Abstract

Sodium was incorporated into Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films by evaporating NaF before the second and third stages and after the third stage of CIGS deposition. The Na-doping dosage was precisely controlled by a light-controlling method based on reflected light signals. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy results reveal that CIGS crystalline growth and microstructure can be strongly influenced by periods of Na incorporation, which leads to different device performance characteristics. Based on the analysis of results, incorporating Na before the second stage of the standard three-stage process is suggested.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Hedström, H. Ohlsén, M. Bodegård, A. Kylner, L. Stolt, D. Hariskos, M. Ruckh, and H. W. Schock, “ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar-cells With improved performance,” in Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1993), pp. 364–371.
  2. M. Ruckh, D. Schmid, M. Kaiser, R. Schäffler, T. Walter, and H. W. Schock, “Influence of substrates on the electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” in Proceedings of the First IEEE World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (IEEE, 1994), pp. 156–159.
  3. M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, P. Dippo, J. Webb, J. Granata, K. Ramanathan, S. Asher, A. Swartzlander, and R. Noufi, “On the role of Na and modifications to Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 absorber materials using thin-MF (M=Na, K, Cs) precursor layers,” in Proceedings of the 26th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (IEEE, 1997), pp. 359–362.
  4. T. Nakada, D. Iga, H. Ohbo, and A. Kunioka, “Effects of sodium on Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin films and solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 732–737 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16, 235–239 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Nakada, Y. Hirabayashi, T. Tokado, D. Ohmori, and T. Mise, “Novel device structure for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells using transparent conducting oxide back and front contacts,” Solar Energy 77, 739–747 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, M. M. Islam, H. Shibata, P. Fons, T. Sakurai, K. Akimoto, and S. Niki, “Na-induced variations in the structural, optical, and electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 034908 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. H. Yun, K. H. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. T. Ahn, S. J. Ahn, J. C. Lee, and K. H. Yoon, “Fabrication of CIGS solar cells with a Na-doped Mo layer on a Na-free substrate,” Thin Solid Films 515, 5876–5879 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Rudmann, A. F. da Cunha, M. Kaelin, F. Kurdesau, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Efficiency enhancement of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells due to Na incorporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1129–1131 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Caballero, C. A. Kaufmann, T. Eisenbarth, M. Cancela, R. Hesse, T. Unold, A. Eicke, R. Klenk, and H. W. Schock, “The influence of Na on low temperature growth of CIGS thin film solar cells on polyimide substrates,” Thin Solid Films 517, 2187–2190 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Rudmann, D. Brémaud, A. F. da Cunha, G. Bilger, A. Strohm, M. Kaelin, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Sodium incorporation strategies for CIGS growth at different temperature,” Thin Solid Films 480, 55–60 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S.-H. Wei, S. B. Zhang, and A. Zunger, “Effects of Na on the electrical and structural properties of CuInSe2,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 7214–7218 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. Lyahovitskaya, Y. Feldman, K. Gartsman, H. Cohen, C. Cytermann, and D. Cahen, “Na effects on CuInSe2: distinguishing bulk from surface phenomena,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4205–4212 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Rockett, “The effect of Na in polycrystalline and epitaxial single-crystal CuIn1−xGaxSe2,” Thin Solid Films 480, 2–7(2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. F. Yan, C.-S. Jiang, R. Noufi, S.-H. Wei, H. R. Moutinho, and M. M. Al-Jassim, “Electrically benign behavior of grain boundaries in polycrystalline CuInSe2 films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 235504 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. M. Rietveld, “A profile refinement method for nuclear and magnetic structures,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 2, 65–71 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Chaisitsak, A. Yamada, and M. Konagai, “Preferred orientation control of Cu(In1−xGax)Se2 (x≈0.28) thin films and its influence on solar cell characteristics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 507–513 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. S. Park, Z. Dong, S. Kim, and J. H. Perepezko, “CuInSe2 phase formation during Cu2Se/In2Se3 interdiffusion reaction,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3683–3690 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. U.-C. Boehnke and G. Kühn, “Phase relations in the ternary system Cu-In-Se,” J. Mater. Sci. 22, 1635–1641 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, M. M. Islam, H. Shibata, P. Fons, T. Sakurai, K. Akimoto, and S. Niki, “Na-induced variations in the structural, optical, and electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Caballero, C. A. Kaufmann, T. Eisenbarth, M. Cancela, R. Hesse, T. Unold, A. Eicke, R. Klenk, and H. W. Schock, “The influence of Na on low temperature growth of CIGS thin film solar cells on polyimide substrates,” Thin Solid Films 517, 2187–2190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16, 235–239 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. H. Yun, K. H. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. T. Ahn, S. J. Ahn, J. C. Lee, and K. H. Yoon, “Fabrication of CIGS solar cells with a Na-doped Mo layer on a Na-free substrate,” Thin Solid Films 515, 5876–5879 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Yan, C.-S. Jiang, R. Noufi, S.-H. Wei, H. R. Moutinho, and M. M. Al-Jassim, “Electrically benign behavior of grain boundaries in polycrystalline CuInSe2 films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 235504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Rockett, “The effect of Na in polycrystalline and epitaxial single-crystal CuIn1−xGaxSe2,” Thin Solid Films 480, 2–7(2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Rudmann, D. Brémaud, A. F. da Cunha, G. Bilger, A. Strohm, M. Kaelin, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Sodium incorporation strategies for CIGS growth at different temperature,” Thin Solid Films 480, 55–60 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

