Abstract

The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Observatory is a collaboration among institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, and Virginia. The telescope on Mount Graham in South eastern Arizona uses two 8.4m diameter primary mirrors mounted side by side. A unique feature of the LBT is that the light from the two Gregorian telescope sides can be combined to produce phased-array imaging of an extended field. This cophased imaging along with adaptive optics gives the telescope the diffraction-limited resolution of a 22.65m aperture and a collecting area equivalent to an 11.8m circular aperture. This paper describes the design, construction, and commissioning of this unique telescope. We report some sample astronomical results with the prime focus cameras. We comment on some of the technical challenges and solutions. The telescope uses two F/15 adaptive secondaries to correct atmospheric turbulence. The first of these adaptive mirrors has completed final system testing in Firenze, Italy, and is planned to be at the telescope by Spring 2010.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Correia and A. Richichi, “Interferometric imaging tests for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 301-311 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. M. Hill, R. F. Green, J. H. Slagle, D. S. Ashby, G. Brusa-Zappellini, J. Brynnel, N. J. Cushing, J. Little, and R. M. Wagner, “The Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701203 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. M. Hill, R. F. Green, and J. H. Slagle, “The Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670Y (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. S. Ashby, T. Sargent, D. Cox, J. Rosato, and J. G. Brynnel, “The Large Binocular Telescope azimuth and elevation encoder system,” Proc. SPIE 7019, 701920 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. M. Martin, R. G. Allen, B. Cuerden, D. A. Ketelsen, J. M. Hill, S. M. Miller, J. M. Sasian, M. T. Tuell, and S. H. Warner, “Manufacture of the second 8.4 m primary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62730C (2006).
  6. J. M. Sasian, S. A. Lerner, J. H. Burge, and H. M. Martin, “Design, tolerancing, and certification of a null corrector to test 8.4 m mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 3739, 444-448(1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. S. Ashby, J. Kern, J. M. Hill, W. B. Davison, B. Cuerden, J. G. Brynnel, C. Biddick, and K. Duffek, “The Large Binocular Telescope primary mirror support control system description and current performance results,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70184C (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Rakich, J. M. Hill, C. J. Biddick, D. L. Miller, and T. Leibold, “Use of field aberrations in the alignment of the Large Binocular Telescope optics,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 7012L(2008).
  9. A. Rakich and D. L. Miller, “Active alignment for the Large Binocular Telescope bent-Gregorian focus: first results,” Proc. SPIE 7068, 70680D (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. M. Hill, R. Ragazzoni, A. Baruffolo, C. J. Biddick, O. P. Kuhn, E. Diolaiti, D. Thompson, and A. Rakich, “Prime focus active optics with the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 7012M (2008).
  11. J. Storm, W. Seifert, S. Bauer, F. Dionies, T. Fechner, F. Kraemer, G. Moestl, E. Popow, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, and J. Hill, “The acquisition, guiding and wavefront error sensing units for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 374-381 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Esposito, A. Tozzi, A. Puglisi, E. Pinna, A. Riccardi, S. Busoni, L. Busoni, P. Stefanini, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, and F. Pieralli, “First light AO system for LBT: toward on-sky operation,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720A (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, L. Busoni, C. Del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, V. Anaclerio, H. M. Martin, and S. M. Miller, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope: results of acceptance laboratory test,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701512 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Ragazzoni, E. Giallongo, F. Pasian, A. Baruffolo, R. Bertram, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, G. Gentile, J. Hill, M. Lombini, F. Pedichini, R. Speziali, R. Smareglia, and E. Vernet, “The wide field eyes of the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626710 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. M. Wagner, “An overview of instrumentation for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 701409 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. M. Herbst, R. Ragazzoni, and A. Eckart, and G. Weigelt, “LINC-NIRVANA: achieving 10 mas imagery on the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70141A (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. M. Hinz, T. Bippert-Plymate, A. Breuninger, T. Connors, B. Duffy, S. Esposito, W. Hoffmann, J. Kim, J. Kraus, T. McMahon, M. Montoya, R. Nash, O. Durney, E. Solheid, A. Tozzi, and V. Vaitheeswaran, “Status of the LBT interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701328 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. G. Coleman, J. T. A. De Jong, N. F. Martin, H-W. Rix, D. J. Sand, E. F. Bell, R. W. Pogge, D. J. Thompson, H. Hippelein, E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, R. Smareglia, V. Testa, J. Bechtold, J. M. Hill, P. M. Garnavich, and R. F. Green, “The elongated structure of the Hercules Dwarf spheroidal galaxy from deep Large Binocular Telescope imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 668, L43-L46(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (11)

J. M. Hill, R. F. Green, J. H. Slagle, D. S. Ashby, G. Brusa-Zappellini, J. Brynnel, N. J. Cushing, J. Little, and R. M. Wagner, “The Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Ashby, T. Sargent, D. Cox, J. Rosato, and J. G. Brynnel, “The Large Binocular Telescope azimuth and elevation encoder system,” Proc. SPIE 7019, 701920 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Ashby, J. Kern, J. M. Hill, W. B. Davison, B. Cuerden, J. G. Brynnel, C. Biddick, and K. Duffek, “The Large Binocular Telescope primary mirror support control system description and current performance results,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70184C (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Rakich, J. M. Hill, C. J. Biddick, D. L. Miller, and T. Leibold, “Use of field aberrations in the alignment of the Large Binocular Telescope optics,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 7012L(2008).

A. Rakich and D. L. Miller, “Active alignment for the Large Binocular Telescope bent-Gregorian focus: first results,” Proc. SPIE 7068, 70680D (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hill, R. Ragazzoni, A. Baruffolo, C. J. Biddick, O. P. Kuhn, E. Diolaiti, D. Thompson, and A. Rakich, “Prime focus active optics with the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 7012M (2008).

A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, L. Busoni, C. Del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, V. Anaclerio, H. M. Martin, and S. M. Miller, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope: results of acceptance laboratory test,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Wagner, “An overview of instrumentation for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 701409 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Herbst, R. Ragazzoni, and A. Eckart, and G. Weigelt, “LINC-NIRVANA: achieving 10 mas imagery on the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70141A (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Hinz, T. Bippert-Plymate, A. Breuninger, T. Connors, B. Duffy, S. Esposito, W. Hoffmann, J. Kim, J. Kraus, T. McMahon, M. Montoya, R. Nash, O. Durney, E. Solheid, A. Tozzi, and V. Vaitheeswaran, “Status of the LBT interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. G. Coleman, J. T. A. De Jong, N. F. Martin, H-W. Rix, D. J. Sand, E. F. Bell, R. W. Pogge, D. J. Thompson, H. Hippelein, E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, R. Smareglia, V. Testa, J. Bechtold, J. M. Hill, P. M. Garnavich, and R. F. Green, “The elongated structure of the Hercules Dwarf spheroidal galaxy from deep Large Binocular Telescope imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 668, L43-L46(2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

R. Ragazzoni, E. Giallongo, F. Pasian, A. Baruffolo, R. Bertram, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, G. Gentile, J. Hill, M. Lombini, F. Pedichini, R. Speziali, R. Smareglia, and E. Vernet, “The wide field eyes of the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito, A. Tozzi, A. Puglisi, E. Pinna, A. Riccardi, S. Busoni, L. Busoni, P. Stefanini, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, and F. Pieralli, “First light AO system for LBT: toward on-sky operation,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720A (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Martin, R. G. Allen, B. Cuerden, D. A. Ketelsen, J. M. Hill, S. M. Miller, J. M. Sasian, M. T. Tuell, and S. H. Warner, “Manufacture of the second 8.4 m primary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62730C (2006).

