Abstract

Wavelength accuracy and stability are key requirements for differential absorption lidar (DIAL). We present a control and timing design for the dual-stabilized cw master lasers in a pulsed master-oscillator power-amplifier configuration, which forms a robust low-cost water-vapor DIAL transmitter system. This design operates at 823nm for water-vapor spectroscopy using Fabry–Perot-type laser diodes. However, the techniques described could be applied to other laser technologies at other wavelengths. The system can be extended with additional off-line or side-line wavelengths. The on-line master laser is locked to the center of a water absorption line, while the beat frequency between the on-line and the off-line is locked to 16GHz using only a bandpass microwave filter and low-frequency electronics. Optical frequency stabilities of the order of 1MHz are achieved.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. Minschwaner and A. E. Dessler, “Water vapor feedback in the tropical upper troposphere: model results and observations,” J. Climate 17, 1272–1282 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Ingram, “On the robustness of the water vapor feedback: GCM vertical resolution and formulation,” J. Climate 15, 917–921 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Pal, A. Behrendt, H. Bauer, M. Radlach, A. Riede, M. Schiller, G. Wagner, and V. Wulfmeyer, “3-dimensional observations of atmospheric variables during the field campaign COPS,” IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 1, 012031 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. Wulfmeyer, H. Bauer, P. Di Girolamo, and C. Serio, “Comparison of active and passive water vapor remote sensing from space: an analysis based on the simulated performance of IASI and space borne differential absorption lidar,” Remote Sens. Environ. 95, 211–230 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Heise, J. Wickert, G. Beyerle, T. Schmidt, and Ch. Reigber, “Global monitoring of tropospheric water vapor with GPS radio occultation aboard CHAMP,” Adv. Space Res. 37, 2222–2227 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Ansmann and J. Bosenberg, “Correction scheme for spectral broadening by Rayleigh scattering in differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor in the troposphere,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3026–3032 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. V. Wulfmeyer and J. Bosenberg, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor profiling: assessment of accuracy, resolution, and meteorological applications,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3825–3844 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Behrendt, T. Nakamura, M. Onishi, R. Baumgart, and T. Tsuda, “Combined Raman lidar for the measurement of atmospheric temperature, water vapor, particle extinction coefficient, and particle backscatter coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7657–7666 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Bruneau, P. Quaglia, C. Flamant, M. Meissonnier, and J. Pelon, “Airborne lidar LEANDRE II for water-vapor profiling in the troposphere. I. System description,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3450–3461 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, M. D. Obland, and J. A. Shaw, “Water vapor profiling using a widely tunable, amplified diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL),” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 733–745 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. L. Machol, T. Ayers, K. T. Schwenz, K. W. Koenig, R. M. Hardesty, C. J. Senff, M. A. Krainak, J. B. Abshire, H. E. Bravo, and S. P. Sandberg “Preliminary measurements with an automated compact differential absorption lidar for the profiling of water vapor,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3110–3121 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. Schwarzer, A. Börner, A. Fix, B. Günther, H-W. H., M. Raugust, F. Schrandt, and M. Wirth, “Development of a wavelength stabilized seed laser system for an airborne water vapour lidar experiment,” Proc. SPIE 6681, 66810H (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, and W. B. Grant, “Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements from air and space,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 399–410 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 201–213 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. J. Koch, J. Y. Beyon, F. Gibert, B. W. Barnes, S. Ismail, M. Petros, P. J. Petzar, J. Yu, E. A. Modlin, K. J. Davis, and U. N. Singh, “Side-line tunable laser transmitter for differential absorption lidar measurements of CO2: design and application to atmospheric measurements,” Appl. Opt. 47, 944–956(2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. Ertel, H. Linné, and J. Bösenberg, “Injection seeded pulsed Ti:sapphire laser with novel stabilization scheme and capability of dual-wavelength operation,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5120–5126(2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. R. Khalesifard, A. Fix, G. Ehret, M. Schiller, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Fast-switching system for injection seeding of a high-power Ti:sapphire laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 073110(2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. Schilt, R. Matthey, D. Kauffmann-Werner, C. Affolderbach, G. Mileti, and L. Thévenaz, “Laser offset-frequency locking up to 20GHz using a low-frequency electrical filter technique,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4336–4344 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. L. Hollberg, S. Diddams, A. Bartels, T. Fortier, and K. Kim, “The measurement of optical frequencies,” Metrologia 42, S105–S124 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Appel, A. MacRae, and A. I. Lvovsky, “A versatile digital GHz phase lock for external cavity diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 055302 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. U. Schünemann, H. Engler, R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and M. Zielonkowski, “Simple scheme for tunable frequency offset locking of two lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 242–243(1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. V. Wulfmeyer and C. Walther, “Future performance of ground-based and airborne water-vapor differential absorption lidar. II. Simulations of the precision of a near-infrared, high-power system,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5321–5336 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  23. World Meteorological Organization, “Measurement of humidity,” in Guide to Meteorological Instruments and Methods of Observation (World Meteorological Organization, 2008), pp. 1.4–25.
  24. A. Apelblat, “The vapour pressures of water over saturated aqueous solutions of barium chloride, magnesium nitrate, calcium nitrate, potassium carbonate, and zinc sulfate, at temperatures from 283K to 313K,” J. Chem. Thermodyn. 24, 619–626 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  25. L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (5)