D. Rudmann, A. F. da Cunha, M. Kaelin, F. Kurdesau, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Efficiency enhancement of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells due to Na incorporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1129–1131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakada, Y. Hirabayashi, T. Tokado, D. Ohmori, and T. Mise, “Novel device structure for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells using transparent conducting oxide back and front contacts,” Solar Energy 77, 739–747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

V. Lyahovitskaya, Y. Feldman, K. Gartsman, H. Cohen, C. Cytermann, and D. Cahen, “Na effects on CuInSe2: distinguishing bulk from surface phenomena,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4205–4212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Chaisitsak, A. Yamada, and M. Konagai, “Preferred orientation control of Cu(In1−xGax)Se2 (x≈0.28) thin films and its influence on solar cell characteristics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 507–513 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. S. Park, Z. Dong, S. Kim, and J. H. Perepezko, “CuInSe2 phase formation during Cu2Se/In2Se3 interdiffusion reaction,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3683–3690 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S.-H. Wei, S. B. Zhang, and A. Zunger, “Effects of Na on the electrical and structural properties of CuInSe2,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 7214–7218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Nakada, D. Iga, H. Ohbo, and A. Kunioka, “Effects of sodium on Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin films and solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 732–737 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

U.-C. Boehnke and G. Kühn, “Phase relations in the ternary system Cu-In-Se,” J. Mater. Sci. 22, 1635–1641 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

H. M. Rietveld, “A profile refinement method for nuclear and magnetic structures,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 2, 65–71 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, B. T.

J. H. Yun, K. H. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. T. Ahn, S. J. Ahn, J. C. Lee, and K. H. Yoon, “Fabrication of CIGS solar cells with a Na-doped Mo layer on a Na-free substrate,” Thin Solid Films 515, 5876–5879 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, S. J.

J. H. Yun, K. H. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. T. Ahn, S. J. Ahn, J. C. Lee, and K. H. Yoon, “Fabrication of CIGS solar cells with a Na-doped Mo layer on a Na-free substrate,” Thin Solid Films 515, 5876–5879 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Akimoto, K.

S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, M. M. Islam, H. Shibata, P. Fons, T. Sakurai, K. Akimoto, and S. Niki, “Na-induced variations in the structural, optical, and electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Al-Jassim, M. M.

Y. F. Yan, C.-S. Jiang, R. Noufi, S.-H. Wei, H. R. Moutinho, and M. M. Al-Jassim, “Electrically benign behavior of grain boundaries in polycrystalline CuInSe2 films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 235504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Asher, S.

M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, P. Dippo, J. Webb, J. Granata, K. Ramanathan, S. Asher, A. Swartzlander, and R. Noufi, “On the role of Na and modifications to Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 absorber materials using thin-MF (M=Na, K, Cs) precursor layers,” in Proceedings of the 26th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (IEEE, 1997), pp. 359–362.

Bilger, G.

D. Rudmann, D. Brémaud, A. F. da Cunha, G. Bilger, A. Strohm, M. Kaelin, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Sodium incorporation strategies for CIGS growth at different temperature,” Thin Solid Films 480, 55–60 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bodegård, M.

