Abstract

We propose a novel, high-contrast imager called a polarization interferometric nulling coronagraph (PINC) for direct detection of extrasolar planets. The PINC uses achromatic half-wave plates (HWPs) installed in a fully symmetric beam combiner based on polarizing beam splitters. Jones calculus suggests that a stellar halo suppression level of 1010 can be achieved at 5 λ/D for a broad wavelength range from 1.6 to 2.2μm by using Fresnel-rhomb HWPs made of BK7. Laboratory experiments on the PINC used two laser light sources (wavelengths of λ=532 and 671nm), and we obtained a halo suppression level of approximately 106 at 5 λ/D for both wavelengths.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

E. Serabyn, D. Mawet, E. Bloemhof, P. Haguenauer, B. Mennesson, K. Wallace, and J. Hickey, “Imaging faint dwarf companions close to bright stars with a small, well-corrected telescope aperture,” Astrophys. J. 696, 40-46 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Yokochi, A. V. Tavrov, J. Nishikawa, N. Murakami, L. Abe, M. Tamura, M. Takeda, and T. Kurokawa, “Achromatic deep nulling with a three-dimensional Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1985-1987 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

R. D. Peters, O. P. Lay, and M. Jeganathan, “Broadband phase and intensity compensation with a deformable mirror for an interferometric nuller,” Appl. Opt. 47, 3920-3926 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nishikawa, L. Abe, N. Murakami, and T. Kotani, “Precise wavefront correction with an unbalanced nulling interferometer for exo-planet imaging coronagraphs,” Astron. Astrophys. 489, 1389-1398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishikawa, K. Yokochi, L. Abe, N. Murakami, T. Kotani, M. Tamura, T. Kurokawa, A. V. Tavrov, and M. Takeda, “Virtual wavefront compensation and speckle reduction in coronagraph by unbalanced nulling interferometer (UNI) and phase and amplitude correction (PAC),” Proc. SPIE 7010, 70102A(2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafrenière, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322, 1348-1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, “Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light-years from Earth,” Science 322, 1345-1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

J. Spronck, S. F. Pereira, and J. J. M. Braat, “Polarization nulling interferometry for exoplanet detection,” Opt. Express 14, 2657-2670 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Traub, M. Levine, S. Shaklan, J. Kasting, J. R. Angel, M. E. Brown, R. A. Brown, C. Burrows, M. Clampin, A. Dressler, H. C. Ferguson, H. B. Hammel, S. R. Heap, S. D. Horner, G. D. Illingworth, N. J. Kasdin, M. J. Kuchner, D. Lin, M. S. Marley, V. Meadows, C. Noecker, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. Seager, M. Shao, K. R. Stapelfeldt, and J. T. Trauger, “TPF-C: status and recent progress,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680T (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

J. Nishikawa, T. Kotani, N. Murakami, N. Baba, Y. Itoh, and M. Tamura, “Combination of nulling interferometer and modified pupil for observations of exo-planets,” Astron. Astrophys. 435, 379-384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, O. Absil, and J. Surdej, “Annular groove phase mask coronagraph,” Astrophys. J. 633, 1191-1200(2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Foo, D. M. Palacios, and G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., “Optical vortex coronagraph,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3308-3310 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, B. M. Levine, and D. Liu, “Visible nulling interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1296-1303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Murakami, Y. Kato, N. Baba, and T. Ishigaki, “Geometric phase modulation for the separate arms in nulling interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 237, 9-15 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

B. M. Levine, M. Shao, D. Liu, J. K. Wallace, and B. Lane, “Planet detection in visible light with a single aperture telescope and nulling coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5170, 200-208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, “Extrasolar planet finding via optimal apodized-pupil and shaped-pupil coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 582, 1147-1161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Guyon, “Phase-induced amplitude apodization of telescope pupils for extrasolar terrestrial planet imaging,” Astron. Astrophys. 404, 379-387 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Baba, N. Murakami, and T. Ishigaki, “Nulling interferometer with geometric phase modulator,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 1451-1458 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. J. Kuchner and W. A. Traub, “A coronagraph with a band-limited mask for finding terrestrial planets,” Astronphys. J. 570, 900-908 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

2000 (3)

P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, and J. Gay, “Achromatic interferocoronagraphy, I. Theoretical capabilities for ground-based observations,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 319-329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Mieremet, J. Braat, H. Bokhove, and K. Ravel, “Achromatic phase shifting using adjustable dispersive elements,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 1035-1041 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clénet, and A. Labeyrie, “The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph. I. Principle,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479-1486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1978 (1)

R. N. Bracewell, “Detecting nonsolar planets by spinning infrared interferometer,” Nature 274, 780-781 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Stapelfeldt, K. R.

W. A. Traub, M. Levine, S. Shaklan, J. Kasting, J. R. Angel, M. E. Brown, R. A. Brown, C. Burrows, M. Clampin, A. Dressler, H. C. Ferguson, H. B. Hammel, S. R. Heap, S. D. Horner, G. D. Illingworth, N. J. Kasdin, M. J. Kuchner, D. Lin, M. S. Marley, V. Meadows, C. Noecker, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. Seager, M. Shao, K. R. Stapelfeldt, and J. T. Trauger, “TPF-C: status and recent progress,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Abe, L.