A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, M. D. Obland, and J. A. Shaw, “Water vapor profiling using a widely tunable, amplified diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL),” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 733–745 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 201–213 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Khalesifard, A. Fix, G. Ehret, M. Schiller, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Fast-switching system for injection seeding of a high-power Ti:sapphire laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 073110(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appel, A. MacRae, and A. I. Lvovsky, “A versatile digital GHz phase lock for external cavity diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 055302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (1)

H. Schwarzer, A. Börner, A. Fix, B. Günther, H-W. H., M. Raugust, F. Schrandt, and M. Wirth, “Development of a wavelength stabilized seed laser system for an airborne water vapour lidar experiment,” Proc. SPIE 6681, 66810H (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Heise, J. Wickert, G. Beyerle, T. Schmidt, and Ch. Reigber, “Global monitoring of tropospheric water vapor with GPS radio occultation aboard CHAMP,” Adv. Space Res. 37, 2222–2227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

V. Wulfmeyer, H. Bauer, P. Di Girolamo, and C. Serio, “Comparison of active and passive water vapor remote sensing from space: an analysis based on the simulated performance of IASI and space borne differential absorption lidar,” Remote Sens. Environ. 95, 211–230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Ertel, H. Linné, and J. Bösenberg, “Injection seeded pulsed Ti:sapphire laser with novel stabilization scheme and capability of dual-wavelength operation,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5120–5126(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Hollberg, S. Diddams, A. Bartels, T. Fortier, and K. Kim, “The measurement of optical frequencies,” Metrologia 42, S105–S124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2002 (2)

2001 (2)

1999 (1)

U. Schünemann, H. Engler, R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and M. Zielonkowski, “Simple scheme for tunable frequency offset locking of two lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 242–243(1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

V. Wulfmeyer and J. Bosenberg, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor profiling: assessment of accuracy, resolution, and meteorological applications,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3825–3844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, and W. B. Grant, “Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements from air and space,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 399–410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. Apelblat, “The vapour pressures of water over saturated aqueous solutions of barium chloride, magnesium nitrate, calcium nitrate, potassium carbonate, and zinc sulfate, at temperatures from 283K to 313K,” J. Chem. Thermodyn. 24, 619–626 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

Abshire, J. B.

Affolderbach, C.

Ansmann, A.

Apelblat, A.

A. Apelblat, “The vapour pressures of water over saturated aqueous solutions of barium chloride, magnesium nitrate, calcium nitrate, potassium carbonate, and zinc sulfate, at temperatures from 283K to 313K,” J. Chem. Thermodyn. 24, 619–626 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appel, J.