J. M. Hill, R. F. Green, and J. H. Slagle, “The Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670Y (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Storm, W. Seifert, S. Bauer, F. Dionies, T. Fechner, F. Kraemer, G. Moestl, E. Popow, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, and J. Hill, “The acquisition, guiding and wavefront error sensing units for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 374-381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Correia and A. Richichi, “Interferometric imaging tests for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 301-311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. M. Sasian, S. A. Lerner, J. H. Burge, and H. M. Martin, “Design, tolerancing, and certification of a null corrector to test 8.4 m mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 3739, 444-448(1999).
[CrossRef]

Allen, R. G.

H. M. Martin, R. G. Allen, B. Cuerden, D. A. Ketelsen, J. M. Hill, S. M. Miller, J. M. Sasian, M. T. Tuell, and S. H. Warner, “Manufacture of the second 8.4 m primary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62730C (2006).

Anaclerio, V.

A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, L. Busoni, C. Del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, V. Anaclerio, H. M. Martin, and S. M. Miller, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope: results of acceptance laboratory test,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andrighettoni, M.

A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, L. Busoni, C. Del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, V. Anaclerio, H. M. Martin, and S. M. Miller, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope: results of acceptance laboratory test,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ashby, D. S.

D. S. Ashby, J. Kern, J. M. Hill, W. B. Davison, B. Cuerden, J. G. Brynnel, C. Biddick, and K. Duffek, “The Large Binocular Telescope primary mirror support control system description and current performance results,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70184C (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hill, R. F. Green, J. H. Slagle, D. S. Ashby, G. Brusa-Zappellini, J. Brynnel, N. J. Cushing, J. Little, and R. M. Wagner, “The Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Ashby, T. Sargent, D. Cox, J. Rosato, and J. G. Brynnel, “The Large Binocular Telescope azimuth and elevation encoder system,” Proc. SPIE 7019, 701920 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baruffolo, A.

E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baruffolo, A.

J. M. Hill, R. Ragazzoni, A. Baruffolo, C. J. Biddick, O. P. Kuhn, E. Diolaiti, D. Thompson, and A. Rakich, “Prime focus active optics with the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 7012M (2008).

R. Ragazzoni, E. Giallongo, F. Pasian, A. Baruffolo, R. Bertram, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, G. Gentile, J. Hill, M. Lombini, F. Pedichini, R. Speziali, R. Smareglia, and E. Vernet, “The wide field eyes of the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, S.

J. Storm, W. Seifert, S. Bauer, F. Dionies, T. Fechner, F. Kraemer, G. Moestl, E. Popow, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, and J. Hill, “The acquisition, guiding and wavefront error sensing units for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 374-381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beccari, G.

E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bechtold, J.

M. G. Coleman, J. T. A. De Jong, N. F. Martin, H-W. Rix, D. J. Sand, E. F. Bell, R. W. Pogge, D. J. Thompson, H. Hippelein, E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, R. Smareglia, V. Testa, J. Bechtold, J. M. Hill, P. M. Garnavich, and R. F. Green, “The elongated structure of the Hercules Dwarf spheroidal galaxy from deep Large Binocular Telescope imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 668, L43-L46(2007).
[CrossRef]

Bell, E. F.

M. G. Coleman, J. T. A. De Jong, N. F. Martin, H-W. Rix, D. J. Sand, E. F. Bell, R. W. Pogge, D. J. Thompson, H. Hippelein, E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, R. Smareglia, V. Testa, J. Bechtold, J. M. Hill, P. M. Garnavich, and R. F. Green, “The elongated structure of the Hercules Dwarf spheroidal galaxy from deep Large Binocular Telescope imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 668, L43-L46(2007).
[CrossRef]

Bertram, R.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Giallongo, F. Pasian, A. Baruffolo, R. Bertram, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, G. Gentile, J. Hill, M. Lombini, F. Pedichini, R. Speziali, R. Smareglia, and E. Vernet, “The wide field eyes of the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biasi, R.

A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, L. Busoni, C. Del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, V. Anaclerio, H. M. Martin, and S. M. Miller, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope: results of acceptance laboratory test,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biddick, C.

D. S. Ashby, J. Kern, J. M. Hill, W. B. Davison, B. Cuerden, J. G. Brynnel, C. Biddick, and K. Duffek, “The Large Binocular Telescope primary mirror support control system description and current performance results,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70184C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biddick, C. J.

J. M. Hill, R. Ragazzoni, A. Baruffolo, C. J. Biddick, O. P. Kuhn, E. Diolaiti, D. Thompson, and A. Rakich, “Prime focus active optics with the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 7012M (2008).

A. Rakich, J. M. Hill, C. J. Biddick, D. L. Miller, and T. Leibold, “Use of field aberrations in the alignment of the Large Binocular Telescope optics,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 7012L(2008).

Bippert-Plymate, T.

P. M. Hinz, T. Bippert-Plymate, A. Breuninger, T. Connors, B. Duffy, S. Esposito, W. Hoffmann, J. Kim, J. Kraus, T. McMahon, M. Montoya, R. Nash, O. Durney, E. Solheid, A. Tozzi, and V. Vaitheeswaran, “Status of the LBT interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Breuninger, A.

P. M. Hinz, T. Bippert-Plymate, A. Breuninger, T. Connors, B. Duffy, S. Esposito, W. Hoffmann, J. Kim, J. Kraus, T. McMahon, M. Montoya, R. Nash, O. Durney, E. Solheid, A. Tozzi, and V. Vaitheeswaran, “Status of the LBT interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brusa-Zappellini, G.

J. M. Hill, R. F. Green, J. H. Slagle, D. S. Ashby, G. Brusa-Zappellini, J. Brynnel, N. J. Cushing, J. Little, and R. M. Wagner, “The Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, L. Busoni, C. Del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, V. Anaclerio, H. M. Martin, and S. M. Miller, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope: results of acceptance laboratory test,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brynnel, J.

J. M. Hill, R. F. Green, J. H. Slagle, D. S. Ashby, G. Brusa-Zappellini, J. Brynnel, N. J. Cushing, J. Little, and R. M. Wagner, “The Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brynnel, J. G.