K. Yokochi, A. V. Tavrov, J. Nishikawa, N. Murakami, L. Abe, M. Tamura, M. Takeda, and T. Kurokawa, “Achromatic deep nulling with a three-dimensional Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1985-1987 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nishikawa, K. Yokochi, L. Abe, N. Murakami, T. Kotani, M. Tamura, T. Kurokawa, A. V. Tavrov, and M. Takeda, “Virtual wavefront compensation and speckle reduction in coronagraph by unbalanced nulling interferometer (UNI) and phase and amplitude correction (PAC),” Proc. SPIE 7010, 70102A(2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishikawa, L. Abe, N. Murakami, and T. Kotani, “Precise wavefront correction with an unbalanced nulling interferometer for exo-planet imaging coronagraphs,” Astron. Astrophys. 489, 1389-1398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Tavrov, J. Nishikawa, M. Tamura, L. Abe, K. Yokochi, T. Kurokawa, and M. Takeda, “Common-path achromatic interferometer-coronagraph: images from a breadboard demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6885-6895 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Absil, O.

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, O. Absil, and J. Surdej, “Annular groove phase mask coronagraph,” Astrophys. J. 633, 1191-1200(2005).
[CrossRef]

Angel, J. R.

W. A. Traub, M. Levine, S. Shaklan, J. Kasting, J. R. Angel, M. E. Brown, R. A. Brown, C. Burrows, M. Clampin, A. Dressler, H. C. Ferguson, H. B. Hammel, S. R. Heap, S. D. Horner, G. D. Illingworth, N. J. Kasdin, M. J. Kuchner, D. Lin, M. S. Marley, V. Meadows, C. Noecker, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. Seager, M. Shao, K. R. Stapelfeldt, and J. T. Trauger, “TPF-C: status and recent progress,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baba, N.

J. Nishikawa, T. Kotani, N. Murakami, N. Baba, Y. Itoh, and M. Tamura, “Combination of nulling interferometer and modified pupil for observations of exo-planets,” Astron. Astrophys. 435, 379-384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Murakami, Y. Kato, N. Baba, and T. Ishigaki, “Geometric phase modulation for the separate arms in nulling interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 237, 9-15 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Baba, N. Murakami, and T. Ishigaki, “Nulling interferometer with geometric phase modulator,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 1451-1458 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Baba, N. Murakami, and T. Ishigaki, “Nulling interferometry by use of geometric phase,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1167-1169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barman, T.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafrenière, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322, 1348-1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baudoz, P.

P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, and J. Gay, “Achromatic interferocoronagraphy, I. Theoretical capabilities for ground-based observations,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 319-329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bloemhof, E.

E. Serabyn, D. Mawet, E. Bloemhof, P. Haguenauer, B. Mennesson, K. Wallace, and J. Hickey, “Imaging faint dwarf companions close to bright stars with a small, well-corrected telescope aperture,” Astrophys. J. 696, 40-46 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boccaletti, A.

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clénet, and A. Labeyrie, “The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph. I. Principle,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479-1486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bokhove, H.

A. L. Mieremet, J. Braat, H. Bokhove, and K. Ravel, “Achromatic phase shifting using adjustable dispersive elements,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 1035-1041 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, “Reflection and refraction of a plane wave,” in Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), pp. 38-54.

Braat, J.

A. L. Mieremet, J. Braat, H. Bokhove, and K. Ravel, “Achromatic phase shifting using adjustable dispersive elements,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 1035-1041 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Braat, J. J. M.

Bracewell, R. N.

R. N. Bracewell, “Detecting nonsolar planets by spinning infrared interferometer,” Nature 274, 780-781 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Brown, M. E.

W. A. Traub, M. Levine, S. Shaklan, J. Kasting, J. R. Angel, M. E. Brown, R. A. Brown, C. Burrows, M. Clampin, A. Dressler, H. C. Ferguson, H. B. Hammel, S. R. Heap, S. D. Horner, G. D. Illingworth, N. J. Kasdin, M. J. Kuchner, D. Lin, M. S. Marley, V. Meadows, C. Noecker, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. Seager, M. Shao, K. R. Stapelfeldt, and J. T. Trauger, “TPF-C: status and recent progress,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R. A.

W. A. Traub, M. Levine, S. Shaklan, J. Kasting, J. R. Angel, M. E. Brown, R. A. Brown, C. Burrows, M. Clampin, A. Dressler, H. C. Ferguson, H. B. Hammel, S. R. Heap, S. D. Horner, G. D. Illingworth, N. J. Kasdin, M. J. Kuchner, D. Lin, M. S. Marley, V. Meadows, C. Noecker, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. Seager, M. Shao, K. R. Stapelfeldt, and J. T. Trauger, “TPF-C: status and recent progress,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, C.

W. A. Traub, M. Levine, S. Shaklan, J. Kasting, J. R. Angel, M. E. Brown, R. A. Brown, C. Burrows, M. Clampin, A. Dressler, H. C. Ferguson, H. B. Hammel, S. R. Heap, S. D. Horner, G. D. Illingworth, N. J. Kasdin, M. J. Kuchner, D. Lin, M. S. Marley, V. Meadows, C. Noecker, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. Seager, M. Shao, K. R. Stapelfeldt, and J. T. Trauger, “TPF-C: status and recent progress,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, E.