J. Appel, A. MacRae, and A. I. Lvovsky, “A versatile digital GHz phase lock for external cavity diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 055302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Auwera, J. Vander

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Ayers, T.

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, B. W.

Bartels, A.

L. Hollberg, S. Diddams, A. Bartels, T. Fortier, and K. Kim, “The measurement of optical frequencies,” Metrologia 42, S105–S124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, H.

S. Pal, A. Behrendt, H. Bauer, M. Radlach, A. Riede, M. Schiller, G. Wagner, and V. Wulfmeyer, “3-dimensional observations of atmospheric variables during the field campaign COPS,” IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 1, 012031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, H. Bauer, P. Di Girolamo, and C. Serio, “Comparison of active and passive water vapor remote sensing from space: an analysis based on the simulated performance of IASI and space borne differential absorption lidar,” Remote Sens. Environ. 95, 211–230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baumgart, R.

Behrendt, A.

S. Pal, A. Behrendt, H. Bauer, M. Radlach, A. Riede, M. Schiller, G. Wagner, and V. Wulfmeyer, “3-dimensional observations of atmospheric variables during the field campaign COPS,” IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 1, 012031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, T. Nakamura, M. Onishi, R. Baumgart, and T. Tsuda, “Combined Raman lidar for the measurement of atmospheric temperature, water vapor, particle extinction coefficient, and particle backscatter coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7657–7666 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Beyerle, G.

S. Heise, J. Wickert, G. Beyerle, T. Schmidt, and Ch. Reigber, “Global monitoring of tropospheric water vapor with GPS radio occultation aboard CHAMP,” Adv. Space Res. 37, 2222–2227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beyon, J. Y.

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Börner, A.

H. Schwarzer, A. Börner, A. Fix, B. Günther, H-W. H., M. Raugust, F. Schrandt, and M. Wirth, “Development of a wavelength stabilized seed laser system for an airborne water vapour lidar experiment,” Proc. SPIE 6681, 66810H (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bosenberg, J.

Bösenberg, J.

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Bravo, H. E.

Browell, E. V.

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, and W. B. Grant, “Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements from air and space,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 399–410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Bruneau, D.

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Carlsten, J. L.

A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, M. D. Obland, and J. A. Shaw, “Water vapor profiling using a widely tunable, amplified diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL),” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 733–745 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Champion, J.-P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Danaj, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. J.

Dessler, A. E.

K. Minschwaner and A. E. Dessler, “Water vapor feedback in the tropical upper troposphere: model results and observations,” J. Climate 17, 1272–1282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Di Girolamo, P.

V. Wulfmeyer, H. Bauer, P. Di Girolamo, and C. Serio, “Comparison of active and passive water vapor remote sensing from space: an analysis based on the simulated performance of IASI and space borne differential absorption lidar,” Remote Sens. Environ. 95, 211–230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S.

L. Hollberg, S. Diddams, A. Bartels, T. Fortier, and K. Kim, “The measurement of optical frequencies,” Metrologia 42, S105–S124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ehret, G.

H. R. Khalesifard, A. Fix, G. Ehret, M. Schiller, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Fast-switching system for injection seeding of a high-power Ti:sapphire laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 073110(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 201–213 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Engler, H.

U. Schünemann, H. Engler, R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and M. Zielonkowski, “Simple scheme for tunable frequency offset locking of two lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 242–243(1999).
[CrossRef]

Ertel, K.

Fally, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Fix, A.

H. R. Khalesifard, A. Fix, G. Ehret, M. Schiller, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Fast-switching system for injection seeding of a high-power Ti:sapphire laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 073110(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 201–213 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Schwarzer, A. Börner, A. Fix, B. Günther, H-W. H., M. Raugust, F. Schrandt, and M. Wirth, “Development of a wavelength stabilized seed laser system for an airborne water vapour lidar experiment,” Proc. SPIE 6681, 66810H (2007).
[CrossRef]

Flamant, C.

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Fortier, T.