D. S. Ashby, T. Sargent, D. Cox, J. Rosato, and J. G. Brynnel, “The Large Binocular Telescope azimuth and elevation encoder system,” Proc. SPIE 7019, 701920 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Ashby, J. Kern, J. M. Hill, W. B. Davison, B. Cuerden, J. G. Brynnel, C. Biddick, and K. Duffek, “The Large Binocular Telescope primary mirror support control system description and current performance results,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70184C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burge, J. H.

J. M. Sasian, S. A. Lerner, J. H. Burge, and H. M. Martin, “Design, tolerancing, and certification of a null corrector to test 8.4 m mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 3739, 444-448(1999).
[CrossRef]

Busoni, L.

A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, L. Busoni, C. Del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, V. Anaclerio, H. M. Martin, and S. M. Miller, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope: results of acceptance laboratory test,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito, A. Tozzi, A. Puglisi, E. Pinna, A. Riccardi, S. Busoni, L. Busoni, P. Stefanini, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, and F. Pieralli, “First light AO system for LBT: toward on-sky operation,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720A (2006).
[CrossRef]

Busoni, S.

S. Esposito, A. Tozzi, A. Puglisi, E. Pinna, A. Riccardi, S. Busoni, L. Busoni, P. Stefanini, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, and F. Pieralli, “First light AO system for LBT: toward on-sky operation,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720A (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, M. G.

M. G. Coleman, J. T. A. De Jong, N. F. Martin, H-W. Rix, D. J. Sand, E. F. Bell, R. W. Pogge, D. J. Thompson, H. Hippelein, E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, R. Smareglia, V. Testa, J. Bechtold, J. M. Hill, P. M. Garnavich, and R. F. Green, “The elongated structure of the Hercules Dwarf spheroidal galaxy from deep Large Binocular Telescope imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 668, L43-L46(2007).
[CrossRef]

Connors, T.

P. M. Hinz, T. Bippert-Plymate, A. Breuninger, T. Connors, B. Duffy, S. Esposito, W. Hoffmann, J. Kim, J. Kraus, T. McMahon, M. Montoya, R. Nash, O. Durney, E. Solheid, A. Tozzi, and V. Vaitheeswaran, “Status of the LBT interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Correia, S.

S. Correia and A. Richichi, “Interferometric imaging tests for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 301-311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cox, D.

D. S. Ashby, T. Sargent, D. Cox, J. Rosato, and J. G. Brynnel, “The Large Binocular Telescope azimuth and elevation encoder system,” Proc. SPIE 7019, 701920 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cuerden, B.

D. S. Ashby, J. Kern, J. M. Hill, W. B. Davison, B. Cuerden, J. G. Brynnel, C. Biddick, and K. Duffek, “The Large Binocular Telescope primary mirror support control system description and current performance results,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70184C (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Martin, R. G. Allen, B. Cuerden, D. A. Ketelsen, J. M. Hill, S. M. Miller, J. M. Sasian, M. T. Tuell, and S. H. Warner, “Manufacture of the second 8.4 m primary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62730C (2006).

Cushing, N. J.

J. M. Hill, R. F. Green, J. H. Slagle, D. S. Ashby, G. Brusa-Zappellini, J. Brynnel, N. J. Cushing, J. Little, and R. M. Wagner, “The Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davison, W. B.

D. S. Ashby, J. Kern, J. M. Hill, W. B. Davison, B. Cuerden, J. G. Brynnel, C. Biddick, and K. Duffek, “The Large Binocular Telescope primary mirror support control system description and current performance results,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70184C (2008).
[CrossRef]

De Jong, J. T. A.

M. G. Coleman, J. T. A. De Jong, N. F. Martin, H-W. Rix, D. J. Sand, E. F. Bell, R. W. Pogge, D. J. Thompson, H. Hippelein, E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, R. Smareglia, V. Testa, J. Bechtold, J. M. Hill, P. M. Garnavich, and R. F. Green, “The elongated structure of the Hercules Dwarf spheroidal galaxy from deep Large Binocular Telescope imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 668, L43-L46(2007).
[CrossRef]

de Santis, C.

E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Del Vecchio, C.

A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, L. Busoni, C. Del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, V. Anaclerio, H. M. Martin, and S. M. Miller, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope: results of acceptance laboratory test,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

di Paola, A.

M. G. Coleman, J. T. A. De Jong, N. F. Martin, H-W. Rix, D. J. Sand, E. F. Bell, R. W. Pogge, D. J. Thompson, H. Hippelein, E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, R. Smareglia, V. Testa, J. Bechtold, J. M. Hill, P. M. Garnavich, and R. F. Green, “The elongated structure of the Hercules Dwarf spheroidal galaxy from deep Large Binocular Telescope imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 668, L43-L46(2007).
[CrossRef]

di Paola, A.

E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Giallongo, F. Pasian, A. Baruffolo, R. Bertram, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, G. Gentile, J. Hill, M. Lombini, F. Pedichini, R. Speziali, R. Smareglia, and E. Vernet, “The wide field eyes of the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Diolaiti, E.

E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hill, R. Ragazzoni, A. Baruffolo, C. J. Biddick, O. P. Kuhn, E. Diolaiti, D. Thompson, and A. Rakich, “Prime focus active optics with the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 7012M (2008).

R. Ragazzoni, E. Giallongo, F. Pasian, A. Baruffolo, R. Bertram, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, G. Gentile, J. Hill, M. Lombini, F. Pedichini, R. Speziali, R. Smareglia, and E. Vernet, “The wide field eyes of the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dionies, F.

J. Storm, W. Seifert, S. Bauer, F. Dionies, T. Fechner, F. Kraemer, G. Moestl, E. Popow, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, and J. Hill, “The acquisition, guiding and wavefront error sensing units for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 374-381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duffek, K.

D. S. Ashby, J. Kern, J. M. Hill, W. B. Davison, B. Cuerden, J. G. Brynnel, C. Biddick, and K. Duffek, “The Large Binocular Telescope primary mirror support control system description and current performance results,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70184C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duffy, B.

P. M. Hinz, T. Bippert-Plymate, A. Breuninger, T. Connors, B. Duffy, S. Esposito, W. Hoffmann, J. Kim, J. Kraus, T. McMahon, M. Montoya, R. Nash, O. Durney, E. Solheid, A. Tozzi, and V. Vaitheeswaran, “Status of the LBT interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Durney, O.

P. M. Hinz, T. Bippert-Plymate, A. Breuninger, T. Connors, B. Duffy, S. Esposito, W. Hoffmann, J. Kim, J. Kraus, T. McMahon, M. Montoya, R. Nash, O. Durney, E. Solheid, A. Tozzi, and V. Vaitheeswaran, “Status of the LBT interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eckart, A.

T. M. Herbst, R. Ragazzoni, and A. Eckart, and G. Weigelt, “LINC-NIRVANA: achieving 10 mas imagery on the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70141A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Esposito, S.