J. Hedström, H. Ohlsén, M. Bodegård, A. Kylner, L. Stolt, D. Hariskos, M. Ruckh, and H. W. Schock, “ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar-cells With improved performance,” in Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1993), pp. 364–371.

Boehnke, U.-C.

U.-C. Boehnke and G. Kühn, “Phase relations in the ternary system Cu-In-Se,” J. Mater. Sci. 22, 1635–1641 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Brémaud, D.

D. Rudmann, D. Brémaud, A. F. da Cunha, G. Bilger, A. Strohm, M. Kaelin, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Sodium incorporation strategies for CIGS growth at different temperature,” Thin Solid Films 480, 55–60 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Caballero, R.

R. Caballero, C. A. Kaufmann, T. Eisenbarth, M. Cancela, R. Hesse, T. Unold, A. Eicke, R. Klenk, and H. W. Schock, “The influence of Na on low temperature growth of CIGS thin film solar cells on polyimide substrates,” Thin Solid Films 517, 2187–2190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cahen, D.

V. Lyahovitskaya, Y. Feldman, K. Gartsman, H. Cohen, C. Cytermann, and D. Cahen, “Na effects on CuInSe2: distinguishing bulk from surface phenomena,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4205–4212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cancela, M.

R. Caballero, C. A. Kaufmann, T. Eisenbarth, M. Cancela, R. Hesse, T. Unold, A. Eicke, R. Klenk, and H. W. Schock, “The influence of Na on low temperature growth of CIGS thin film solar cells on polyimide substrates,” Thin Solid Films 517, 2187–2190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chaisitsak, S.

S. Chaisitsak, A. Yamada, and M. Konagai, “Preferred orientation control of Cu(In1−xGax)Se2 (x≈0.28) thin films and its influence on solar cell characteristics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 507–513 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, H.

V. Lyahovitskaya, Y. Feldman, K. Gartsman, H. Cohen, C. Cytermann, and D. Cahen, “Na effects on CuInSe2: distinguishing bulk from surface phenomena,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4205–4212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Contreras, M. A.

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16, 235–239 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, P. Dippo, J. Webb, J. Granata, K. Ramanathan, S. Asher, A. Swartzlander, and R. Noufi, “On the role of Na and modifications to Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 absorber materials using thin-MF (M=Na, K, Cs) precursor layers,” in Proceedings of the 26th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (IEEE, 1997), pp. 359–362.

Cytermann, C.

V. Lyahovitskaya, Y. Feldman, K. Gartsman, H. Cohen, C. Cytermann, and D. Cahen, “Na effects on CuInSe2: distinguishing bulk from surface phenomena,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4205–4212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

da Cunha, A. F.

D. Rudmann, D. Brémaud, A. F. da Cunha, G. Bilger, A. Strohm, M. Kaelin, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Sodium incorporation strategies for CIGS growth at different temperature,” Thin Solid Films 480, 55–60 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Rudmann, A. F. da Cunha, M. Kaelin, F. Kurdesau, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Efficiency enhancement of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells due to Na incorporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1129–1131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

DeHart, C.

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16, 235–239 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dippo, P.

M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, P. Dippo, J. Webb, J. Granata, K. Ramanathan, S. Asher, A. Swartzlander, and R. Noufi, “On the role of Na and modifications to Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 absorber materials using thin-MF (M=Na, K, Cs) precursor layers,” in Proceedings of the 26th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (IEEE, 1997), pp. 359–362.

Dong, Z.

J. S. Park, Z. Dong, S. Kim, and J. H. Perepezko, “CuInSe2 phase formation during Cu2Se/In2Se3 interdiffusion reaction,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3683–3690 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Egaas, B.

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16, 235–239 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, P. Dippo, J. Webb, J. Granata, K. Ramanathan, S. Asher, A. Swartzlander, and R. Noufi, “On the role of Na and modifications to Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 absorber materials using thin-MF (M=Na, K, Cs) precursor layers,” in Proceedings of the 26th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (IEEE, 1997), pp. 359–362.

Eicke, A.

R. Caballero, C. A. Kaufmann, T. Eisenbarth, M. Cancela, R. Hesse, T. Unold, A. Eicke, R. Klenk, and H. W. Schock, “The influence of Na on low temperature growth of CIGS thin film solar cells on polyimide substrates,” Thin Solid Films 517, 2187–2190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eisenbarth, T.