L. Hollberg, S. Diddams, A. Bartels, T. Fortier, and K. Kim, “The measurement of optical frequencies,” Metrologia 42, S105–S124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Gibert, F.

Goldmanm, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Grant, W. B.

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, and W. B. Grant, “Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements from air and space,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 399–410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grimm, R.

U. Schünemann, H. Engler, R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and M. Zielonkowski, “Simple scheme for tunable frequency offset locking of two lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 242–243(1999).
[CrossRef]

Günther, B.

H. Schwarzer, A. Börner, A. Fix, B. Günther, H-W. H., M. Raugust, F. Schrandt, and M. Wirth, “Development of a wavelength stabilized seed laser system for an airborne water vapour lidar experiment,” Proc. SPIE 6681, 66810H (2007).
[CrossRef]

H., H-W.

H. Schwarzer, A. Börner, A. Fix, B. Günther, H-W. H., M. Raugust, F. Schrandt, and M. Wirth, “Development of a wavelength stabilized seed laser system for an airborne water vapour lidar experiment,” Proc. SPIE 6681, 66810H (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hardesty, R. M.

Heise, S.

S. Heise, J. Wickert, G. Beyerle, T. Schmidt, and Ch. Reigber, “Global monitoring of tropospheric water vapor with GPS radio occultation aboard CHAMP,” Adv. Space Res. 37, 2222–2227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

L. Hollberg, S. Diddams, A. Bartels, T. Fortier, and K. Kim, “The measurement of optical frequencies,” Metrologia 42, S105–S124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ingram, W.

W. Ingram, “On the robustness of the water vapor feedback: GCM vertical resolution and formulation,” J. Climate 15, 917–921 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ismail, S.

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Kauffmann-Werner, D.

Khalesifard, H. R.

H. R. Khalesifard, A. Fix, G. Ehret, M. Schiller, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Fast-switching system for injection seeding of a high-power Ti:sapphire laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 073110(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

L. Hollberg, S. Diddams, A. Bartels, T. Fortier, and K. Kim, “The measurement of optical frequencies,” Metrologia 42, S105–S124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kleiner, I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Koch, G. J.

Koenig, K. W.

Krainak, M. A.

Lacome, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Linné, H.

Lvovsky, A. I.

J. Appel, A. MacRae, and A. I. Lvovsky, “A versatile digital GHz phase lock for external cavity diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 055302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Machol, J. L.

MacRae, A.

J. Appel, A. MacRae, and A. I. Lvovsky, “A versatile digital GHz phase lock for external cavity diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 055302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mahnke, P.

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 201–213 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Matthey, R.

Meissonnier, M.

Mikhailenko, S. N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Mileti, G.

Miller, C. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Minschwaner, K.

K. Minschwaner and A. E. Dessler, “Water vapor feedback in the tropical upper troposphere: model results and observations,” J. Climate 17, 1272–1282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Modlin, E. A.

Nakamura, T.

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Nehrir, A. R.

A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, M. D. Obland, and J. A. Shaw, “Water vapor profiling using a widely tunable, amplified diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL),” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 733–745 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Obland, M. D.

A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, M. D. Obland, and J. A. Shaw, “Water vapor profiling using a widely tunable, amplified diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL),” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 733–745 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Onishi, M.

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Pal, S.

S. Pal, A. Behrendt, H. Bauer, M. Radlach, A. Riede, M. Schiller, G. Wagner, and V. Wulfmeyer, “3-dimensional observations of atmospheric variables during the field campaign COPS,” IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 1, 012031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pelon, J.

Perevalov, V. I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Petros, M.

Petzar, P. J.

Predoi-Cross, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Quaglia, P.

Radlach, M.

S. Pal, A. Behrendt, H. Bauer, M. Radlach, A. Riede, M. Schiller, G. Wagner, and V. Wulfmeyer, “3-dimensional observations of atmospheric variables during the field campaign COPS,” IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 1, 012031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Raugust, M.

