Abstract

To apply reflection ellipsometry to determine the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index of biological tissues simultaneously, we combine reflection ellipsometry with total internal reflection to warrant minimal influences by the strong scattering and absorption of biological tissues. A K9 glass prism with refractive index 1.51468 at wavelength 632.8nm and a Glan prism polarizer with an angular sampling interval of 0.1° were used in our experimental setup. Using the setup, the complex refractive indices of some typical mammalian tissues were measured under the wavelength of 632.8nm. The results show that the indices of porcine muscle, liver, pancreas, and dermis tissues were 1.3713+0.062i, 1.3791+0.0087i, 1.3517+0.0113i, and 1.3818+0.0049i, respectively.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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2006 (1)

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, W. A. Wooden, P. J. Kragel, and X. H. Hu, “Refractive indices of human skin tissues at eight wavelengths and estimated dispersion relations between 300 and 1600nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 1479–1489 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

J. Lai, Z. Li, and A. He, “Influence of complex refractive index on diffuse reflection of biological tissues,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 332–334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. J. Dirckx, L. C. Kuypers, and W. F. Decraemer, “Refractive index of tissue measured with confocal microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044014 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lai, Z. Li, C. Wang, and A. He, “Experimental measurement of the refractive index of biological tissues by total internal reflection,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1845–1849 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, K. M. Jacobs, and X. Hu, “Determination of refractive indices of porcine skin tissues and Intralipid at eight wavelengths between 325 and 1557nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1151–1157 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2000 (1)

A. Knuttel and M. B. Godau, “Spatially confined and temporally resolved refractive index and scattering evaluation in human skin performed with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 83–92 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

V. V. Tuchin, “Light scattering study of tissues,” Phys. Usp. 40, 495–515 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1989 (1)

Alexandrov, S. A.

Bolin, F. P.

Bouma, B. E.

Brezinski, M. E.

Decraemer, W. F.

J. J. J. Dirckx, L. C. Kuypers, and W. F. Decraemer, “Refractive index of tissue measured with confocal microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044014 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dilusha Silva, K. K. M. B.

Ding, H.

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, W. A. Wooden, P. J. Kragel, and X. H. Hu, “Refractive indices of human skin tissues at eight wavelengths and estimated dispersion relations between 300 and 1600nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 1479–1489 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, K. M. Jacobs, and X. Hu, “Determination of refractive indices of porcine skin tissues and Intralipid at eight wavelengths between 325 and 1557nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1151–1157 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dirckx, J. J. J.

J. J. J. Dirckx, L. C. Kuypers, and W. F. Decraemer, “Refractive index of tissue measured with confocal microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044014 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, A. K.

A. K. Dunn, “Light scattering properties of cells,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Texas at Austin, 1997).

Fujimoto, J. G.

Godau, M. B.

A. Knuttel and M. B. Godau, “Spatially confined and temporally resolved refractive index and scattering evaluation in human skin performed with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 83–92 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, A.

J. Lai, Z. Li, C. Wang, and A. He, “Experimental measurement of the refractive index of biological tissues by total internal reflection,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1845–1849 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lai, Z. Li, and A. He, “Influence of complex refractive index on diffuse reflection of biological tissues,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 332–334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 2002), p. 66.

Hee, M. R.

Hu, X.

Hu, X. H.

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, W. A. Wooden, P. J. Kragel, and X. H. Hu, “Refractive indices of human skin tissues at eight wavelengths and estimated dispersion relations between 300 and 1600nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 1479–1489 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobs, K. M.

Knuttel, A.

A. Knuttel and M. B. Godau, “Spatially confined and temporally resolved refractive index and scattering evaluation in human skin performed with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 83–92 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kragel, P. J.

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, W. A. Wooden, P. J. Kragel, and X. H. Hu, “Refractive indices of human skin tissues at eight wavelengths and estimated dispersion relations between 300 and 1600nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 1479–1489 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuypers, L. C.

J. J. J. Dirckx, L. C. Kuypers, and W. F. Decraemer, “Refractive index of tissue measured with confocal microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044014 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lai, J.