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, “Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light-years from Earth,” Science 322, 1345-1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clampin, M.

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, “Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light-years from Earth,” Science 322, 1345-1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Traub, M. Levine, S. Shaklan, J. Kasting, J. R. Angel, M. E. Brown, R. A. Brown, C. Burrows, M. Clampin, A. Dressler, H. C. Ferguson, H. B. Hammel, S. R. Heap, S. D. Horner, G. D. Illingworth, N. J. Kasdin, M. J. Kuchner, D. Lin, M. S. Marley, V. Meadows, C. Noecker, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. Seager, M. Shao, K. R. Stapelfeldt, and J. T. Trauger, “TPF-C: status and recent progress,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Clénet, Y.

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clénet, and A. Labeyrie, “The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph. I. Principle,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479-1486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Colavita, M. M.

Defrère, D.

Doyon, R.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafrenière, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322, 1348-1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dressler, A.

W. A. Traub, M. Levine, S. Shaklan, J. Kasting, J. R. Angel, M. E. Brown, R. A. Brown, C. Burrows, M. Clampin, A. Dressler, H. C. Ferguson, H. B. Hammel, S. R. Heap, S. D. Horner, G. D. Illingworth, N. J. Kasdin, M. J. Kuchner, D. Lin, M. S. Marley, V. Meadows, C. Noecker, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. Seager, M. Shao, K. R. Stapelfeldt, and J. T. Trauger, “TPF-C: status and recent progress,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elias, N. M.

N. M. Elias II, “Optical interferometric polarimetry. I. Foundation,” Astrophys. J. 549, 647-668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, H. C.

W. A. Traub, M. Levine, S. Shaklan, J. Kasting, J. R. Angel, M. E. Brown, R. A. Brown, C. Burrows, M. Clampin, A. Dressler, H. C. Ferguson, H. B. Hammel, S. R. Heap, S. D. Horner, G. D. Illingworth, N. J. Kasdin, M. J. Kuchner, D. Lin, M. S. Marley, V. Meadows, C. Noecker, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. Seager, M. Shao, K. R. Stapelfeldt, and J. T. Trauger, “TPF-C: status and recent progress,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, M. P.

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, “Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light-years from Earth,” Science 322, 1345-1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleury, K.

Foo, G.

Gay, J.

P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, and J. Gay, “Achromatic interferocoronagraphy, I. Theoretical capabilities for ground-based observations,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 319-329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Graham, J. R.

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, “Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light-years from Earth,” Science 322, 1345-1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guyon, O.

O. Guyon, “Phase-induced amplitude apodization of telescope pupils for extrasolar terrestrial planet imaging,” Astron. Astrophys. 404, 379-387 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Habraken, S.

Haguenauer, P.

E. Serabyn, D. Mawet, E. Bloemhof, P. Haguenauer, B. Mennesson, K. Wallace, and J. Hickey, “Imaging faint dwarf companions close to bright stars with a small, well-corrected telescope aperture,” Astrophys. J. 696, 40-46 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hammel, H. B.

W. A. Traub, M. Levine, S. Shaklan, J. Kasting, J. R. Angel, M. E. Brown, R. A. Brown, C. Burrows, M. Clampin, A. Dressler, H. C. Ferguson, H. B. Hammel, S. R. Heap, S. D. Horner, G. D. Illingworth, N. J. Kasdin, M. J. Kuchner, D. Lin, M. S. Marley, V. Meadows, C. Noecker, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. Seager, M. Shao, K. R. Stapelfeldt, and J. T. Trauger, “TPF-C: status and recent progress,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hanot, C.

Hardy, G. J.

Heap, S. R.

W. A. Traub, M. Levine, S. Shaklan, J. Kasting, J. R. Angel, M. E. Brown, R. A. Brown, C. Burrows, M. Clampin, A. Dressler, H. C. Ferguson, H. B. Hammel, S. R. Heap, S. D. Horner, G. D. Illingworth, N. J. Kasdin, M. J. Kuchner, D. Lin, M. S. Marley, V. Meadows, C. Noecker, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. Seager, M. Shao, K. R. Stapelfeldt, and J. T. Trauger, “TPF-C: status and recent progress,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, “A mathematical description of polarization,” in Optics, 4th ed. (Addison-Wesley, 2002), pp. 373-379.

Hickey, J.

E. Serabyn, D. Mawet, E. Bloemhof, P. Haguenauer, B. Mennesson, K. Wallace, and J. Hickey, “Imaging faint dwarf companions close to bright stars with a small, well-corrected telescope aperture,” Astrophys. J. 696, 40-46 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Horner, S. D.

W. A. Traub, M. Levine, S. Shaklan, J. Kasting, J. R. Angel, M. E. Brown, R. A. Brown, C. Burrows, M. Clampin, A. Dressler, H. C. Ferguson, H. B. Hammel, S. R. Heap, S. D. Horner, G. D. Illingworth, N. J. Kasdin, M. J. Kuchner, D. Lin, M. S. Marley, V. Meadows, C. Noecker, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. Seager, M. Shao, K. R. Stapelfeldt, and J. T. Trauger, “TPF-C: status and recent progress,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Illingworth, G. D.