P. M. Hinz, T. Bippert-Plymate, A. Breuninger, T. Connors, B. Duffy, S. Esposito, W. Hoffmann, J. Kim, J. Kraus, T. McMahon, M. Montoya, R. Nash, O. Durney, E. Solheid, A. Tozzi, and V. Vaitheeswaran, “Status of the LBT interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito, A. Tozzi, A. Puglisi, E. Pinna, A. Riccardi, S. Busoni, L. Busoni, P. Stefanini, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, and F. Pieralli, “First light AO system for LBT: toward on-sky operation,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720A (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Storm, W. Seifert, S. Bauer, F. Dionies, T. Fechner, F. Kraemer, G. Moestl, E. Popow, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, and J. Hill, “The acquisition, guiding and wavefront error sensing units for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 374-381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Farinato, J.

E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Coleman, J. T. A. De Jong, N. F. Martin, H-W. Rix, D. J. Sand, E. F. Bell, R. W. Pogge, D. J. Thompson, H. Hippelein, E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, R. Smareglia, V. Testa, J. Bechtold, J. M. Hill, P. M. Garnavich, and R. F. Green, “The elongated structure of the Hercules Dwarf spheroidal galaxy from deep Large Binocular Telescope imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 668, L43-L46(2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Giallongo, F. Pasian, A. Baruffolo, R. Bertram, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, G. Gentile, J. Hill, M. Lombini, F. Pedichini, R. Speziali, R. Smareglia, and E. Vernet, “The wide field eyes of the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fechner, T.

J. Storm, W. Seifert, S. Bauer, F. Dionies, T. Fechner, F. Kraemer, G. Moestl, E. Popow, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, and J. Hill, “The acquisition, guiding and wavefront error sensing units for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 374-381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fontana, A.

E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gallieni, D.

A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, L. Busoni, C. Del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, V. Anaclerio, H. M. Martin, and S. M. Miller, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope: results of acceptance laboratory test,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gallozzi, S.

E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Garnavich, P. M.

M. G. Coleman, J. T. A. De Jong, N. F. Martin, H-W. Rix, D. J. Sand, E. F. Bell, R. W. Pogge, D. J. Thompson, H. Hippelein, E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, R. Smareglia, V. Testa, J. Bechtold, J. M. Hill, P. M. Garnavich, and R. F. Green, “The elongated structure of the Hercules Dwarf spheroidal galaxy from deep Large Binocular Telescope imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 668, L43-L46(2007).
[CrossRef]

Gasparo, F.

E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gentile, G.

E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gentile, G.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Giallongo, F. Pasian, A. Baruffolo, R. Bertram, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, G. Gentile, J. Hill, M. Lombini, F. Pedichini, R. Speziali, R. Smareglia, and E. Vernet, “The wide field eyes of the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Giallongo, E.

E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Coleman, J. T. A. De Jong, N. F. Martin, H-W. Rix, D. J. Sand, E. F. Bell, R. W. Pogge, D. J. Thompson, H. Hippelein, E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, R. Smareglia, V. Testa, J. Bechtold, J. M. Hill, P. M. Garnavich, and R. F. Green, “The elongated structure of the Hercules Dwarf spheroidal galaxy from deep Large Binocular Telescope imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 668, L43-L46(2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Giallongo, F. Pasian, A. Baruffolo, R. Bertram, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, G. Gentile, J. Hill, M. Lombini, F. Pedichini, R. Speziali, R. Smareglia, and E. Vernet, “The wide field eyes of the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grazian, A.

E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Green, R.

E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Green, R. F.

M. G. Coleman, J. T. A. De Jong, N. F. Martin, H-W. Rix, D. J. Sand, E. F. Bell, R. W. Pogge, D. J. Thompson, H. Hippelein, E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, R. Smareglia, V. Testa, J. Bechtold, J. M. Hill, P. M. Garnavich, and R. F. Green, “The elongated structure of the Hercules Dwarf spheroidal galaxy from deep Large Binocular Telescope imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 668, L43-L46(2007).
[CrossRef]

Green, R. F.

J. M. Hill, R. F. Green, J. H. Slagle, D. S. Ashby, G. Brusa-Zappellini, J. Brynnel, N. J. Cushing, J. Little, and R. M. Wagner, “The Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hill, R. F. Green, and J. H. Slagle, “The Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670Y (2006).
[CrossRef]

Herbst, T. M.

T. M. Herbst, R. Ragazzoni, and A. Eckart, and G. Weigelt, “LINC-NIRVANA: achieving 10 mas imagery on the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70141A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hill, J.

E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hill, J. M.

M. G. Coleman, J. T. A. De Jong, N. F. Martin, H-W. Rix, D. J. Sand, E. F. Bell, R. W. Pogge, D. J. Thompson, H. Hippelein, E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, R. Smareglia, V. Testa, J. Bechtold, J. M. Hill, P. M. Garnavich, and R. F. Green, “The elongated structure of the Hercules Dwarf spheroidal galaxy from deep Large Binocular Telescope imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 668, L43-L46(2007).
[CrossRef]

Hill, J.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Giallongo, F. Pasian, A. Baruffolo, R. Bertram, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, G. Gentile, J. Hill, M. Lombini, F. Pedichini, R. Speziali, R. Smareglia, and E. Vernet, “The wide field eyes of the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Storm, W. Seifert, S. Bauer, F. Dionies, T. Fechner, F. Kraemer, G. Moestl, E. Popow, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, and J. Hill, “The acquisition, guiding and wavefront error sensing units for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 374-381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hill, J. M.

D. S. Ashby, J. Kern, J. M. Hill, W. B. Davison, B. Cuerden, J. G. Brynnel, C. Biddick, and K. Duffek, “The Large Binocular Telescope primary mirror support control system description and current performance results,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70184C (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hill, R. F. Green, J. H. Slagle, D. S. Ashby, G. Brusa-Zappellini, J. Brynnel, N. J. Cushing, J. Little, and R. M. Wagner, “The Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hill, R. Ragazzoni, A. Baruffolo, C. J. Biddick, O. P. Kuhn, E. Diolaiti, D. Thompson, and A. Rakich, “Prime focus active optics with the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 7012M (2008).

A. Rakich, J. M. Hill, C. J. Biddick, D. L. Miller, and T. Leibold, “Use of field aberrations in the alignment of the Large Binocular Telescope optics,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 7012L(2008).

J. M. Hill, R. F. Green, and J. H. Slagle, “The Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670Y (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Martin, R. G. Allen, B. Cuerden, D. A. Ketelsen, J. M. Hill, S. M. Miller, J. M. Sasian, M. T. Tuell, and S. H. Warner, “Manufacture of the second 8.4 m primary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62730C (2006).

Hinz, P. M.

P. M. Hinz, T. Bippert-Plymate, A. Breuninger, T. Connors, B. Duffy, S. Esposito, W. Hoffmann, J. Kim, J. Kraus, T. McMahon, M. Montoya, R. Nash, O. Durney, E. Solheid, A. Tozzi, and V. Vaitheeswaran, “Status of the LBT interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hippelein, H.