R. Caballero, C. A. Kaufmann, T. Eisenbarth, M. Cancela, R. Hesse, T. Unold, A. Eicke, R. Klenk, and H. W. Schock, “The influence of Na on low temperature growth of CIGS thin film solar cells on polyimide substrates,” Thin Solid Films 517, 2187–2190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, Y.

V. Lyahovitskaya, Y. Feldman, K. Gartsman, H. Cohen, C. Cytermann, and D. Cahen, “Na effects on CuInSe2: distinguishing bulk from surface phenomena,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4205–4212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fons, P.

S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, M. M. Islam, H. Shibata, P. Fons, T. Sakurai, K. Akimoto, and S. Niki, “Na-induced variations in the structural, optical, and electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gartsman, K.

V. Lyahovitskaya, Y. Feldman, K. Gartsman, H. Cohen, C. Cytermann, and D. Cahen, “Na effects on CuInSe2: distinguishing bulk from surface phenomena,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4205–4212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Granata, J.

M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, P. Dippo, J. Webb, J. Granata, K. Ramanathan, S. Asher, A. Swartzlander, and R. Noufi, “On the role of Na and modifications to Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 absorber materials using thin-MF (M=Na, K, Cs) precursor layers,” in Proceedings of the 26th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (IEEE, 1997), pp. 359–362.

Hariskos, D.

J. Hedström, H. Ohlsén, M. Bodegård, A. Kylner, L. Stolt, D. Hariskos, M. Ruckh, and H. W. Schock, “ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar-cells With improved performance,” in Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1993), pp. 364–371.

Hedström, J.

J. Hedström, H. Ohlsén, M. Bodegård, A. Kylner, L. Stolt, D. Hariskos, M. Ruckh, and H. W. Schock, “ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar-cells With improved performance,” in Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1993), pp. 364–371.

Hesse, R.

R. Caballero, C. A. Kaufmann, T. Eisenbarth, M. Cancela, R. Hesse, T. Unold, A. Eicke, R. Klenk, and H. W. Schock, “The influence of Na on low temperature growth of CIGS thin film solar cells on polyimide substrates,” Thin Solid Films 517, 2187–2190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hirabayashi, Y.

T. Nakada, Y. Hirabayashi, T. Tokado, D. Ohmori, and T. Mise, “Novel device structure for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells using transparent conducting oxide back and front contacts,” Solar Energy 77, 739–747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iga, D.

T. Nakada, D. Iga, H. Ohbo, and A. Kunioka, “Effects of sodium on Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin films and solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 732–737 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ishizuka, S.

S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, M. M. Islam, H. Shibata, P. Fons, T. Sakurai, K. Akimoto, and S. Niki, “Na-induced variations in the structural, optical, and electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M. M.

S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, M. M. Islam, H. Shibata, P. Fons, T. Sakurai, K. Akimoto, and S. Niki, “Na-induced variations in the structural, optical, and electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, C.-S.

Y. F. Yan, C.-S. Jiang, R. Noufi, S.-H. Wei, H. R. Moutinho, and M. M. Al-Jassim, “Electrically benign behavior of grain boundaries in polycrystalline CuInSe2 films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 235504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaelin, M.

D. Rudmann, D. Brémaud, A. F. da Cunha, G. Bilger, A. Strohm, M. Kaelin, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Sodium incorporation strategies for CIGS growth at different temperature,” Thin Solid Films 480, 55–60 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Rudmann, A. F. da Cunha, M. Kaelin, F. Kurdesau, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Efficiency enhancement of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells due to Na incorporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1129–1131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, M.

M. Ruckh, D. Schmid, M. Kaiser, R. Schäffler, T. Walter, and H. W. Schock, “Influence of substrates on the electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” in Proceedings of the First IEEE World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (IEEE, 1994), pp. 156–159.

Kaufmann, C. A.

R. Caballero, C. A. Kaufmann, T. Eisenbarth, M. Cancela, R. Hesse, T. Unold, A. Eicke, R. Klenk, and H. W. Schock, “The influence of Na on low temperature growth of CIGS thin film solar cells on polyimide substrates,” Thin Solid Films 517, 2187–2190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

J. H. Yun, K. H. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. T. Ahn, S. J. Ahn, J. C. Lee, and K. H. Yoon, “Fabrication of CIGS solar cells with a Na-doped Mo layer on a Na-free substrate,” Thin Solid Films 515, 5876–5879 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. S.