W. A. Traub, M. Levine, S. Shaklan, J. Kasting, J. R. Angel, M. E. Brown, R. A. Brown, C. Burrows, M. Clampin, A. Dressler, H. C. Ferguson, H. B. Hammel, S. R. Heap, S. D. Horner, G. D. Illingworth, N. J. Kasdin, M. J. Kuchner, D. Lin, M. S. Marley, V. Meadows, C. Noecker, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. Seager, M. Shao, K. R. Stapelfeldt, and J. T. Trauger, “TPF-C: status and recent progress,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ishigaki, T.

N. Murakami, Y. Kato, N. Baba, and T. Ishigaki, “Geometric phase modulation for the separate arms in nulling interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 237, 9-15 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Baba, N. Murakami, and T. Ishigaki, “Nulling interferometer with geometric phase modulator,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 1451-1458 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Baba, N. Murakami, and T. Ishigaki, “Nulling interferometry by use of geometric phase,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1167-1169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, Y.

J. Nishikawa, T. Kotani, N. Murakami, N. Baba, Y. Itoh, and M. Tamura, “Combination of nulling interferometer and modified pupil for observations of exo-planets,” Astron. Astrophys. 435, 379-384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jeganathan, M.

Kalas, P.

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, “Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light-years from Earth,” Science 322, 1345-1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasdin, N. J.

W. A. Traub, M. Levine, S. Shaklan, J. Kasting, J. R. Angel, M. E. Brown, R. A. Brown, C. Burrows, M. Clampin, A. Dressler, H. C. Ferguson, H. B. Hammel, S. R. Heap, S. D. Horner, G. D. Illingworth, N. J. Kasdin, M. J. Kuchner, D. Lin, M. S. Marley, V. Meadows, C. Noecker, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. Seager, M. Shao, K. R. Stapelfeldt, and J. T. Trauger, “TPF-C: status and recent progress,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680T (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, “Extrasolar planet finding via optimal apodized-pupil and shaped-pupil coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 582, 1147-1161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kasting, J.

W. A. Traub, M. Levine, S. Shaklan, J. Kasting, J. R. Angel, M. E. Brown, R. A. Brown, C. Burrows, M. Clampin, A. Dressler, H. C. Ferguson, H. B. Hammel, S. R. Heap, S. D. Horner, G. D. Illingworth, N. J. Kasdin, M. J. Kuchner, D. Lin, M. S. Marley, V. Meadows, C. Noecker, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. Seager, M. Shao, K. R. Stapelfeldt, and J. T. Trauger, “TPF-C: status and recent progress,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kato, Y.

N. Murakami, Y. Kato, N. Baba, and T. Ishigaki, “Geometric phase modulation for the separate arms in nulling interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 237, 9-15 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kite, E. S.

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, “Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light-years from Earth,” Science 322, 1345-1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kotani, T.

J. Nishikawa, L. Abe, N. Murakami, and T. Kotani, “Precise wavefront correction with an unbalanced nulling interferometer for exo-planet imaging coronagraphs,” Astron. Astrophys. 489, 1389-1398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishikawa, K. Yokochi, L. Abe, N. Murakami, T. Kotani, M. Tamura, T. Kurokawa, A. V. Tavrov, and M. Takeda, “Virtual wavefront compensation and speckle reduction in coronagraph by unbalanced nulling interferometer (UNI) and phase and amplitude correction (PAC),” Proc. SPIE 7010, 70102A(2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishikawa, T. Kotani, N. Murakami, N. Baba, Y. Itoh, and M. Tamura, “Combination of nulling interferometer and modified pupil for observations of exo-planets,” Astron. Astrophys. 435, 379-384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krist, J.

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, “Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light-years from Earth,” Science 322, 1345-1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuchner, M. J.

W. A. Traub, M. Levine, S. Shaklan, J. Kasting, J. R. Angel, M. E. Brown, R. A. Brown, C. Burrows, M. Clampin, A. Dressler, H. C. Ferguson, H. B. Hammel, S. R. Heap, S. D. Horner, G. D. Illingworth, N. J. Kasdin, M. J. Kuchner, D. Lin, M. S. Marley, V. Meadows, C. Noecker, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. Seager, M. Shao, K. R. Stapelfeldt, and J. T. Trauger, “TPF-C: status and recent progress,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680T (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kuchner and W. A. Traub, “A coronagraph with a band-limited mask for finding terrestrial planets,” Astronphys. J. 570, 900-908 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, T.

Labeyrie, A.

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clénet, and A. Labeyrie, “The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph. I. Principle,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479-1486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lafrenière, D.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafrenière, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322, 1348-1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lane, B.

B. M. Levine, M. Shao, D. Liu, J. K. Wallace, and B. Lane, “Planet detection in visible light with a single aperture telescope and nulling coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5170, 200-208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lay, O. P.

Lenaerts, C.

Levine, B. M.