M. G. Coleman, J. T. A. De Jong, N. F. Martin, H-W. Rix, D. J. Sand, E. F. Bell, R. W. Pogge, D. J. Thompson, H. Hippelein, E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, R. Smareglia, V. Testa, J. Bechtold, J. M. Hill, P. M. Garnavich, and R. F. Green, “The elongated structure of the Hercules Dwarf spheroidal galaxy from deep Large Binocular Telescope imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 668, L43-L46(2007).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, W.

P. M. Hinz, T. Bippert-Plymate, A. Breuninger, T. Connors, B. Duffy, S. Esposito, W. Hoffmann, J. Kim, J. Kraus, T. McMahon, M. Montoya, R. Nash, O. Durney, E. Solheid, A. Tozzi, and V. Vaitheeswaran, “Status of the LBT interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kern, J.

D. S. Ashby, J. Kern, J. M. Hill, W. B. Davison, B. Cuerden, J. G. Brynnel, C. Biddick, and K. Duffek, “The Large Binocular Telescope primary mirror support control system description and current performance results,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70184C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ketelsen, D. A.

H. M. Martin, R. G. Allen, B. Cuerden, D. A. Ketelsen, J. M. Hill, S. M. Miller, J. M. Sasian, M. T. Tuell, and S. H. Warner, “Manufacture of the second 8.4 m primary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62730C (2006).

Kim, J.

P. M. Hinz, T. Bippert-Plymate, A. Breuninger, T. Connors, B. Duffy, S. Esposito, W. Hoffmann, J. Kim, J. Kraus, T. McMahon, M. Montoya, R. Nash, O. Durney, E. Solheid, A. Tozzi, and V. Vaitheeswaran, “Status of the LBT interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kraemer, F.

J. Storm, W. Seifert, S. Bauer, F. Dionies, T. Fechner, F. Kraemer, G. Moestl, E. Popow, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, and J. Hill, “The acquisition, guiding and wavefront error sensing units for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 374-381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kraus, J.

P. M. Hinz, T. Bippert-Plymate, A. Breuninger, T. Connors, B. Duffy, S. Esposito, W. Hoffmann, J. Kim, J. Kraus, T. McMahon, M. Montoya, R. Nash, O. Durney, E. Solheid, A. Tozzi, and V. Vaitheeswaran, “Status of the LBT interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, O.

E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, O. P.

J. M. Hill, R. Ragazzoni, A. Baruffolo, C. J. Biddick, O. P. Kuhn, E. Diolaiti, D. Thompson, and A. Rakich, “Prime focus active optics with the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 7012M (2008).

Leibold, T.

A. Rakich, J. M. Hill, C. J. Biddick, D. L. Miller, and T. Leibold, “Use of field aberrations in the alignment of the Large Binocular Telescope optics,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 7012L(2008).

Lerner, S. A.

J. M. Sasian, S. A. Lerner, J. H. Burge, and H. M. Martin, “Design, tolerancing, and certification of a null corrector to test 8.4 m mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 3739, 444-448(1999).
[CrossRef]

Little, J.

J. M. Hill, R. F. Green, J. H. Slagle, D. S. Ashby, G. Brusa-Zappellini, J. Brynnel, N. J. Cushing, J. Little, and R. M. Wagner, “The Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lombini, M.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Giallongo, F. Pasian, A. Baruffolo, R. Bertram, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, G. Gentile, J. Hill, M. Lombini, F. Pedichini, R. Speziali, R. Smareglia, and E. Vernet, “The wide field eyes of the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martin, H. M.

A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, L. Busoni, C. Del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, V. Anaclerio, H. M. Martin, and S. M. Miller, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope: results of acceptance laboratory test,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Martin, R. G. Allen, B. Cuerden, D. A. Ketelsen, J. M. Hill, S. M. Miller, J. M. Sasian, M. T. Tuell, and S. H. Warner, “Manufacture of the second 8.4 m primary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62730C (2006).

J. M. Sasian, S. A. Lerner, J. H. Burge, and H. M. Martin, “Design, tolerancing, and certification of a null corrector to test 8.4 m mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 3739, 444-448(1999).
[CrossRef]

Martin, N. F.

M. G. Coleman, J. T. A. De Jong, N. F. Martin, H-W. Rix, D. J. Sand, E. F. Bell, R. W. Pogge, D. J. Thompson, H. Hippelein, E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, R. Smareglia, V. Testa, J. Bechtold, J. M. Hill, P. M. Garnavich, and R. F. Green, “The elongated structure of the Hercules Dwarf spheroidal galaxy from deep Large Binocular Telescope imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 668, L43-L46(2007).
[CrossRef]

McMahon, T.

P. M. Hinz, T. Bippert-Plymate, A. Breuninger, T. Connors, B. Duffy, S. Esposito, W. Hoffmann, J. Kim, J. Kraus, T. McMahon, M. Montoya, R. Nash, O. Durney, E. Solheid, A. Tozzi, and V. Vaitheeswaran, “Status of the LBT interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. L.

A. Rakich, J. M. Hill, C. J. Biddick, D. L. Miller, and T. Leibold, “Use of field aberrations in the alignment of the Large Binocular Telescope optics,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 7012L(2008).

A. Rakich and D. L. Miller, “Active alignment for the Large Binocular Telescope bent-Gregorian focus: first results,” Proc. SPIE 7068, 70680D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, S. M.

A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, L. Busoni, C. Del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, V. Anaclerio, H. M. Martin, and S. M. Miller, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope: results of acceptance laboratory test,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Martin, R. G. Allen, B. Cuerden, D. A. Ketelsen, J. M. Hill, S. M. Miller, J. M. Sasian, M. T. Tuell, and S. H. Warner, “Manufacture of the second 8.4 m primary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62730C (2006).

Moestl, G.

J. Storm, W. Seifert, S. Bauer, F. Dionies, T. Fechner, F. Kraemer, G. Moestl, E. Popow, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, and J. Hill, “The acquisition, guiding and wavefront error sensing units for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 374-381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Montoya, M.

P. M. Hinz, T. Bippert-Plymate, A. Breuninger, T. Connors, B. Duffy, S. Esposito, W. Hoffmann, J. Kim, J. Kraus, T. McMahon, M. Montoya, R. Nash, O. Durney, E. Solheid, A. Tozzi, and V. Vaitheeswaran, “Status of the LBT interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nash, R.

P. M. Hinz, T. Bippert-Plymate, A. Breuninger, T. Connors, B. Duffy, S. Esposito, W. Hoffmann, J. Kim, J. Kraus, T. McMahon, M. Montoya, R. Nash, O. Durney, E. Solheid, A. Tozzi, and V. Vaitheeswaran, “Status of the LBT interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pasian, F.

E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Giallongo, F. Pasian, A. Baruffolo, R. Bertram, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, G. Gentile, J. Hill, M. Lombini, F. Pedichini, R. Speziali, R. Smareglia, and E. Vernet, “The wide field eyes of the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pedichini, F.

