z ) μ b exp ( 2 μ t z ) ,
i ( z ) [ exp ( 2 μ s z ) + 2 exp ( μ s z ) [ 1 exp ( μ s z ) ] 1 + ω S 2 / ω H 2 + [ 1 exp ( μ s z ) ] 2 ω H 2 ω S 2 ] 1 2 .
ω H 2 = ω 0 2 ( A B f ) 2 + ( B k ω 0 ) 2 ,
ω S 2 = ω 0 2 ( A B f ) 2 + ( B k ω 0 ) 2 + ( 2 B k ρ 0 ( z ) ) 2 ,
ρ 0 ( z ) = 3 μ s z λ 0 π θ rms ( n B z ) 2 ,
θ rms 2 ( 1 g ) ,
n ( λ 0 ) = n 0 + n 2 / λ 0 2 + n 4 / λ 0 4 ,
h ( z ) = ( ( z z f z R ) 2 + 1 ) 1 ,

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