Abstract

We have developed a high-resolution imaging detector with five microchannel plates (MCPs) in a set of V and Z stacks and a resistive anode encoder (RAE) for future space applications. In a position-sensitive system with a RAE, the spatial resolution depends on the signal-to-noise ratios at the anode terminals. Therefore, a high and stable electron gain of MCPs allows the position determination of each photo electron event with a high spatial resolution. We investigated the effect of the potentials applied to the detector on the pulse height distribution (PHD) and the spatial resolution by means of calculations and experiments. The calculations showed that the negative interstack potential reduced the size of the electron cloud at the Z-stack input by 80%. The result suggests that, under such a condition, the Z-stack MCP is operated in the completely saturated mode and exhibits a narrow PHD. On the other hand, in the measurements, applying the negative interstack potential reduced the width of the PHD by 60%. As a result, the spatial resolution of 45μm, corresponding to 480×480 pixels, was achieved. The results enable us to optimize and apply the technique to future missions.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. Yoshikawa, M. Nakamura, M. Hirahara, Y. Takizawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, T. Yamazaki, K. Misaki, and A. Yamaguchi, “Observation of He II emission from the plasmasphere by a newly developed EUV telescope on board sounding rocket S-520-19,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19897–19902(1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Nakamura, I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, K. Shiomi, Y. Takizawa, M. Hirahara, K. Yamashita, Y. Saito, and W. Miyake, “Terrestrial plasmaspheric imaging by an extreme ultraviolet scanner on Planet-B,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 141–144 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, K. Shiomi, K. Yamashita, Y. Takizawa, and M. Nakamura, “Photometric measurement of cold helium ions in the magnetotail by an EUV scanner onboard Planet-B: Evidence of the existence of cold plasmas in the near-Earth plasma sheet,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3567–3570 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Yamazaki, S. Tashiro, Y. Nakasaka, I. Yoshikawa, W. Miyake, and M. Nakamura, “Sounding-rocket observation of O II 83.4 nm emission over the polar ionosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2005–2008 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. O. Jagutzki, J. S. Lapington, L. B. C. Worth, U. Spillman, V. Mergel, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, “A broad-application microchannel-plate detector system for advanced particle or photon detection tasks: large area imaging, precise multi-hit timing information and high detection rate,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 477, 244–249 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Lampton and C. W. Carlson, “Low-distortion resistive anodes for two-dimensional position-sensitive MCP systems,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 50, 1093–1097 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Cerezo, T. J. Godfrey, and D. W. Smith, “Application of a position-sensitive detector to atom probe,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 862–866 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. H. W. Siegmund, J. M. Stock, D. R. Marsh, M. A. Gummin, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, G. A. Gaines, B. Y. Welsh, B. Donakowski, P. N. Jelinsky, T. Sasseen, J. L. Tom, B. Higgins, T. Magoncelli, J. W. Hamilton, S. J. Battel, A. I. Poland, M. D. Jhabvala, K. Sizemore, and J. Shannon, “Delay-line detectors for the UVCS and SUMER instruments on the SOHO Satellite,” Proc. SPIE 2280, 89–100 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. O. H. W. Siegmund, P. Jelinsky, S. Jelinsky, J. Stock, J. Hull, D. Doliber, J. Zaninovich, A. S. Tremsin, and K. Kromer, “High-resolution cross delay line detectors for the GALEX mission,” Proc. SPIE 3765, 429–440 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. O. H. W. Siegmund, A. S. Tremsin, J. V. Vallerga, R. Abiad, and J. Hull, “High resolution cross strip anodes for photon counting detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 177–181 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. S. Lapington, “A comparison of readout techniques for high-resolution imaging with microchannel plate detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 525, 361–365 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Vallerga, J. McPhate, A. Tremsin, and O. H. W. Siegmund, “The current and future capabilities of MCP based UV detectors,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 320, 247–250 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, S. Kameda, F. Ezawa, T. Toyota, W. Miyake, M. Taguchi, M. Kikuchi, and M. Nakamura, “Telescope of extreme ultraviolet (TEX) onboard SELENE: science from the Moon,” Earth Planets Space 60, 407–416 (2008).
  14. S. Yokota and Y. Saito, “Circular one-dimensional position-sensitive time-of-flight microchannel plate detector using resistive anode for space plasma measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 013301 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. Yoshioka, G. Murakami, I. Yoshikawa, M. Ueno, K. Uemizu, and A. Yamazaki, “EUV observation from the Earth-orbiting satellite, EXCEED,” Adv. Space Res. 45, 314–321(2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, T. Murachi, S. Kameda, H. Sagawa, S. Okano, T. Okada, and M. Nakamura, “Development of an extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer for the BepiColombo mission,” Adv. Space Res. 33, 2195–2199 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Yoshioka, K. Hikosaka, G. Murakami, I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, and H. Nozawa, “Development of the EUV detector for the BepiColombo mission,” Adv. Space Res. 41, 1392–1396(2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. Firmani, E. Ruiz, C. W. Carlson, M. Lampton, and F. Paresce, “High-resolution imaging with a two-dimensional resistive photon counter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53, 570–574 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. F. Floryan and C. B. Johnson, “Resistive anode photomultiplier tube optimum operating conditions for photon correlation experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60339–343 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. G. Timothy and R. L. Bybee, “One-dimensional photon-counting detector array for use at EUV and soft x-ray wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 14, 1632–1644 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. S. Tremsin and O. H. W. Siegmund, “Spatial distribution of electron cloud footprints from microchannel plates: measurements and modeling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3282–3288(1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Saito, Y. Saito, K. Asamura, and T. Mukai, “Spatial charge cloud size of microchannel plates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 023302 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. N. P. Zanodvorov, N. K. Zolina, A. M. Tyutikov, and Y. A. Flegontov, “Estimation of the modulation-transfer functions of microchannel plates,” Radio Eng. Electron. Phys. 25, 129–133(1980).
  25. I. M. Bronshteyn, A. V. Yevdokimov, V. M. Stozharov, and A. M. Tyutikov, “Differential secondary-emission characteristics of microchannel plates,” Radio Eng. Electron. Phys. 24, 150–152(1979).
  26. J. L. Wiza, P. R. Henkel, and R. L. Roy, “Improved microchannel plate performance with a resistive anode encoder,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1217–1218 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. R. Tournianski, P. G. Carolan, and R. J. Akers, “Enhanced microchannel plate performance at high particle fluxes by pulsed exposure mode of operation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2854–2859 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  28. C. Martin and S. Bowyer, “Quantum efficiency of opaque CsI photocathodes with channel electron multiplier arrays in the extreme and far ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4206–4207(1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. O. H. W. Siegmund, J. Vallerga, and B. Wargelin, “Background events in microchannel plates,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 35, 524–528 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

