Abstract

Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensors have found widespread application for testing ocular aberrations. These sensors provide an accurate map of the wavefront emerging from an eye in most cases. However, there is a growing class of patients with diffractive intraocular lenses that will potentially be measured incorrectly with Shack–Hartmann devices. We explore the pitfalls of measuring diffractive lenses with this technology.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, and J. F. Bille, “Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1949-1957 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. O. Salmon, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “Comparison of the eye's wavefront aberration measured psychophysically and with the Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2457-2465 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martin, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, “Analysis of the performance of the Hartmann Shack sensor in the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1388-1398 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller,“Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884-2892 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. N. Thibos and X. Hong, “Clinical applications of the Shack Hartmann aberrometer,” Optom. Vision Sci. 76, 817-825(1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Mrochen, M. Kaemmerer, and T. Seiler, “Clinical results of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis 3 months after surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 27, 201-207 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Sabesan, T. M. Jeong, L. Carvalho, I. G. Cox, D. R. Williams, and G. Yoon, “Vision improvement by correcting higher order aberrations with customized soft contact lenses in keratoconic eyes,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1000-1002 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. M. Miller, R. Anwaruddin, J. Straub, and J. Schwiegerling, “Higher order aberrations in normal, dilated, intraocular lens and laser in situ keratomileusis corneas,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S579-S583 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  9. L. Vilarrodona, G. D. Barrett, and B. Johnson, “High order aberrations in pseudophakia with different intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 571-575 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. Padmanabhan, G. Yoon, J. Porter, S. K. Rao, and M. Choudhury, “Wavefront aberration in eyes with Acrysof monofocal intraocular lenses,” J. Refract. Surg. 22, 237-242(2006).
    [PubMed]
  11. C. E. Campbell, “Wavefront measurement of diffractive and refractive multifocal intraocular lenses in artificial eye,” J. Refract. Surg. 24, 308-311 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  12. C. E. Campbell, “Post-multifocal IOL wavefront: are the readings reliable?,” in Mastering Refractive IOLs, The Art and Sciences, D. F. Chang, ed. (Slack, 2008), pp. 775-778.
  13. W. N. Charman, R. Montes-Mico, and H. Radhadkirishnan, “Problems in the measurement of wavefront aberrations for eyes implanted with diffractive bifocal and multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Refract. Surg. 24, 280-286 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  14. D. Ortiz, J. L. Alio, G. Bernabeu, and V. Pongo, “Optical performance of monofocal and multifocal intraocular lenses in the human eye,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34, 755-762(2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. Gatinel, “Optical performance of monofocal versus multifocal intraocular lenses: letter,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34, 1817-1818 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Schwiegerling, “Intraocular lenses,” in Handbook of Optics, 3rd ed., M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch, V. Lakshminarayanan, G. Li, C. MacDonald, V. Mahajan, and E. Van Stryland, eds. (McGraw-Hill, 2010), pp. 21.1-21.27.
  17. C. E. Campbell (personal communication, 2010).

2008 (4)

C. E. Campbell, “Wavefront measurement of diffractive and refractive multifocal intraocular lenses in artificial eye,” J. Refract. Surg. 24, 308-311 (2008).
[PubMed]

W. N. Charman, R. Montes-Mico, and H. Radhadkirishnan, “Problems in the measurement of wavefront aberrations for eyes implanted with diffractive bifocal and multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Refract. Surg. 24, 280-286 (2008).
[PubMed]

D. Ortiz, J. L. Alio, G. Bernabeu, and V. Pongo, “Optical performance of monofocal and multifocal intraocular lenses in the human eye,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34, 755-762(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Gatinel, “Optical performance of monofocal versus multifocal intraocular lenses: letter,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34, 1817-1818 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

P. Padmanabhan, G. Yoon, J. Porter, S. K. Rao, and M. Choudhury, “Wavefront aberration in eyes with Acrysof monofocal intraocular lenses,” J. Refract. Surg. 22, 237-242(2006).
[PubMed]

2004 (1)

L. Vilarrodona, G. D. Barrett, and B. Johnson, “High order aberrations in pseudophakia with different intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 571-575 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. M. Miller, R. Anwaruddin, J. Straub, and J. Schwiegerling, “Higher order aberrations in normal, dilated, intraocular lens and laser in situ keratomileusis corneas,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S579-S583 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. Mrochen, M. Kaemmerer, and T. Seiler, “Clinical results of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis 3 months after surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 27, 201-207 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

L. N. Thibos and X. Hong, “Clinical applications of the Shack Hartmann aberrometer,” Optom. Vision Sci. 76, 817-825(1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

Alio, J. L.

D. Ortiz, J. L. Alio, G. Bernabeu, and V. Pongo, “Optical performance of monofocal and multifocal intraocular lenses in the human eye,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34, 755-762(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anwaruddin, R.

J. M. Miller, R. Anwaruddin, J. Straub, and J. Schwiegerling, “Higher order aberrations in normal, dilated, intraocular lens and laser in situ keratomileusis corneas,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S579-S583 (2002).
[PubMed]

Artal, P.