E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pedichini, F.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Giallongo, F. Pasian, A. Baruffolo, R. Bertram, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, G. Gentile, J. Hill, M. Lombini, F. Pedichini, R. Speziali, R. Smareglia, and E. Vernet, “The wide field eyes of the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pieralli, F.

S. Esposito, A. Tozzi, A. Puglisi, E. Pinna, A. Riccardi, S. Busoni, L. Busoni, P. Stefanini, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, and F. Pieralli, “First light AO system for LBT: toward on-sky operation,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720A (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pinna, E.

S. Esposito, A. Tozzi, A. Puglisi, E. Pinna, A. Riccardi, S. Busoni, L. Busoni, P. Stefanini, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, and F. Pieralli, “First light AO system for LBT: toward on-sky operation,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720A (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pogge, R. W.

M. G. Coleman, J. T. A. De Jong, N. F. Martin, H-W. Rix, D. J. Sand, E. F. Bell, R. W. Pogge, D. J. Thompson, H. Hippelein, E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, R. Smareglia, V. Testa, J. Bechtold, J. M. Hill, P. M. Garnavich, and R. F. Green, “The elongated structure of the Hercules Dwarf spheroidal galaxy from deep Large Binocular Telescope imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 668, L43-L46(2007).
[CrossRef]

Popow, E.

J. Storm, W. Seifert, S. Bauer, F. Dionies, T. Fechner, F. Kraemer, G. Moestl, E. Popow, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, and J. Hill, “The acquisition, guiding and wavefront error sensing units for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 374-381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Puglisi, A.

S. Esposito, A. Tozzi, A. Puglisi, E. Pinna, A. Riccardi, S. Busoni, L. Busoni, P. Stefanini, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, and F. Pieralli, “First light AO system for LBT: toward on-sky operation,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720A (2006).
[CrossRef]

Radovich, M.

E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ragazzoni, R.

M. G. Coleman, J. T. A. De Jong, N. F. Martin, H-W. Rix, D. J. Sand, E. F. Bell, R. W. Pogge, D. J. Thompson, H. Hippelein, E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, R. Smareglia, V. Testa, J. Bechtold, J. M. Hill, P. M. Garnavich, and R. F. Green, “The elongated structure of the Hercules Dwarf spheroidal galaxy from deep Large Binocular Telescope imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 668, L43-L46(2007).
[CrossRef]

Ragazzoni, R.

E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hill, R. Ragazzoni, A. Baruffolo, C. J. Biddick, O. P. Kuhn, E. Diolaiti, D. Thompson, and A. Rakich, “Prime focus active optics with the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 7012M (2008).

T. M. Herbst, R. Ragazzoni, and A. Eckart, and G. Weigelt, “LINC-NIRVANA: achieving 10 mas imagery on the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70141A (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Giallongo, F. Pasian, A. Baruffolo, R. Bertram, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, G. Gentile, J. Hill, M. Lombini, F. Pedichini, R. Speziali, R. Smareglia, and E. Vernet, “The wide field eyes of the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rakich, A.

J. M. Hill, R. Ragazzoni, A. Baruffolo, C. J. Biddick, O. P. Kuhn, E. Diolaiti, D. Thompson, and A. Rakich, “Prime focus active optics with the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 7012M (2008).

A. Rakich, J. M. Hill, C. J. Biddick, D. L. Miller, and T. Leibold, “Use of field aberrations in the alignment of the Large Binocular Telescope optics,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 7012L(2008).

A. Rakich and D. L. Miller, “Active alignment for the Large Binocular Telescope bent-Gregorian focus: first results,” Proc. SPIE 7068, 70680D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ranfagni, P.

A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, L. Busoni, C. Del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, V. Anaclerio, H. M. Martin, and S. M. Miller, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope: results of acceptance laboratory test,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Riccardi, A.

A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, L. Busoni, C. Del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, V. Anaclerio, H. M. Martin, and S. M. Miller, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope: results of acceptance laboratory test,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito, A. Tozzi, A. Puglisi, E. Pinna, A. Riccardi, S. Busoni, L. Busoni, P. Stefanini, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, and F. Pieralli, “First light AO system for LBT: toward on-sky operation,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720A (2006).
[CrossRef]

Richichi, A.

S. Correia and A. Richichi, “Interferometric imaging tests for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 301-311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rix, H-W.

M. G. Coleman, J. T. A. De Jong, N. F. Martin, H-W. Rix, D. J. Sand, E. F. Bell, R. W. Pogge, D. J. Thompson, H. Hippelein, E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, R. Smareglia, V. Testa, J. Bechtold, J. M. Hill, P. M. Garnavich, and R. F. Green, “The elongated structure of the Hercules Dwarf spheroidal galaxy from deep Large Binocular Telescope imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 668, L43-L46(2007).
[CrossRef]

Rosato, J.

D. S. Ashby, T. Sargent, D. Cox, J. Rosato, and J. G. Brynnel, “The Large Binocular Telescope azimuth and elevation encoder system,” Proc. SPIE 7019, 701920 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Salinari, P.

E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, L. Busoni, C. Del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, V. Anaclerio, H. M. Martin, and S. M. Miller, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope: results of acceptance laboratory test,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Storm, W. Seifert, S. Bauer, F. Dionies, T. Fechner, F. Kraemer, G. Moestl, E. Popow, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, and J. Hill, “The acquisition, guiding and wavefront error sensing units for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 374-381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sand, D. J.

M. G. Coleman, J. T. A. De Jong, N. F. Martin, H-W. Rix, D. J. Sand, E. F. Bell, R. W. Pogge, D. J. Thompson, H. Hippelein, E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, R. Smareglia, V. Testa, J. Bechtold, J. M. Hill, P. M. Garnavich, and R. F. Green, “The elongated structure of the Hercules Dwarf spheroidal galaxy from deep Large Binocular Telescope imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 668, L43-L46(2007).
[CrossRef]

Sargent, T.

D. S. Ashby, T. Sargent, D. Cox, J. Rosato, and J. G. Brynnel, “The Large Binocular Telescope azimuth and elevation encoder system,” Proc. SPIE 7019, 701920 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sasian, J. M.

H. M. Martin, R. G. Allen, B. Cuerden, D. A. Ketelsen, J. M. Hill, S. M. Miller, J. M. Sasian, M. T. Tuell, and S. H. Warner, “Manufacture of the second 8.4 m primary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62730C (2006).

J. M. Sasian, S. A. Lerner, J. H. Burge, and H. M. Martin, “Design, tolerancing, and certification of a null corrector to test 8.4 m mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 3739, 444-448(1999).
[CrossRef]

Seifert, W.

J. Storm, W. Seifert, S. Bauer, F. Dionies, T. Fechner, F. Kraemer, G. Moestl, E. Popow, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, and J. Hill, “The acquisition, guiding and wavefront error sensing units for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 374-381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Slagle, J. H.

J. M. Hill, R. F. Green, J. H. Slagle, D. S. Ashby, G. Brusa-Zappellini, J. Brynnel, N. J. Cushing, J. Little, and R. M. Wagner, “The Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hill, R. F. Green, and J. H. Slagle, “The Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670Y (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smareglia, R.