J. H. Yun, K. H. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. T. Ahn, S. J. Ahn, J. C. Lee, and K. H. Yoon, “Fabrication of CIGS solar cells with a Na-doped Mo layer on a Na-free substrate,” Thin Solid Films 515, 5876–5879 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

J. S. Park, Z. Dong, S. Kim, and J. H. Perepezko, “CuInSe2 phase formation during Cu2Se/In2Se3 interdiffusion reaction,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3683–3690 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Klenk, R.

R. Caballero, C. A. Kaufmann, T. Eisenbarth, M. Cancela, R. Hesse, T. Unold, A. Eicke, R. Klenk, and H. W. Schock, “The influence of Na on low temperature growth of CIGS thin film solar cells on polyimide substrates,” Thin Solid Films 517, 2187–2190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Konagai, M.

S. Chaisitsak, A. Yamada, and M. Konagai, “Preferred orientation control of Cu(In1−xGax)Se2 (x≈0.28) thin films and its influence on solar cell characteristics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 507–513 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kühn, G.

U.-C. Boehnke and G. Kühn, “Phase relations in the ternary system Cu-In-Se,” J. Mater. Sci. 22, 1635–1641 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kunioka, A.

T. Nakada, D. Iga, H. Ohbo, and A. Kunioka, “Effects of sodium on Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin films and solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 732–737 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kurdesau, F.

D. Rudmann, A. F. da Cunha, M. Kaelin, F. Kurdesau, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Efficiency enhancement of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells due to Na incorporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1129–1131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kylner, A.

J. Hedström, H. Ohlsén, M. Bodegård, A. Kylner, L. Stolt, D. Hariskos, M. Ruckh, and H. W. Schock, “ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar-cells With improved performance,” in Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1993), pp. 364–371.

Lee, J. C.

J. H. Yun, K. H. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. T. Ahn, S. J. Ahn, J. C. Lee, and K. H. Yoon, “Fabrication of CIGS solar cells with a Na-doped Mo layer on a Na-free substrate,” Thin Solid Films 515, 5876–5879 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lyahovitskaya, V.

V. Lyahovitskaya, Y. Feldman, K. Gartsman, H. Cohen, C. Cytermann, and D. Cahen, “Na effects on CuInSe2: distinguishing bulk from surface phenomena,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4205–4212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mise, T.

T. Nakada, Y. Hirabayashi, T. Tokado, D. Ohmori, and T. Mise, “Novel device structure for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells using transparent conducting oxide back and front contacts,” Solar Energy 77, 739–747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moutinho, H. R.

Y. F. Yan, C.-S. Jiang, R. Noufi, S.-H. Wei, H. R. Moutinho, and M. M. Al-Jassim, “Electrically benign behavior of grain boundaries in polycrystalline CuInSe2 films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 235504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakada, T.

T. Nakada, Y. Hirabayashi, T. Tokado, D. Ohmori, and T. Mise, “Novel device structure for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells using transparent conducting oxide back and front contacts,” Solar Energy 77, 739–747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakada, D. Iga, H. Ohbo, and A. Kunioka, “Effects of sodium on Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin films and solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 732–737 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Niki, S.

S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, M. M. Islam, H. Shibata, P. Fons, T. Sakurai, K. Akimoto, and S. Niki, “Na-induced variations in the structural, optical, and electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Noufi, R.

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16, 235–239 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Yan, C.-S. Jiang, R. Noufi, S.-H. Wei, H. R. Moutinho, and M. M. Al-Jassim, “Electrically benign behavior of grain boundaries in polycrystalline CuInSe2 films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 235504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, P. Dippo, J. Webb, J. Granata, K. Ramanathan, S. Asher, A. Swartzlander, and R. Noufi, “On the role of Na and modifications to Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 absorber materials using thin-MF (M=Na, K, Cs) precursor layers,” in Proceedings of the 26th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (IEEE, 1997), pp. 359–362.

Ohbo, H.