Barrett, G. D.

L. Vilarrodona, G. D. Barrett, and B. Johnson, “High order aberrations in pseudophakia with different intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 571-575 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernabeu, G.

D. Ortiz, J. L. Alio, G. Bernabeu, and V. Pongo, “Optical performance of monofocal and multifocal intraocular lenses in the human eye,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34, 755-762(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bille, J. F.

Bradley, A.

Campbell, C. E.

C. E. Campbell, “Wavefront measurement of diffractive and refractive multifocal intraocular lenses in artificial eye,” J. Refract. Surg. 24, 308-311 (2008).
[PubMed]

C. E. Campbell, “Post-multifocal IOL wavefront: are the readings reliable?,” in Mastering Refractive IOLs, The Art and Sciences, D. F. Chang, ed. (Slack, 2008), pp. 775-778.

C. E. Campbell (personal communication, 2010).

Carvalho, L.

Charman, W. N.

W. N. Charman, R. Montes-Mico, and H. Radhadkirishnan, “Problems in the measurement of wavefront aberrations for eyes implanted with diffractive bifocal and multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Refract. Surg. 24, 280-286 (2008).
[PubMed]

Choudhury, M.

P. Padmanabhan, G. Yoon, J. Porter, S. K. Rao, and M. Choudhury, “Wavefront aberration in eyes with Acrysof monofocal intraocular lenses,” J. Refract. Surg. 22, 237-242(2006).
[PubMed]

Cox, I. G.

Gatinel, D.

D. Gatinel, “Optical performance of monofocal versus multifocal intraocular lenses: letter,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34, 1817-1818 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goelz, S.

Grimm, B.

Hong, X.

L. N. Thibos and X. Hong, “Clinical applications of the Shack Hartmann aberrometer,” Optom. Vision Sci. 76, 817-825(1999).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, T. M.

Johnson, B.

L. Vilarrodona, G. D. Barrett, and B. Johnson, “High order aberrations in pseudophakia with different intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 571-575 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaemmerer, M.

M. Mrochen, M. Kaemmerer, and T. Seiler, “Clinical results of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis 3 months after surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 27, 201-207 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, J.

Miller, D. T.

Miller, J. M.

J. M. Miller, R. Anwaruddin, J. Straub, and J. Schwiegerling, “Higher order aberrations in normal, dilated, intraocular lens and laser in situ keratomileusis corneas,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S579-S583 (2002).
[PubMed]

Montes-Mico, R.

W. N. Charman, R. Montes-Mico, and H. Radhadkirishnan, “Problems in the measurement of wavefront aberrations for eyes implanted with diffractive bifocal and multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Refract. Surg. 24, 280-286 (2008).
[PubMed]

Mrochen, M.

M. Mrochen, M. Kaemmerer, and T. Seiler, “Clinical results of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis 3 months after surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 27, 201-207 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ortiz, D.

D. Ortiz, J. L. Alio, G. Bernabeu, and V. Pongo, “Optical performance of monofocal and multifocal intraocular lenses in the human eye,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34, 755-762(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padmanabhan, P.

P. Padmanabhan, G. Yoon, J. Porter, S. K. Rao, and M. Choudhury, “Wavefront aberration in eyes with Acrysof monofocal intraocular lenses,” J. Refract. Surg. 22, 237-242(2006).
[PubMed]

Pongo, V.

D. Ortiz, J. L. Alio, G. Bernabeu, and V. Pongo, “Optical performance of monofocal and multifocal intraocular lenses in the human eye,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34, 755-762(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porter, J.

P. Padmanabhan, G. Yoon, J. Porter, S. K. Rao, and M. Choudhury, “Wavefront aberration in eyes with Acrysof monofocal intraocular lenses,” J. Refract. Surg. 22, 237-242(2006).
[PubMed]

Prieto, P. M.

Radhadkirishnan, H.

W. N. Charman, R. Montes-Mico, and H. Radhadkirishnan, “Problems in the measurement of wavefront aberrations for eyes implanted with diffractive bifocal and multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Refract. Surg. 24, 280-286 (2008).
[PubMed]

Rao, S. K.

P. Padmanabhan, G. Yoon, J. Porter, S. K. Rao, and M. Choudhury, “Wavefront aberration in eyes with Acrysof monofocal intraocular lenses,” J. Refract. Surg. 22, 237-242(2006).
[PubMed]

Sabesan, R.

Salmon, T. O.

Schwiegerling, J.

J. M. Miller, R. Anwaruddin, J. Straub, and J. Schwiegerling, “Higher order aberrations in normal, dilated, intraocular lens and laser in situ keratomileusis corneas,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S579-S583 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. Schwiegerling, “Intraocular lenses,” in Handbook of Optics, 3rd ed., M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch, V. Lakshminarayanan, G. Li, C. MacDonald, V. Mahajan, and E. Van Stryland, eds. (McGraw-Hill, 2010), pp. 21.1-21.27.

Seiler, T.