K. Yoshioka, G. Murakami, I. Yoshikawa, M. Ueno, K. Uemizu, and A. Yamazaki, “EUV observation from the Earth-orbiting satellite, EXCEED,” Adv. Space Res. 45, 314–321(2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. Vallerga, J. McPhate, A. Tremsin, and O. H. W. Siegmund, “The current and future capabilities of MCP based UV detectors,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 320, 247–250 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, S. Kameda, F. Ezawa, T. Toyota, W. Miyake, M. Taguchi, M. Kikuchi, and M. Nakamura, “Telescope of extreme ultraviolet (TEX) onboard SELENE: science from the Moon,” Earth Planets Space 60, 407–416 (2008).

S. Yokota and Y. Saito, “Circular one-dimensional position-sensitive time-of-flight microchannel plate detector using resistive anode for space plasma measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 013301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yoshioka, K. Hikosaka, G. Murakami, I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, and H. Nozawa, “Development of the EUV detector for the BepiColombo mission,” Adv. Space Res. 41, 1392–1396(2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. Saito, Y. Saito, K. Asamura, and T. Mukai, “Spatial charge cloud size of microchannel plates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 023302 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

M. R. Tournianski, P. G. Carolan, and R. J. Akers, “Enhanced microchannel plate performance at high particle fluxes by pulsed exposure mode of operation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2854–2859 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Lapington, “A comparison of readout techniques for high-resolution imaging with microchannel plate detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 525, 361–365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, T. Murachi, S. Kameda, H. Sagawa, S. Okano, T. Okada, and M. Nakamura, “Development of an extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer for the BepiColombo mission,” Adv. Space Res. 33, 2195–2199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

O. H. W. Siegmund, A. S. Tremsin, J. V. Vallerga, R. Abiad, and J. Hull, “High resolution cross strip anodes for photon counting detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 177–181 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. Yamazaki, S. Tashiro, Y. Nakasaka, I. Yoshikawa, W. Miyake, and M. Nakamura, “Sounding-rocket observation of O II 83.4 nm emission over the polar ionosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2005–2008 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Jagutzki, J. S. Lapington, L. B. C. Worth, U. Spillman, V. Mergel, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, “A broad-application microchannel-plate detector system for advanced particle or photon detection tasks: large area imaging, precise multi-hit timing information and high detection rate,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 477, 244–249 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. Nakamura, I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, K. Shiomi, Y. Takizawa, M. Hirahara, K. Yamashita, Y. Saito, and W. Miyake, “Terrestrial plasmaspheric imaging by an extreme ultraviolet scanner on Planet-B,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 141–144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, K. Shiomi, K. Yamashita, Y. Takizawa, and M. Nakamura, “Photometric measurement of cold helium ions in the magnetotail by an EUV scanner onboard Planet-B: Evidence of the existence of cold plasmas in the near-Earth plasma sheet,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3567–3570 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

O. H. W. Siegmund, P. Jelinsky, S. Jelinsky, J. Stock, J. Hull, D. Doliber, J. Zaninovich, A. S. Tremsin, and K. Kromer, “High-resolution cross delay line detectors for the GALEX mission,” Proc. SPIE 3765, 429–440 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Tremsin and O. H. W. Siegmund, “Spatial distribution of electron cloud footprints from microchannel plates: measurements and modeling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3282–3288(1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

I. Yoshikawa, M. Nakamura, M. Hirahara, Y. Takizawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, T. Yamazaki, K. Misaki, and A. Yamaguchi, “Observation of He II emission from the plasmasphere by a newly developed EUV telescope on board sounding rocket S-520-19,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19897–19902(1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

O. H. W. Siegmund, J. M. Stock, D. R. Marsh, M. A. Gummin, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, G. A. Gaines, B. Y. Welsh, B. Donakowski, P. N. Jelinsky, T. Sasseen, J. L. Tom, B. Higgins, T. Magoncelli, J. W. Hamilton, S. J. Battel, A. I. Poland, M. D. Jhabvala, K. Sizemore, and J. Shannon, “Delay-line detectors for the UVCS and SUMER instruments on the SOHO Satellite,” Proc. SPIE 2280, 89–100 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. F. Floryan and C. B. Johnson, “Resistive anode photomultiplier tube optimum operating conditions for photon correlation experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60339–343 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

O. H. W. Siegmund, J. Vallerga, and B. Wargelin, “Background events in microchannel plates,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 35, 524–528 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Cerezo, T. J. Godfrey, and D. W. Smith, “Application of a position-sensitive detector to atom probe,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 862–866 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

C. Firmani, E. Ruiz, C. W. Carlson, M. Lampton, and F. Paresce, “High-resolution imaging with a two-dimensional resistive photon counter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53, 570–574 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. Martin and S. Bowyer, “Quantum efficiency of opaque CsI photocathodes with channel electron multiplier arrays in the extreme and far ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4206–4207(1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

N. P. Zanodvorov, N. K. Zolina, A. M. Tyutikov, and Y. A. Flegontov, “Estimation of the modulation-transfer functions of microchannel plates,” Radio Eng. Electron. Phys. 25, 129–133(1980).

1979 (2)

I. M. Bronshteyn, A. V. Yevdokimov, V. M. Stozharov, and A. M. Tyutikov, “Differential secondary-emission characteristics of microchannel plates,” Radio Eng. Electron. Phys. 24, 150–152(1979).