M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, B. M. Levine, and D. Liu, “Visible nulling interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1296-1303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Levine, M. Shao, D. Liu, J. K. Wallace, and B. Lane, “Planet detection in visible light with a single aperture telescope and nulling coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5170, 200-208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Levine, M.

W. A. Traub, M. Levine, S. Shaklan, J. Kasting, J. R. Angel, M. E. Brown, R. A. Brown, C. Burrows, M. Clampin, A. Dressler, H. C. Ferguson, H. B. Hammel, S. R. Heap, S. D. Horner, G. D. Illingworth, N. J. Kasdin, M. J. Kuchner, D. Lin, M. S. Marley, V. Meadows, C. Noecker, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. Seager, M. Shao, K. R. Stapelfeldt, and J. T. Trauger, “TPF-C: status and recent progress,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, D.

W. A. Traub, M. Levine, S. Shaklan, J. Kasting, J. R. Angel, M. E. Brown, R. A. Brown, C. Burrows, M. Clampin, A. Dressler, H. C. Ferguson, H. B. Hammel, S. R. Heap, S. D. Horner, G. D. Illingworth, N. J. Kasdin, M. J. Kuchner, D. Lin, M. S. Marley, V. Meadows, C. Noecker, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. Seager, M. Shao, K. R. Stapelfeldt, and J. T. Trauger, “TPF-C: status and recent progress,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Littman, M. G.

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, “Extrasolar planet finding via optimal apodized-pupil and shaped-pupil coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 582, 1147-1161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, B. M. Levine, and D. Liu, “Visible nulling interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1296-1303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Levine, M. Shao, D. Liu, J. K. Wallace, and B. Lane, “Planet detection in visible light with a single aperture telescope and nulling coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5170, 200-208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Loicq, J.

Macintosh, B.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafrenière, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322, 1348-1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marley, M. S.

W. A. Traub, M. Levine, S. Shaklan, J. Kasting, J. R. Angel, M. E. Brown, R. A. Brown, C. Burrows, M. Clampin, A. Dressler, H. C. Ferguson, H. B. Hammel, S. R. Heap, S. D. Horner, G. D. Illingworth, N. J. Kasdin, M. J. Kuchner, D. Lin, M. S. Marley, V. Meadows, C. Noecker, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. Seager, M. Shao, K. R. Stapelfeldt, and J. T. Trauger, “TPF-C: status and recent progress,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marois, C.

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, “Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light-years from Earth,” Science 322, 1345-1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafrenière, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322, 1348-1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mawet, D.

E. Serabyn, D. Mawet, E. Bloemhof, P. Haguenauer, B. Mennesson, K. Wallace, and J. Hickey, “Imaging faint dwarf companions close to bright stars with a small, well-corrected telescope aperture,” Astrophys. J. 696, 40-46 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Mawet, C. Hanot, C. Lenaerts, P. Riaud, D. Defrère, D. Vandormael, J. Loicq, K. Fleury, J-Y. Plesseria, J. Surdej, and S. Habraken, “Fresnel rhombs as achromatic phase shifters for infrared nulling interferometry,” Opt. Express 15, 12850-12865 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, O. Absil, and J. Surdej, “Annular groove phase mask coronagraph,” Astrophys. J. 633, 1191-1200(2005).
[CrossRef]

Meadows, V.

W. A. Traub, M. Levine, S. Shaklan, J. Kasting, J. R. Angel, M. E. Brown, R. A. Brown, C. Burrows, M. Clampin, A. Dressler, H. C. Ferguson, H. B. Hammel, S. R. Heap, S. D. Horner, G. D. Illingworth, N. J. Kasdin, M. J. Kuchner, D. Lin, M. S. Marley, V. Meadows, C. Noecker, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. Seager, M. Shao, K. R. Stapelfeldt, and J. T. Trauger, “TPF-C: status and recent progress,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mennesson, B.

E. Serabyn, D. Mawet, E. Bloemhof, P. Haguenauer, B. Mennesson, K. Wallace, and J. Hickey, “Imaging faint dwarf companions close to bright stars with a small, well-corrected telescope aperture,” Astrophys. J. 696, 40-46 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mieremet, A. L.

A. L. Mieremet, J. Braat, H. Bokhove, and K. Ravel, “Achromatic phase shifting using adjustable dispersive elements,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 1035-1041 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, N.

K. Yokochi, A. V. Tavrov, J. Nishikawa, N. Murakami, L. Abe, M. Tamura, M. Takeda, and T. Kurokawa, “Achromatic deep nulling with a three-dimensional Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1985-1987 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nishikawa, K. Yokochi, L. Abe, N. Murakami, T. Kotani, M. Tamura, T. Kurokawa, A. V. Tavrov, and M. Takeda, “Virtual wavefront compensation and speckle reduction in coronagraph by unbalanced nulling interferometer (UNI) and phase and amplitude correction (PAC),” Proc. SPIE 7010, 70102A(2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishikawa, L. Abe, N. Murakami, and T. Kotani, “Precise wavefront correction with an unbalanced nulling interferometer for exo-planet imaging coronagraphs,” Astron. Astrophys. 489, 1389-1398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishikawa, T. Kotani, N. Murakami, N. Baba, Y. Itoh, and M. Tamura, “Combination of nulling interferometer and modified pupil for observations of exo-planets,” Astron. Astrophys. 435, 379-384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Murakami, Y. Kato, N. Baba, and T. Ishigaki, “Geometric phase modulation for the separate arms in nulling interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 237, 9-15 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Baba, N. Murakami, and T. Ishigaki, “Nulling interferometer with geometric phase modulator,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 1451-1458 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Baba, N. Murakami, and T. Ishigaki, “Nulling interferometry by use of geometric phase,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1167-1169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. T.