T. Nakada, D. Iga, H. Ohbo, and A. Kunioka, “Effects of sodium on Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin films and solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 732–737 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ohlsén, H.

J. Hedström, H. Ohlsén, M. Bodegård, A. Kylner, L. Stolt, D. Hariskos, M. Ruckh, and H. W. Schock, “ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar-cells With improved performance,” in Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1993), pp. 364–371.

Ohmori, D.

T. Nakada, Y. Hirabayashi, T. Tokado, D. Ohmori, and T. Mise, “Novel device structure for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells using transparent conducting oxide back and front contacts,” Solar Energy 77, 739–747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. S.

J. S. Park, Z. Dong, S. Kim, and J. H. Perepezko, “CuInSe2 phase formation during Cu2Se/In2Se3 interdiffusion reaction,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3683–3690 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perepezko, J. H.

J. S. Park, Z. Dong, S. Kim, and J. H. Perepezko, “CuInSe2 phase formation during Cu2Se/In2Se3 interdiffusion reaction,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3683–3690 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perkins, C. L.

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16, 235–239 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ramanathan, K.

M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, P. Dippo, J. Webb, J. Granata, K. Ramanathan, S. Asher, A. Swartzlander, and R. Noufi, “On the role of Na and modifications to Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 absorber materials using thin-MF (M=Na, K, Cs) precursor layers,” in Proceedings of the 26th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (IEEE, 1997), pp. 359–362.

Repins, I.

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16, 235–239 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rietveld, H. M.

H. M. Rietveld, “A profile refinement method for nuclear and magnetic structures,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 2, 65–71 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Rockett, A.

A. Rockett, “The effect of Na in polycrystalline and epitaxial single-crystal CuIn1−xGaxSe2,” Thin Solid Films 480, 2–7(2005).
[CrossRef]

Ruckh, M.

J. Hedström, H. Ohlsén, M. Bodegård, A. Kylner, L. Stolt, D. Hariskos, M. Ruckh, and H. W. Schock, “ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar-cells With improved performance,” in Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1993), pp. 364–371.

M. Ruckh, D. Schmid, M. Kaiser, R. Schäffler, T. Walter, and H. W. Schock, “Influence of substrates on the electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” in Proceedings of the First IEEE World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (IEEE, 1994), pp. 156–159.

Rudmann, D.

D. Rudmann, D. Brémaud, A. F. da Cunha, G. Bilger, A. Strohm, M. Kaelin, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Sodium incorporation strategies for CIGS growth at different temperature,” Thin Solid Films 480, 55–60 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Rudmann, A. F. da Cunha, M. Kaelin, F. Kurdesau, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Efficiency enhancement of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells due to Na incorporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1129–1131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sakurai, T.

S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, M. M. Islam, H. Shibata, P. Fons, T. Sakurai, K. Akimoto, and S. Niki, “Na-induced variations in the structural, optical, and electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schäffler, R.

M. Ruckh, D. Schmid, M. Kaiser, R. Schäffler, T. Walter, and H. W. Schock, “Influence of substrates on the electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” in Proceedings of the First IEEE World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (IEEE, 1994), pp. 156–159.

Scharf, J.

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16, 235–239 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, D.

M. Ruckh, D. Schmid, M. Kaiser, R. Schäffler, T. Walter, and H. W. Schock, “Influence of substrates on the electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” in Proceedings of the First IEEE World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (IEEE, 1994), pp. 156–159.

Schock, H. W.

R. Caballero, C. A. Kaufmann, T. Eisenbarth, M. Cancela, R. Hesse, T. Unold, A. Eicke, R. Klenk, and H. W. Schock, “The influence of Na on low temperature growth of CIGS thin film solar cells on polyimide substrates,” Thin Solid Films 517, 2187–2190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hedström, H. Ohlsén, M. Bodegård, A. Kylner, L. Stolt, D. Hariskos, M. Ruckh, and H. W. Schock, “ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar-cells With improved performance,” in Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1993), pp. 364–371.

M. Ruckh, D. Schmid, M. Kaiser, R. Schäffler, T. Walter, and H. W. Schock, “Influence of substrates on the electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” in Proceedings of the First IEEE World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (IEEE, 1994), pp. 156–159.

Shibata, H.

S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, M. M. Islam, H. Shibata, P. Fons, T. Sakurai, K. Akimoto, and S. Niki, “Na-induced variations in the structural, optical, and electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stolt, L.