E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Coleman, J. T. A. De Jong, N. F. Martin, H-W. Rix, D. J. Sand, E. F. Bell, R. W. Pogge, D. J. Thompson, H. Hippelein, E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, R. Smareglia, V. Testa, J. Bechtold, J. M. Hill, P. M. Garnavich, and R. F. Green, “The elongated structure of the Hercules Dwarf spheroidal galaxy from deep Large Binocular Telescope imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 668, L43-L46(2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Giallongo, F. Pasian, A. Baruffolo, R. Bertram, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, G. Gentile, J. Hill, M. Lombini, F. Pedichini, R. Speziali, R. Smareglia, and E. Vernet, “The wide field eyes of the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Solheid, E.

P. M. Hinz, T. Bippert-Plymate, A. Breuninger, T. Connors, B. Duffy, S. Esposito, W. Hoffmann, J. Kim, J. Kraus, T. McMahon, M. Montoya, R. Nash, O. Durney, E. Solheid, A. Tozzi, and V. Vaitheeswaran, “Status of the LBT interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Speziali, R.

E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Giallongo, F. Pasian, A. Baruffolo, R. Bertram, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, G. Gentile, J. Hill, M. Lombini, F. Pedichini, R. Speziali, R. Smareglia, and E. Vernet, “The wide field eyes of the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stefanini, P.

S. Esposito, A. Tozzi, A. Puglisi, E. Pinna, A. Riccardi, S. Busoni, L. Busoni, P. Stefanini, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, and F. Pieralli, “First light AO system for LBT: toward on-sky operation,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720A (2006).
[CrossRef]

Storm, J.

J. Storm, W. Seifert, S. Bauer, F. Dionies, T. Fechner, F. Kraemer, G. Moestl, E. Popow, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, and J. Hill, “The acquisition, guiding and wavefront error sensing units for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 374-381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Testa, V.

E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Coleman, J. T. A. De Jong, N. F. Martin, H-W. Rix, D. J. Sand, E. F. Bell, R. W. Pogge, D. J. Thompson, H. Hippelein, E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, R. Smareglia, V. Testa, J. Bechtold, J. M. Hill, P. M. Garnavich, and R. F. Green, “The elongated structure of the Hercules Dwarf spheroidal galaxy from deep Large Binocular Telescope imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 668, L43-L46(2007).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, D.

E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, D. J.

M. G. Coleman, J. T. A. De Jong, N. F. Martin, H-W. Rix, D. J. Sand, E. F. Bell, R. W. Pogge, D. J. Thompson, H. Hippelein, E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, R. Smareglia, V. Testa, J. Bechtold, J. M. Hill, P. M. Garnavich, and R. F. Green, “The elongated structure of the Hercules Dwarf spheroidal galaxy from deep Large Binocular Telescope imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 668, L43-L46(2007).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, D.

J. M. Hill, R. Ragazzoni, A. Baruffolo, C. J. Biddick, O. P. Kuhn, E. Diolaiti, D. Thompson, and A. Rakich, “Prime focus active optics with the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 7012M (2008).

Tozzi, A.

P. M. Hinz, T. Bippert-Plymate, A. Breuninger, T. Connors, B. Duffy, S. Esposito, W. Hoffmann, J. Kim, J. Kraus, T. McMahon, M. Montoya, R. Nash, O. Durney, E. Solheid, A. Tozzi, and V. Vaitheeswaran, “Status of the LBT interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito, A. Tozzi, A. Puglisi, E. Pinna, A. Riccardi, S. Busoni, L. Busoni, P. Stefanini, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, and F. Pieralli, “First light AO system for LBT: toward on-sky operation,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720A (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tuell, M. T.

H. M. Martin, R. G. Allen, B. Cuerden, D. A. Ketelsen, J. M. Hill, S. M. Miller, J. M. Sasian, M. T. Tuell, and S. H. Warner, “Manufacture of the second 8.4 m primary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62730C (2006).

Vaitheeswaran, V.

P. M. Hinz, T. Bippert-Plymate, A. Breuninger, T. Connors, B. Duffy, S. Esposito, W. Hoffmann, J. Kim, J. Kraus, T. McMahon, M. Montoya, R. Nash, O. Durney, E. Solheid, A. Tozzi, and V. Vaitheeswaran, “Status of the LBT interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vernet, E.

E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Giallongo, F. Pasian, A. Baruffolo, R. Bertram, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, G. Gentile, J. Hill, M. Lombini, F. Pedichini, R. Speziali, R. Smareglia, and E. Vernet, “The wide field eyes of the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, R. M.

E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hill, R. F. Green, J. H. Slagle, D. S. Ashby, G. Brusa-Zappellini, J. Brynnel, N. J. Cushing, J. Little, and R. M. Wagner, “The Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Wagner, “An overview of instrumentation for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 701409 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Warner, S. H.

H. M. Martin, R. G. Allen, B. Cuerden, D. A. Ketelsen, J. M. Hill, S. M. Miller, J. M. Sasian, M. T. Tuell, and S. H. Warner, “Manufacture of the second 8.4 m primary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62730C (2006).

Weigelt, G.

T. M. Herbst, R. Ragazzoni, and A. Eckart, and G. Weigelt, “LINC-NIRVANA: achieving 10 mas imagery on the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70141A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xompero, M.

A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, L. Busoni, C. Del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, V. Anaclerio, H. M. Martin, and S. M. Miller, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope: results of acceptance laboratory test,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito, A. Tozzi, A. Puglisi, E. Pinna, A. Riccardi, S. Busoni, L. Busoni, P. Stefanini, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, and F. Pieralli, “First light AO system for LBT: toward on-sky operation,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720A (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zanotti, D.

A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, L. Busoni, C. Del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, V. Anaclerio, H. M. Martin, and S. M. Miller, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope: results of acceptance laboratory test,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito, A. Tozzi, A. Puglisi, E. Pinna, A. Riccardi, S. Busoni, L. Busoni, P. Stefanini, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, and F. Pieralli, “First light AO system for LBT: toward on-sky operation,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720A (2006).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. Grazian, A. Baruffolo, G. Beccari, C. de Santis, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, A. Fontana, S. Gallozzi, F. Gasparo, G. Gentile, R. Green, J. Hill, O. Kuhn, F. Pasian, F. Pedichini, M. Radovich, P. Salinari, R. Smareglia, R. Speziali, V. Testa, D. Thompson, E. Vernet, and R. M. Wagner, “The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 349-357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. (1)

S. Correia and A. Richichi, “Interferometric imaging tests for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 301-311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. Lett. (1)

M. G. Coleman, J. T. A. De Jong, N. F. Martin, H-W. Rix, D. J. Sand, E. F. Bell, R. W. Pogge, D. J. Thompson, H. Hippelein, E. Giallongo, R. Ragazzoni, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, R. Smareglia, V. Testa, J. Bechtold, J. M. Hill, P. M. Garnavich, and R. F. Green, “The elongated structure of the Hercules Dwarf spheroidal galaxy from deep Large Binocular Telescope imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 668, L43-L46(2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (16)

J. M. Hill, R. F. Green, J. H. Slagle, D. S. Ashby, G. Brusa-Zappellini, J. Brynnel, N. J. Cushing, J. Little, and R. M. Wagner, “The Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hill, R. F. Green, and J. H. Slagle, “The Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670Y (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Ashby, T. Sargent, D. Cox, J. Rosato, and J. G. Brynnel, “The Large Binocular Telescope azimuth and elevation encoder system,” Proc. SPIE 7019, 701920 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Martin, R. G. Allen, B. Cuerden, D. A. Ketelsen, J. M. Hill, S. M. Miller, J. M. Sasian, M. T. Tuell, and S. H. Warner, “Manufacture of the second 8.4 m primary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62730C (2006).