Nishikawa, J.

K. Yokochi, A. V. Tavrov, J. Nishikawa, N. Murakami, L. Abe, M. Tamura, M. Takeda, and T. Kurokawa, “Achromatic deep nulling with a three-dimensional Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1985-1987 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nishikawa, K. Yokochi, L. Abe, N. Murakami, T. Kotani, M. Tamura, T. Kurokawa, A. V. Tavrov, and M. Takeda, “Virtual wavefront compensation and speckle reduction in coronagraph by unbalanced nulling interferometer (UNI) and phase and amplitude correction (PAC),” Proc. SPIE 7010, 70102A(2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishikawa, L. Abe, N. Murakami, and T. Kotani, “Precise wavefront correction with an unbalanced nulling interferometer for exo-planet imaging coronagraphs,” Astron. Astrophys. 489, 1389-1398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Tavrov, J. Nishikawa, M. Tamura, L. Abe, K. Yokochi, T. Kurokawa, and M. Takeda, “Common-path achromatic interferometer-coronagraph: images from a breadboard demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6885-6895 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nishikawa, T. Kotani, N. Murakami, N. Baba, Y. Itoh, and M. Tamura, “Combination of nulling interferometer and modified pupil for observations of exo-planets,” Astron. Astrophys. 435, 379-384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Noecker, C.

W. A. Traub, M. Levine, S. Shaklan, J. Kasting, J. R. Angel, M. E. Brown, R. A. Brown, C. Burrows, M. Clampin, A. Dressler, H. C. Ferguson, H. B. Hammel, S. R. Heap, S. D. Horner, G. D. Illingworth, N. J. Kasdin, M. J. Kuchner, D. Lin, M. S. Marley, V. Meadows, C. Noecker, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. Seager, M. Shao, K. R. Stapelfeldt, and J. T. Trauger, “TPF-C: status and recent progress,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oppenheimer, B. R.

W. A. Traub, M. Levine, S. Shaklan, J. Kasting, J. R. Angel, M. E. Brown, R. A. Brown, C. Burrows, M. Clampin, A. Dressler, H. C. Ferguson, H. B. Hammel, S. R. Heap, S. D. Horner, G. D. Illingworth, N. J. Kasdin, M. J. Kuchner, D. Lin, M. S. Marley, V. Meadows, C. Noecker, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. Seager, M. Shao, K. R. Stapelfeldt, and J. T. Trauger, “TPF-C: status and recent progress,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Palacios, D. M.

Patience, J.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafrenière, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322, 1348-1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pereira, S. F.

Peters, R. D.

Plesseria, J-Y.

Rabbia, Y.

P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, and J. Gay, “Achromatic interferocoronagraphy, I. Theoretical capabilities for ground-based observations,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 319-329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ravel, K.

A. L. Mieremet, J. Braat, H. Bokhove, and K. Ravel, “Achromatic phase shifting using adjustable dispersive elements,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 1035-1041 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Riaud, P.

D. Mawet, C. Hanot, C. Lenaerts, P. Riaud, D. Defrère, D. Vandormael, J. Loicq, K. Fleury, J-Y. Plesseria, J. Surdej, and S. Habraken, “Fresnel rhombs as achromatic phase shifters for infrared nulling interferometry,” Opt. Express 15, 12850-12865 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, O. Absil, and J. Surdej, “Annular groove phase mask coronagraph,” Astrophys. J. 633, 1191-1200(2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clénet, and A. Labeyrie, “The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph. I. Principle,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479-1486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rouan, D.

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clénet, and A. Labeyrie, “The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph. I. Principle,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479-1486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schmidtlin, E. G. H.

Seager, S.

W. A. Traub, M. Levine, S. Shaklan, J. Kasting, J. R. Angel, M. E. Brown, R. A. Brown, C. Burrows, M. Clampin, A. Dressler, H. C. Ferguson, H. B. Hammel, S. R. Heap, S. D. Horner, G. D. Illingworth, N. J. Kasdin, M. J. Kuchner, D. Lin, M. S. Marley, V. Meadows, C. Noecker, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. Seager, M. Shao, K. R. Stapelfeldt, and J. T. Trauger, “TPF-C: status and recent progress,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Serabyn, E.

E. Serabyn, D. Mawet, E. Bloemhof, P. Haguenauer, B. Mennesson, K. Wallace, and J. Hickey, “Imaging faint dwarf companions close to bright stars with a small, well-corrected telescope aperture,” Astrophys. J. 696, 40-46 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn and M. M. Colavita, “Fully symmetric nulling beam combiners,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1668-1671 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn, J. K. Wallace, G. J. Hardy, E. G. H. Schmidtlin, and H. T. Nguyen, “Deep nulling of visible laser light,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7128-7132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shaklan, S.