J. Hedström, H. Ohlsén, M. Bodegård, A. Kylner, L. Stolt, D. Hariskos, M. Ruckh, and H. W. Schock, “ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar-cells With improved performance,” in Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1993), pp. 364–371.

Strohm, A.

D. Rudmann, D. Brémaud, A. F. da Cunha, G. Bilger, A. Strohm, M. Kaelin, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Sodium incorporation strategies for CIGS growth at different temperature,” Thin Solid Films 480, 55–60 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Swartzlander, A.

M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, P. Dippo, J. Webb, J. Granata, K. Ramanathan, S. Asher, A. Swartzlander, and R. Noufi, “On the role of Na and modifications to Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 absorber materials using thin-MF (M=Na, K, Cs) precursor layers,” in Proceedings of the 26th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (IEEE, 1997), pp. 359–362.

Tiwari, A. N.

D. Rudmann, D. Brémaud, A. F. da Cunha, G. Bilger, A. Strohm, M. Kaelin, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Sodium incorporation strategies for CIGS growth at different temperature,” Thin Solid Films 480, 55–60 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Rudmann, A. F. da Cunha, M. Kaelin, F. Kurdesau, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Efficiency enhancement of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells due to Na incorporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1129–1131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

To, B.

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16, 235–239 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tokado, T.

T. Nakada, Y. Hirabayashi, T. Tokado, D. Ohmori, and T. Mise, “Novel device structure for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells using transparent conducting oxide back and front contacts,” Solar Energy 77, 739–747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Unold, T.

R. Caballero, C. A. Kaufmann, T. Eisenbarth, M. Cancela, R. Hesse, T. Unold, A. Eicke, R. Klenk, and H. W. Schock, “The influence of Na on low temperature growth of CIGS thin film solar cells on polyimide substrates,” Thin Solid Films 517, 2187–2190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Walter, T.

M. Ruckh, D. Schmid, M. Kaiser, R. Schäffler, T. Walter, and H. W. Schock, “Influence of substrates on the electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” in Proceedings of the First IEEE World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (IEEE, 1994), pp. 156–159.

Webb, J.

M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, P. Dippo, J. Webb, J. Granata, K. Ramanathan, S. Asher, A. Swartzlander, and R. Noufi, “On the role of Na and modifications to Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 absorber materials using thin-MF (M=Na, K, Cs) precursor layers,” in Proceedings of the 26th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (IEEE, 1997), pp. 359–362.

Wei, S.-H.

Y. F. Yan, C.-S. Jiang, R. Noufi, S.-H. Wei, H. R. Moutinho, and M. M. Al-Jassim, “Electrically benign behavior of grain boundaries in polycrystalline CuInSe2 films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 235504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Wei, S. B. Zhang, and A. Zunger, “Effects of Na on the electrical and structural properties of CuInSe2,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 7214–7218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, A.

S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, M. M. Islam, H. Shibata, P. Fons, T. Sakurai, K. Akimoto, and S. Niki, “Na-induced variations in the structural, optical, and electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Chaisitsak, A. Yamada, and M. Konagai, “Preferred orientation control of Cu(In1−xGax)Se2 (x≈0.28) thin films and its influence on solar cell characteristics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 507–513 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Y. F.

Y. F. Yan, C.-S. Jiang, R. Noufi, S.-H. Wei, H. R. Moutinho, and M. M. Al-Jassim, “Electrically benign behavior of grain boundaries in polycrystalline CuInSe2 films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 235504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, K. H.

J. H. Yun, K. H. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. T. Ahn, S. J. Ahn, J. C. Lee, and K. H. Yoon, “Fabrication of CIGS solar cells with a Na-doped Mo layer on a Na-free substrate,” Thin Solid Films 515, 5876–5879 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yun, J. H.

J. H. Yun, K. H. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. T. Ahn, S. J. Ahn, J. C. Lee, and K. H. Yoon, “Fabrication of CIGS solar cells with a Na-doped Mo layer on a Na-free substrate,” Thin Solid Films 515, 5876–5879 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. B.

S.-H. Wei, S. B. Zhang, and A. Zunger, “Effects of Na on the electrical and structural properties of CuInSe2,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 7214–7218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zogg, H.