M. Mrochen, M. Kaemmerer, and T. Seiler, “Clinical results of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis 3 months after surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 27, 201-207 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Straub, J.

J. M. Miller, R. Anwaruddin, J. Straub, and J. Schwiegerling, “Higher order aberrations in normal, dilated, intraocular lens and laser in situ keratomileusis corneas,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S579-S583 (2002).
[PubMed]

Thibos, L. N.

Vargas-Martin, F.

Vilarrodona, L.

L. Vilarrodona, G. D. Barrett, and B. Johnson, “High order aberrations in pseudophakia with different intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 571-575 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

Yoon, G.

R. Sabesan, T. M. Jeong, L. Carvalho, I. G. Cox, D. R. Williams, and G. Yoon, “Vision improvement by correcting higher order aberrations with customized soft contact lenses in keratoconic eyes,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1000-1002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Padmanabhan, G. Yoon, J. Porter, S. K. Rao, and M. Choudhury, “Wavefront aberration in eyes with Acrysof monofocal intraocular lenses,” J. Refract. Surg. 22, 237-242(2006).
[PubMed]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (4)

L. Vilarrodona, G. D. Barrett, and B. Johnson, “High order aberrations in pseudophakia with different intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 571-575 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mrochen, M. Kaemmerer, and T. Seiler, “Clinical results of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis 3 months after surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 27, 201-207 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Ortiz, J. L. Alio, G. Bernabeu, and V. Pongo, “Optical performance of monofocal and multifocal intraocular lenses in the human eye,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34, 755-762(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Gatinel, “Optical performance of monofocal versus multifocal intraocular lenses: letter,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34, 1817-1818 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

J. Refract. Surg. (4)

P. Padmanabhan, G. Yoon, J. Porter, S. K. Rao, and M. Choudhury, “Wavefront aberration in eyes with Acrysof monofocal intraocular lenses,” J. Refract. Surg. 22, 237-242(2006).
[PubMed]

C. E. Campbell, “Wavefront measurement of diffractive and refractive multifocal intraocular lenses in artificial eye,” J. Refract. Surg. 24, 308-311 (2008).
[PubMed]

J. M. Miller, R. Anwaruddin, J. Straub, and J. Schwiegerling, “Higher order aberrations in normal, dilated, intraocular lens and laser in situ keratomileusis corneas,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S579-S583 (2002).
[PubMed]

W. N. Charman, R. Montes-Mico, and H. Radhadkirishnan, “Problems in the measurement of wavefront aberrations for eyes implanted with diffractive bifocal and multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Refract. Surg. 24, 280-286 (2008).
[PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optom. Vision Sci. (1)

L. N. Thibos and X. Hong, “Clinical applications of the Shack Hartmann aberrometer,” Optom. Vision Sci. 76, 817-825(1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

C. E. Campbell, “Post-multifocal IOL wavefront: are the readings reliable?,” in Mastering Refractive IOLs, The Art and Sciences, D. F. Chang, ed. (Slack, 2008), pp. 775-778.

J. Schwiegerling, “Intraocular lenses,” in Handbook of Optics, 3rd ed., M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch, V. Lakshminarayanan, G. Li, C. MacDonald, V. Mahajan, and E. Van Stryland, eds. (McGraw-Hill, 2010), pp. 21.1-21.27.

C. E. Campbell (personal communication, 2010).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Multifocal diffractive lens. When the phase height of the diffractive steps is not equal to a multiple of 2 π , the emerging wavefront is discontinuous and two discrete foci are formed by the interference of the discontinuous wavefront.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sampling the discontinuous wavefront with a lenslet array. Rings, diffractive zone boundaries; squares, apertures of the lenslet array. Depending on the IOL parameters and the dimensions of the lenslet, multiple phase steps can occur within the lenslet aperture.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Amplitude and phase profiles for the Tecnis ZM900 diffractive multifocal IOL.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

For lenses in the periphery if the IOL, the phase over the lenslet array, acts like a blazed grating. The incident light is split into multiple diffraction orders, exiting the lenslet at an angle θ governed by the grating equation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Shack–Hartmann spot pattern associated with the Tecnis ZM900 diffractive multifocal IOL. The boxed region shows the multiple spots formed by the near and distance vision wavefronts.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulated Shack–Hartmann spots from lenslets along the horizontal semi-meridian. Leftmost image, center of the IOL wavefront; rightmost image, the lens periphery. The top row of spots is for a plane wave incident on a 5 mm pupil. The spacing between these spots corresponds to the lenslet pitch. Center row, Tecnis multifocal at a wavelength of 550 nm ; bottom row, Tecnis multifocal at a wavelength of 780 nm .

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Locations of the Diffractive Steps for the Tecnis Multifocal a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of the + 1 st Order Spot Shifts for Two Different Wavelengths

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r j = 2 j λ o ϕ Add ,
η m = sinc 2 [ m α λ o λ ] ,
Δ x = f d W d x ,
d sin θ = m λ ,
tan θ = λ d 2 λ 2 = Δ x f .
Δ x = λ f d 2 λ 2 .

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