H. Schwarzer, A. Börner, A. Fix, B. Günther, H-W. H., M. Raugust, F. Schrandt, and M. Wirth, “Development of a wavelength stabilized seed laser system for an airborne water vapour lidar experiment,” Proc. SPIE 6681, 66810H (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reigber, Ch.

S. Heise, J. Wickert, G. Beyerle, T. Schmidt, and Ch. Reigber, “Global monitoring of tropospheric water vapor with GPS radio occultation aboard CHAMP,” Adv. Space Res. 37, 2222–2227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Repasky, K. S.

A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, M. D. Obland, and J. A. Shaw, “Water vapor profiling using a widely tunable, amplified diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL),” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 733–745 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Riede, A.

S. Pal, A. Behrendt, H. Bauer, M. Radlach, A. Riede, M. Schiller, G. Wagner, and V. Wulfmeyer, “3-dimensional observations of atmospheric variables during the field campaign COPS,” IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 1, 012031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Rotger, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Sandberg, S. P.

Schiller, M.

H. R. Khalesifard, A. Fix, G. Ehret, M. Schiller, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Fast-switching system for injection seeding of a high-power Ti:sapphire laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 073110(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pal, A. Behrendt, H. Bauer, M. Radlach, A. Riede, M. Schiller, G. Wagner, and V. Wulfmeyer, “3-dimensional observations of atmospheric variables during the field campaign COPS,” IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 1, 012031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schilt, S.

Schmidt, T.

S. Heise, J. Wickert, G. Beyerle, T. Schmidt, and Ch. Reigber, “Global monitoring of tropospheric water vapor with GPS radio occultation aboard CHAMP,” Adv. Space Res. 37, 2222–2227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schrandt, F.

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 201–213 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Schwarzer, A. Börner, A. Fix, B. Günther, H-W. H., M. Raugust, F. Schrandt, and M. Wirth, “Development of a wavelength stabilized seed laser system for an airborne water vapour lidar experiment,” Proc. SPIE 6681, 66810H (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schünemann, U.

U. Schünemann, H. Engler, R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and M. Zielonkowski, “Simple scheme for tunable frequency offset locking of two lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 242–243(1999).
[CrossRef]

Schwarzer, H.

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 201–213 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Schwarzer, A. Börner, A. Fix, B. Günther, H-W. H., M. Raugust, F. Schrandt, and M. Wirth, “Development of a wavelength stabilized seed laser system for an airborne water vapour lidar experiment,” Proc. SPIE 6681, 66810H (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schwenz, K. T.

Senff, C. J.

Serio, C.

V. Wulfmeyer, H. Bauer, P. Di Girolamo, and C. Serio, “Comparison of active and passive water vapor remote sensing from space: an analysis based on the simulated performance of IASI and space borne differential absorption lidar,” Remote Sens. Environ. 95, 211–230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, J. A.

A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, M. D. Obland, and J. A. Shaw, “Water vapor profiling using a widely tunable, amplified diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL),” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 733–745 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Šimecková, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Singh, U. N.

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Tashkun, S. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Thévenaz, L.

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, T.

Vandaele, A. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, G.

S. Pal, A. Behrendt, H. Bauer, M. Radlach, A. Riede, M. Schiller, G. Wagner, and V. Wulfmeyer, “3-dimensional observations of atmospheric variables during the field campaign COPS,” IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 1, 012031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Walther, C.

Weidemüller, M.

U. Schünemann, H. Engler, R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and M. Zielonkowski, “Simple scheme for tunable frequency offset locking of two lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 242–243(1999).
[CrossRef]

Wickert, J.

S. Heise, J. Wickert, G. Beyerle, T. Schmidt, and Ch. Reigber, “Global monitoring of tropospheric water vapor with GPS radio occultation aboard CHAMP,” Adv. Space Res. 37, 2222–2227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wirth, M.

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 201–213 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Schwarzer, A. Börner, A. Fix, B. Günther, H-W. H., M. Raugust, F. Schrandt, and M. Wirth, “Development of a wavelength stabilized seed laser system for an airborne water vapour lidar experiment,” Proc. SPIE 6681, 66810H (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wulfmeyer, V.