D. Rudmann, D. Brémaud, A. F. da Cunha, G. Bilger, A. Strohm, M. Kaelin, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Sodium incorporation strategies for CIGS growth at different temperature,” Thin Solid Films 480, 55–60 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Rudmann, A. F. da Cunha, M. Kaelin, F. Kurdesau, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Efficiency enhancement of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells due to Na incorporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1129–1131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zunger, A.

S.-H. Wei, S. B. Zhang, and A. Zunger, “Effects of Na on the electrical and structural properties of CuInSe2,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 7214–7218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Rudmann, A. F. da Cunha, M. Kaelin, F. Kurdesau, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Efficiency enhancement of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells due to Na incorporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1129–1131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Crystallogr. (1)

H. M. Rietveld, “A profile refinement method for nuclear and magnetic structures,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 2, 65–71 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

S.-H. Wei, S. B. Zhang, and A. Zunger, “Effects of Na on the electrical and structural properties of CuInSe2,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 7214–7218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Lyahovitskaya, Y. Feldman, K. Gartsman, H. Cohen, C. Cytermann, and D. Cahen, “Na effects on CuInSe2: distinguishing bulk from surface phenomena,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4205–4212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Park, Z. Dong, S. Kim, and J. H. Perepezko, “CuInSe2 phase formation during Cu2Se/In2Se3 interdiffusion reaction,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3683–3690 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, M. M. Islam, H. Shibata, P. Fons, T. Sakurai, K. Akimoto, and S. Niki, “Na-induced variations in the structural, optical, and electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

U.-C. Boehnke and G. Kühn, “Phase relations in the ternary system Cu-In-Se,” J. Mater. Sci. 22, 1635–1641 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Chaisitsak, A. Yamada, and M. Konagai, “Preferred orientation control of Cu(In1−xGax)Se2 (x≈0.28) thin films and its influence on solar cell characteristics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 507–513 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakada, D. Iga, H. Ohbo, and A. Kunioka, “Effects of sodium on Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin films and solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 732–737 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. F. Yan, C.-S. Jiang, R. Noufi, S.-H. Wei, H. R. Moutinho, and M. M. Al-Jassim, “Electrically benign behavior of grain boundaries in polycrystalline CuInSe2 films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 235504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (1)

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16, 235–239 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Solar Energy (1)

T. Nakada, Y. Hirabayashi, T. Tokado, D. Ohmori, and T. Mise, “Novel device structure for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells using transparent conducting oxide back and front contacts,” Solar Energy 77, 739–747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (4)

J. H. Yun, K. H. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. T. Ahn, S. J. Ahn, J. C. Lee, and K. H. Yoon, “Fabrication of CIGS solar cells with a Na-doped Mo layer on a Na-free substrate,” Thin Solid Films 515, 5876–5879 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Caballero, C. A. Kaufmann, T. Eisenbarth, M. Cancela, R. Hesse, T. Unold, A. Eicke, R. Klenk, and H. W. Schock, “The influence of Na on low temperature growth of CIGS thin film solar cells on polyimide substrates,” Thin Solid Films 517, 2187–2190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Rudmann, D. Brémaud, A. F. da Cunha, G. Bilger, A. Strohm, M. Kaelin, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Sodium incorporation strategies for CIGS growth at different temperature,” Thin Solid Films 480, 55–60 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Rockett, “The effect of Na in polycrystalline and epitaxial single-crystal CuIn1−xGaxSe2,” Thin Solid Films 480, 2–7(2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. Hedström, H. Ohlsén, M. Bodegård, A. Kylner, L. Stolt, D. Hariskos, M. Ruckh, and H. W. Schock, “ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar-cells With improved performance,” in Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1993), pp. 364–371.

M. Ruckh, D. Schmid, M. Kaiser, R. Schäffler, T. Walter, and H. W. Schock, “Influence of substrates on the electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” in Proceedings of the First IEEE World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (IEEE, 1994), pp. 156–159.

M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, P. Dippo, J. Webb, J. Granata, K. Ramanathan, S. Asher, A. Swartzlander, and R. Noufi, “On the role of Na and modifications to Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 absorber materials using thin-MF (M=Na, K, Cs) precursor layers,” in Proceedings of the 26th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (IEEE, 1997), pp. 359–362.

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