W. A. Traub, M. Levine, S. Shaklan, J. Kasting, J. R. Angel, M. E. Brown, R. A. Brown, C. Burrows, M. Clampin, A. Dressler, H. C. Ferguson, H. B. Hammel, S. R. Heap, S. D. Horner, G. D. Illingworth, N. J. Kasdin, M. J. Kuchner, D. Lin, M. S. Marley, V. Meadows, C. Noecker, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. Seager, M. Shao, K. R. Stapelfeldt, and J. T. Trauger, “TPF-C: status and recent progress,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shao, M.

W. A. Traub, M. Levine, S. Shaklan, J. Kasting, J. R. Angel, M. E. Brown, R. A. Brown, C. Burrows, M. Clampin, A. Dressler, H. C. Ferguson, H. B. Hammel, S. R. Heap, S. D. Horner, G. D. Illingworth, N. J. Kasdin, M. J. Kuchner, D. Lin, M. S. Marley, V. Meadows, C. Noecker, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. Seager, M. Shao, K. R. Stapelfeldt, and J. T. Trauger, “TPF-C: status and recent progress,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680T (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, B. M. Levine, and D. Liu, “Visible nulling interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1296-1303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Levine, M. Shao, D. Liu, J. K. Wallace, and B. Lane, “Planet detection in visible light with a single aperture telescope and nulling coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5170, 200-208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Song, I.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafrenière, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322, 1348-1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spergel, D. N.

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, “Extrasolar planet finding via optimal apodized-pupil and shaped-pupil coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 582, 1147-1161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spronck, J.

Stapelfeldt, K.

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, “Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light-years from Earth,” Science 322, 1345-1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surdej, J.

Swartzlander, G. A.

Takeda, M.

Tamura, M.

K. Yokochi, A. V. Tavrov, J. Nishikawa, N. Murakami, L. Abe, M. Tamura, M. Takeda, and T. Kurokawa, “Achromatic deep nulling with a three-dimensional Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1985-1987 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nishikawa, K. Yokochi, L. Abe, N. Murakami, T. Kotani, M. Tamura, T. Kurokawa, A. V. Tavrov, and M. Takeda, “Virtual wavefront compensation and speckle reduction in coronagraph by unbalanced nulling interferometer (UNI) and phase and amplitude correction (PAC),” Proc. SPIE 7010, 70102A(2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Tavrov, J. Nishikawa, M. Tamura, L. Abe, K. Yokochi, T. Kurokawa, and M. Takeda, “Common-path achromatic interferometer-coronagraph: images from a breadboard demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6885-6895 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nishikawa, T. Kotani, N. Murakami, N. Baba, Y. Itoh, and M. Tamura, “Combination of nulling interferometer and modified pupil for observations of exo-planets,” Astron. Astrophys. 435, 379-384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tavrov, A. V.

Traub, W. A.

W. A. Traub, M. Levine, S. Shaklan, J. Kasting, J. R. Angel, M. E. Brown, R. A. Brown, C. Burrows, M. Clampin, A. Dressler, H. C. Ferguson, H. B. Hammel, S. R. Heap, S. D. Horner, G. D. Illingworth, N. J. Kasdin, M. J. Kuchner, D. Lin, M. S. Marley, V. Meadows, C. Noecker, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. Seager, M. Shao, K. R. Stapelfeldt, and J. T. Trauger, “TPF-C: status and recent progress,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680T (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Vanderbei, R. J.

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[CrossRef]

Vandormael, D.

Wallace, J. K.

M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, B. M. Levine, and D. Liu, “Visible nulling interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1296-1303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Levine, M. Shao, D. Liu, J. K. Wallace, and B. Lane, “Planet detection in visible light with a single aperture telescope and nulling coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5170, 200-208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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M. Born and E. Wolf, “Reflection and refraction of a plane wave,” in Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), pp. 38-54.

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Zuckerman, B.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafrenière, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322, 1348-1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Astron. Astrophys. (3)

J. Nishikawa, L. Abe, N. Murakami, and T. Kotani, “Precise wavefront correction with an unbalanced nulling interferometer for exo-planet imaging coronagraphs,” Astron. Astrophys. 489, 1389-1398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Nishikawa, T. Kotani, N. Murakami, N. Baba, Y. Itoh, and M. Tamura, “Combination of nulling interferometer and modified pupil for observations of exo-planets,” Astron. Astrophys. 435, 379-384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Astronphys. J. (1)

M. J. Kuchner and W. A. Traub, “A coronagraph with a band-limited mask for finding terrestrial planets,” Astronphys. J. 570, 900-908 (2002).
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Astrophys. J. (4)

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, O. Absil, and J. Surdej, “Annular groove phase mask coronagraph,” Astrophys. J. 633, 1191-1200(2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn, D. Mawet, E. Bloemhof, P. Haguenauer, B. Mennesson, K. Wallace, and J. Hickey, “Imaging faint dwarf companions close to bright stars with a small, well-corrected telescope aperture,” Astrophys. J. 696, 40-46 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, “Extrasolar planet finding via optimal apodized-pupil and shaped-pupil coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 582, 1147-1161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

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Opt. Commun. (1)