J. M. Sasian, S. A. Lerner, J. H. Burge, and H. M. Martin, “Design, tolerancing, and certification of a null corrector to test 8.4 m mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 3739, 444-448(1999).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Ashby, J. Kern, J. M. Hill, W. B. Davison, B. Cuerden, J. G. Brynnel, C. Biddick, and K. Duffek, “The Large Binocular Telescope primary mirror support control system description and current performance results,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70184C (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Rakich, J. M. Hill, C. J. Biddick, D. L. Miller, and T. Leibold, “Use of field aberrations in the alignment of the Large Binocular Telescope optics,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 7012L(2008).

A. Rakich and D. L. Miller, “Active alignment for the Large Binocular Telescope bent-Gregorian focus: first results,” Proc. SPIE 7068, 70680D (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hill, R. Ragazzoni, A. Baruffolo, C. J. Biddick, O. P. Kuhn, E. Diolaiti, D. Thompson, and A. Rakich, “Prime focus active optics with the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 7012M (2008).

J. Storm, W. Seifert, S. Bauer, F. Dionies, T. Fechner, F. Kraemer, G. Moestl, E. Popow, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, and J. Hill, “The acquisition, guiding and wavefront error sensing units for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 374-381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito, A. Tozzi, A. Puglisi, E. Pinna, A. Riccardi, S. Busoni, L. Busoni, P. Stefanini, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, and F. Pieralli, “First light AO system for LBT: toward on-sky operation,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720A (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, D. Zanotti, L. Busoni, C. Del Vecchio, P. Salinari, P. Ranfagni, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Gallieni, V. Anaclerio, H. M. Martin, and S. M. Miller, “The adaptive secondary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope: results of acceptance laboratory test,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Giallongo, F. Pasian, A. Baruffolo, R. Bertram, E. Diolaiti, A. di Paola, J. Farinato, G. Gentile, J. Hill, M. Lombini, F. Pedichini, R. Speziali, R. Smareglia, and E. Vernet, “The wide field eyes of the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Wagner, “An overview of instrumentation for the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 701409 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Herbst, R. Ragazzoni, and A. Eckart, and G. Weigelt, “LINC-NIRVANA: achieving 10 mas imagery on the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70141A (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Hinz, T. Bippert-Plymate, A. Breuninger, T. Connors, B. Duffy, S. Esposito, W. Hoffmann, J. Kim, J. Kraus, T. McMahon, M. Montoya, R. Nash, O. Durney, E. Solheid, A. Tozzi, and V. Vaitheeswaran, “Status of the LBT interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

House in Arcetri, Italy (on a hill outside Firenze), where Galileo spent his exile years. The photo shows the result of some exterior renovation activities that were under way in May 2006.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Recent photo showing the result of ongoing interior renovations in the Galileo house. The photo shows Dr. Piero Salinari of Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (right center) who worked closely with the author on the design, specification, and construction of the LBT and who has been the key developer of the LBT adaptive secondary mirrors. Also shown is Dr. Douglas Miller (and his daughter Ila) of the Binocular Telescope Observatory (left center) who is deeply involved in the commissioning of the telescope and adaptive optics systems on sky. Photo courtesy of D. Miller.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic layout of the combined LBT telescope optics. The two 8.4 m diameter telescopes deliver bent Gregorian focal planes at F / 15 . The diverging light from the F / 15 focal planes is then collimated, folded into a common pupil plane, and reimaged with a single camera onto a common focal plane. This drawing assumes that the collimators and cameras are refractive, although the actual interferometric instruments under construction use reflective optics.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

LBT with two 8.4 m diameter primary mirrors open and ready for observation at sunset on Mount Graham. The telescope enclosure with two 10 m wide shutter openings corotates with the azimuth axis of the telescope at speeds up to 1.5 deg/s. The forest around the telescope is composed of spruce, fir, and aspen trees. The rising full moon can be seen at the right of the image. Note the Earth’s shadow in the twilight sky behind the telescope.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Elevation structure of the LBT pointing at zenith with the enclosure doors open in twilight. This photo was taken from the front of the observing chamber looking back toward the telescope. The most prominent features are the 7 m radius surfaces (known as C rings) that form the elevation bearing surfaces (center and left). The azimuth frame can be seen just at the bottom in this photo. The azimuth frame carries the entire elevation structure on a similar 14 m diameter azimuth bearing that is not visible in this view. The mirror cell structure that supports one of the two 8.4 m primary mirrors can be seen at right in this image. The second primary mirror cell is hidden by the C ring at left. Swing arms that carry the secondary mirror (deployed), the prime focus corrector (retracted), and the tertiary mirror (deployed) can be seen (upper right) attached to the C ring (center) and its extension (above center).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Left primary mirror of the LBT with the enclosure open in twilight. This photo was taken from high at the rear of the observing chamber looking out in the direction of the telescope. The telescope is pointing to the zenith in this image, and the mirror(s) would rotate toward the upper right as the elevation structure moves toward the horizon. The ring around the outer rim of the 8.4 m diameter primary mirror (center and below at left) is the vacuum flange on the mirror support cell that is used when the mirror is recoated with aluminum. Also shown is the flat tertiary mirror deployed on its swing arm (center). The tertiary mirror redirects the Gregorian focus into the center section of the telescope (right). The central instruments can be mounted on one of the rotator bearings or on the fixed rails (lower right) in the center of the telescope. The second primary mirror is out of view to the right.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Deep image of the field of the Hercules dwarf spheroidal galaxy by Coleman et al. [18]. This image is a composite of five 300 s exposures in r’, four 300 s exposures in V, and six 300 s exposures in B. The photometric completeness level for 50% detection of individual stars is V = 25.7 magnitude. Observation through three filters allows photometric selection of the very faint stars belonging to the dwarf spheroidal galaxy against the foreground stars from the Milky Way galaxy. With an elongation of 3 1 , this dwarf is among the most elongated of such systems. The vertical streaks on the bright foreground stars are artifacts resulting from the signal from these stars overflowing the wells of the CCD detector. Image courtesy of M. Coleman.

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