H. R. Khalesifard, A. Fix, G. Ehret, M. Schiller, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Fast-switching system for injection seeding of a high-power Ti:sapphire laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 073110(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pal, A. Behrendt, H. Bauer, M. Radlach, A. Riede, M. Schiller, G. Wagner, and V. Wulfmeyer, “3-dimensional observations of atmospheric variables during the field campaign COPS,” IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 1, 012031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, H. Bauer, P. Di Girolamo, and C. Serio, “Comparison of active and passive water vapor remote sensing from space: an analysis based on the simulated performance of IASI and space borne differential absorption lidar,” Remote Sens. Environ. 95, 211–230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer and C. Walther, “Future performance of ground-based and airborne water-vapor differential absorption lidar. II. Simulations of the precision of a near-infrared, high-power system,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5321–5336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer and J. Bosenberg, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor profiling: assessment of accuracy, resolution, and meteorological applications,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3825–3844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

Zielonkowski, M.

U. Schünemann, H. Engler, R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and M. Zielonkowski, “Simple scheme for tunable frequency offset locking of two lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 242–243(1999).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res. (1)

S. Heise, J. Wickert, G. Beyerle, T. Schmidt, and Ch. Reigber, “Global monitoring of tropospheric water vapor with GPS radio occultation aboard CHAMP,” Adv. Space Res. 37, 2222–2227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (9)

A. Ansmann and J. Bosenberg, “Correction scheme for spectral broadening by Rayleigh scattering in differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor in the troposphere,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3026–3032 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Wulfmeyer and J. Bosenberg, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor profiling: assessment of accuracy, resolution, and meteorological applications,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3825–3844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, T. Nakamura, M. Onishi, R. Baumgart, and T. Tsuda, “Combined Raman lidar for the measurement of atmospheric temperature, water vapor, particle extinction coefficient, and particle backscatter coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7657–7666 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Bruneau, P. Quaglia, C. Flamant, M. Meissonnier, and J. Pelon, “Airborne lidar LEANDRE II for water-vapor profiling in the troposphere. I. System description,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3450–3461 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Machol, T. Ayers, K. T. Schwenz, K. W. Koenig, R. M. Hardesty, C. J. Senff, M. A. Krainak, J. B. Abshire, H. E. Bravo, and S. P. Sandberg “Preliminary measurements with an automated compact differential absorption lidar for the profiling of water vapor,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3110–3121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Koch, J. Y. Beyon, F. Gibert, B. W. Barnes, S. Ismail, M. Petros, P. J. Petzar, J. Yu, E. A. Modlin, K. J. Davis, and U. N. Singh, “Side-line tunable laser transmitter for differential absorption lidar measurements of CO2: design and application to atmospheric measurements,” Appl. Opt. 47, 944–956(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ertel, H. Linné, and J. Bösenberg, “Injection seeded pulsed Ti:sapphire laser with novel stabilization scheme and capability of dual-wavelength operation,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5120–5126(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schilt, R. Matthey, D. Kauffmann-Werner, C. Affolderbach, G. Mileti, and L. Thévenaz, “Laser offset-frequency locking up to 20GHz using a low-frequency electrical filter technique,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4336–4344 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Wulfmeyer and C. Walther, “Future performance of ground-based and airborne water-vapor differential absorption lidar. II. Simulations of the precision of a near-infrared, high-power system,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5321–5336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, and W. B. Grant, “Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements from air and space,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 399–410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 201–213 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. (1)

S. Pal, A. Behrendt, H. Bauer, M. Radlach, A. Riede, M. Schiller, G. Wagner, and V. Wulfmeyer, “3-dimensional observations of atmospheric variables during the field campaign COPS,” IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 1, 012031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, M. D. Obland, and J. A. Shaw, “Water vapor profiling using a widely tunable, amplified diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL),” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 733–745 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Thermodyn. (1)