N. Murakami, Y. Kato, N. Baba, and T. Ishigaki, “Geometric phase modulation for the separate arms in nulling interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 237, 9-15 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (6)

N. Baba, N. Murakami, and T. Ishigaki, “Nulling interferometer with geometric phase modulator,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 1451-1458 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishikawa, K. Yokochi, L. Abe, N. Murakami, T. Kotani, M. Tamura, T. Kurokawa, A. V. Tavrov, and M. Takeda, “Virtual wavefront compensation and speckle reduction in coronagraph by unbalanced nulling interferometer (UNI) and phase and amplitude correction (PAC),” Proc. SPIE 7010, 70102A(2008).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Traub, M. Levine, S. Shaklan, J. Kasting, J. R. Angel, M. E. Brown, R. A. Brown, C. Burrows, M. Clampin, A. Dressler, H. C. Ferguson, H. B. Hammel, S. R. Heap, S. D. Horner, G. D. Illingworth, N. J. Kasdin, M. J. Kuchner, D. Lin, M. S. Marley, V. Meadows, C. Noecker, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. Seager, M. Shao, K. R. Stapelfeldt, and J. T. Trauger, “TPF-C: status and recent progress,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680T (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Levine, M. Shao, D. Liu, J. K. Wallace, and B. Lane, “Planet detection in visible light with a single aperture telescope and nulling coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5170, 200-208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, B. M. Levine, and D. Liu, “Visible nulling interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1296-1303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Mieremet, J. Braat, H. Bokhove, and K. Ravel, “Achromatic phase shifting using adjustable dispersive elements,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 1035-1041 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Science (2)

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafrenière, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322, 1348-1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, “Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light-years from Earth,” Science 322, 1345-1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

E. Hecht, “A mathematical description of polarization,” in Optics, 4th ed. (Addison-Wesley, 2002), pp. 373-379.

M. Born and E. Wolf, “Reflection and refraction of a plane wave,” in Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), pp. 38-54.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of the PINC.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

On-axis PSF of a subaperture (a diameter of D) as a function of angular distance λ / D (solid curve) and an on-sky transmittance of the PINC for an off-axis source as a function of distance λ / B (dotted curve) for B = D .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Three solid curves show results of numerical estimations of a peak-to-peak nulling efficiency N ( 0 ) as a function of wavelength for several prism angles Ψ of a Fresnel-rhomb HWP. Dashed curves represent estimated achievable contrasts C ( 0 ) at 5 λ / D . An illustration of the Fresnel-rhomb HWP is also shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Numerical estimations of an achievable contrast C ( Δ d ) at 5 λ 0 / D of the PINC as a function of fast axis angles of two HWPs. Four images show the results for (a) an ideal case and (b) a practical case without an OPD error d = 0 ; (c), (d) a practical case with an OPD error of d = 1 and 3 nm , respectively. A wavelength range of 1.6 2.2 μm ( λ 0 = 1.9 μm ) is assumed. Values written in the images show the achievable contrasts at ( θ H 1 , θ H 2 ) = ( 45 ° , 45 ° ) ; details are described in the text.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Numerically estimated optical throughputs η of the PINC as a function of fast axis angles of two HWPs for (a) an ideal case and (b) a practical case. A wavelength range of 1.6 2.2 μm is assumed.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical setup of the PINC test bed.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Picture of the PINC test bed.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Output interferometric signals of the PINC as a function of rotation angle of polarizer P B . Two monochromatic laser light sources ( λ = 532 and 671 nm ) were used.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Acquired bright and nulled images of the PINC by using laser light sources of wavelengths of (a), (b)  λ = 532 nm and (c), (d)  671 nm .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Radial profiles of acquired PINC images. Two solid curves show profiles of the nulled images for (a)  λ = 532 nm and (b)  671 nm . Two dotted curves show profiles obtained by numerical simulations assuming a phase aberration of 3 nm rms and an OPD error of 3.7 nm for (c)  λ = 532 nm and (d)  671 nm , respectively.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Scheme of the UNI-PAC system; the PINC is used as the UNI part.

Equations (10)

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E in , j = [ E e i α x ( t ) E e i α y ( t ) ] ( j = 1 , 2 ) ,
E out , 1 = P ( 45 ° ) S R M H M P ( 0 ° ) S T P ( 45 ° ) E in , 1 ,
E out , 2 = P ( 45 ° ) S T M H M P ( 90 ° ) S R P ( 45 ° ) E in , 2 .
E out , 1 = i e out 4 [ 1 1 ] , E out , 2 = i e out 4 [ 1 1 ] ,
e out = E ρ p γ p ρ s γ s e i ( δ p + β p + δ s + β s ) ( e i α x + e i α y ) .
E ( Δ ) = E out , 1 + e i Δ E out , 2 ,
E ( 0 ) = E out , 1 + E out , 2 = 0 .
η = 2 | E ( π ) | 2 | E in , 1 | 2 + | E in , 2 | 2 .
N ( Δ d ) = | E ( Δ d ) | 2 | E ( Δ d + π ) | 2 .
ξ = 2 tan 1 ( cos Ψ sin 2 Ψ ( 1 / n ) 2 sin 2 Ψ ) ,

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