J. Lai, Z. Li, C. Wang, and A. He, “Experimental measurement of the refractive index of biological tissues by total internal reflection,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1845–1849 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lai, Z. Li, and A. He, “Influence of complex refractive index on diffuse reflection of biological tissues,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 332–334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Li, Z.

J. Lai, Z. Li, and A. He, “Influence of complex refractive index on diffuse reflection of biological tissues,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 332–334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lai, Z. Li, C. Wang, and A. He, “Experimental measurement of the refractive index of biological tissues by total internal reflection,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1845–1849 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, J. Q.

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, W. A. Wooden, P. J. Kragel, and X. H. Hu, “Refractive indices of human skin tissues at eight wavelengths and estimated dispersion relations between 300 and 1600nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 1479–1489 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, K. M. Jacobs, and X. Hu, “Determination of refractive indices of porcine skin tissues and Intralipid at eight wavelengths between 325 and 1557nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1151–1157 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Preuss, L. E.

Sampson, D. D.

Southern, J. F.

Stoykova, E.

V. Tsenova and E. Stoykova, “Refractive index measurement in human tissue samples,” Proc. SPIE 5226, 413–417 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Talyor, R. C.

Tearney, G. J.

Tsenova, V.

V. Tsenova and E. Stoykova, “Refractive index measurement in human tissue samples,” Proc. SPIE 5226, 413–417 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tuchin, V. V.

V. V. Tuchin, “Light scattering study of tissues,” Phys. Usp. 40, 495–515 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

Wooden, W. A.

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, W. A. Wooden, P. J. Kragel, and X. H. Hu, “Refractive indices of human skin tissues at eight wavelengths and estimated dispersion relations between 300 and 1600nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 1479–1489 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, S.

Zvyagin, A. V.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Lai, Z. Li, and A. He, “Influence of complex refractive index on diffuse reflection of biological tissues,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 332–334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

A. Knuttel and M. B. Godau, “Spatially confined and temporally resolved refractive index and scattering evaluation in human skin performed with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 83–92 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. J. Dirckx, L. C. Kuypers, and W. F. Decraemer, “Refractive index of tissue measured with confocal microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044014 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, W. A. Wooden, P. J. Kragel, and X. H. Hu, “Refractive indices of human skin tissues at eight wavelengths and estimated dispersion relations between 300 and 1600nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 1479–1489 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Usp. (1)

V. V. Tuchin, “Light scattering study of tissues,” Phys. Usp. 40, 495–515 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

V. Tsenova and E. Stoykova, “Refractive index measurement in human tissue samples,” Proc. SPIE 5226, 413–417 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 2002), p. 66.

A. K. Dunn, “Light scattering properties of cells,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Texas at Austin, 1997).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the attenuated total reflection ellipsometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmitted light intensity varies with the polarization angles.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Complex Refractive Indices of Measured Samples under Wavelength of 632.8 nm

Equations (12)

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α e i Δ = r s r p = | r s | | r p | e i ( δ s δ p ) = cos ( θ i θ i ) cos ( θ r θ r ) cos ( θ r + θ r ) cos ( θ s θ s ) ,
n = ( ( q + 1 q 1 ) n 0 sin 2 θ r cos θ r ) 2 + n 0 sin 2 θ r ,
q = α e i Δ cos 2 ( θ i θ i ) ,
θ i = sin 1 ( sin θ i n 0 ) ,
θ r = sin 1 ( 1 n 0 sin ( θ i ) ) + 45 ° ,
I t = ( I 0 I 1 ) [ T 0 + A 0 2 + B 0 2 sin ( 2 φ + β ) ] = T 1 + A 1 2 + B 1 2 sin ( 2 φ + β ) ,
T 0 = | r p | 2 + | r s | 2 2 ,
A 0 = | r p | 2 | r s | 2 2 ,
B 0 = | r s | | r p | cos Δ ,
β = tan 1 B 0 A 0 = tan 1 B 1 A 1 ,
α = | r s | / | r p | = T 0 A 0 T 0 + A 0 = ( T 0 / A 0 ) 1 ( T 0 / A 0 ) + 1 = T 1 A 1 T 1 + A 1 ,
Δ = δ p δ s = cos 1 ( 1 α 2 2 α B 0 A 0 ) = cos 1 ( 1 α 2 2 α B 1 A 1 ) ,

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