A. Apelblat, “The vapour pressures of water over saturated aqueous solutions of barium chloride, magnesium nitrate, calcium nitrate, potassium carbonate, and zinc sulfate, at temperatures from 283K to 313K,” J. Chem. Thermodyn. 24, 619–626 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Climate (2)

K. Minschwaner and A. E. Dessler, “Water vapor feedback in the tropical upper troposphere: model results and observations,” J. Climate 17, 1272–1282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Ingram, “On the robustness of the water vapor feedback: GCM vertical resolution and formulation,” J. Climate 15, 917–921 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldmanm, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. Appel, A. MacRae, and A. I. Lvovsky, “A versatile digital GHz phase lock for external cavity diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 055302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

L. Hollberg, S. Diddams, A. Bartels, T. Fortier, and K. Kim, “The measurement of optical frequencies,” Metrologia 42, S105–S124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Schwarzer, A. Börner, A. Fix, B. Günther, H-W. H., M. Raugust, F. Schrandt, and M. Wirth, “Development of a wavelength stabilized seed laser system for an airborne water vapour lidar experiment,” Proc. SPIE 6681, 66810H (2007).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

V. Wulfmeyer, H. Bauer, P. Di Girolamo, and C. Serio, “Comparison of active and passive water vapor remote sensing from space: an analysis based on the simulated performance of IASI and space borne differential absorption lidar,” Remote Sens. Environ. 95, 211–230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

H. R. Khalesifard, A. Fix, G. Ehret, M. Schiller, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Fast-switching system for injection seeding of a high-power Ti:sapphire laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 073110(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Schünemann, H. Engler, R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and M. Zielonkowski, “Simple scheme for tunable frequency offset locking of two lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 242–243(1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

World Meteorological Organization, “Measurement of humidity,” in Guide to Meteorological Instruments and Methods of Observation (World Meteorological Organization, 2008), pp. 1.4–25.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Differential absorption lidar laser stabilization system showing optical paths (solid lines) and electronic signals (dashed lines). AOM, acousto-optic modulator; SOA, semiconductor optical amplifier; ISO, Faraday optical isolator; DAQ, data acquisition; PD, photodiode; LPF, low-pass filter; BPF, bandpass filter; TP, test point. The blocks labeled test indicate the points at which step voltages are used to test the response of the servo loops, as discussed in the text. The gray circles represent fiber coupling lenses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

System timing coordinates the optical switching (AOM), electronic switching, dither, and data acquisition. The adjustable delays (Td) compensate for the response times of the electronic and optical components, such as the finite time for acoustic signals to propagate through the AOMs ( 400 ns ) to effect the optical switching. In addition, the delays ensure that the data acquisition system is triggered 5 μs before the laser pulses are transmitted, to enable background signal levels to be measured. The pulse lengths are controlled by monostable multivibrators (HC4538), that are not shown explicitly.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Laser wavelength variability measured from the error signals at TP1 and TP2, with the feedback loops closed. TP1 shows the fluctuations in the on-line laser frequency, and TP2 shows those for the difference frequency. The signals shown are the voltages measured at the respective test points, scaled as described in the text so that the vertical axis is in frequency units. The vertical separation between the traces is an arbitrary DC shift introduced for clarity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Response of the control loops to small-signal step perturbation at the on-line laser. The response of the on-line control system acts to cancel the effect of the perturbation as the area under the error-signal curve is equal to the step amplitude. The instantaneous shift in the beat frequency also produces an error signal in the off-line control signal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Measurements of water vapor mixing ratio (in grams per kilogram) using the DIAL, and (b) the raw backscatter signal for the off-line wavelength, showing the height to which aerosol scattering is seen. In (a), the arrows on the left-hand scale indicate the approximate boundaries of height range for which there is a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 1. In (b), the arrow on the scale indicates the height of maximum signal, which is the point at which the transmitted beam fully intersects the field of view of the receiving telescope.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Maximum Fractional Absorption for Water at 822.92 nm with Relative Humidity 54%

Metrics