M. Lampton and C. W. Carlson, “Low-distortion resistive anodes for two-dimensional position-sensitive MCP systems,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 50, 1093–1097 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

J. L. Wiza, P. R. Henkel, and R. L. Roy, “Improved microchannel plate performance with a resistive anode encoder,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1217–1218 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

Abiad, R.

O. H. W. Siegmund, A. S. Tremsin, J. V. Vallerga, R. Abiad, and J. Hull, “High resolution cross strip anodes for photon counting detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 177–181 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Akers, R. J.

M. R. Tournianski, P. G. Carolan, and R. J. Akers, “Enhanced microchannel plate performance at high particle fluxes by pulsed exposure mode of operation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2854–2859 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Asamura, K.

M. Saito, Y. Saito, K. Asamura, and T. Mukai, “Spatial charge cloud size of microchannel plates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 023302 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Battel, S. J.

O. H. W. Siegmund, J. M. Stock, D. R. Marsh, M. A. Gummin, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, G. A. Gaines, B. Y. Welsh, B. Donakowski, P. N. Jelinsky, T. Sasseen, J. L. Tom, B. Higgins, T. Magoncelli, J. W. Hamilton, S. J. Battel, A. I. Poland, M. D. Jhabvala, K. Sizemore, and J. Shannon, “Delay-line detectors for the UVCS and SUMER instruments on the SOHO Satellite,” Proc. SPIE 2280, 89–100 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bertaux, J.-L.

E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bowyer, S.

Bronshteyn, I. M.

I. M. Bronshteyn, A. V. Yevdokimov, V. M. Stozharov, and A. M. Tyutikov, “Differential secondary-emission characteristics of microchannel plates,” Radio Eng. Electron. Phys. 24, 150–152(1979).

Bybee, R. L.

Capria, M.-Th.

E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, C. W.

C. Firmani, E. Ruiz, C. W. Carlson, M. Lampton, and F. Paresce, “High-resolution imaging with a two-dimensional resistive photon counter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53, 570–574 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Lampton and C. W. Carlson, “Low-distortion resistive anodes for two-dimensional position-sensitive MCP systems,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 50, 1093–1097 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carolan, P. G.

M. R. Tournianski, P. G. Carolan, and R. J. Akers, “Enhanced microchannel plate performance at high particle fluxes by pulsed exposure mode of operation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2854–2859 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cerezo, A.

A. Cerezo, T. J. Godfrey, and D. W. Smith, “Application of a position-sensitive detector to atom probe,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 862–866 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chassefière, E.

E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, J.

E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Correia, J.-J.

E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cremonese, G.

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O. H. W. Siegmund, J. M. Stock, D. R. Marsh, M. A. Gummin, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, G. A. Gaines, B. Y. Welsh, B. Donakowski, P. N. Jelinsky, T. Sasseen, J. L. Tom, B. Higgins, T. Magoncelli, J. W. Hamilton, S. J. Battel, A. I. Poland, M. D. Jhabvala, K. Sizemore, and J. Shannon, “Delay-line detectors for the UVCS and SUMER instruments on the SOHO Satellite,” Proc. SPIE 2280, 89–100 (1994).
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O. H. W. Siegmund, J. M. Stock, D. R. Marsh, M. A. Gummin, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, G. A. Gaines, B. Y. Welsh, B. Donakowski, P. N. Jelinsky, T. Sasseen, J. L. Tom, B. Higgins, T. Magoncelli, J. W. Hamilton, S. J. Battel, A. I. Poland, M. D. Jhabvala, K. Sizemore, and J. Shannon, “Delay-line detectors for the UVCS and SUMER instruments on the SOHO Satellite,” Proc. SPIE 2280, 89–100 (1994).
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E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
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E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
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E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
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Jelinsky, P.

O. H. W. Siegmund, P. Jelinsky, S. Jelinsky, J. Stock, J. Hull, D. Doliber, J. Zaninovich, A. S. Tremsin, and K. Kromer, “High-resolution cross delay line detectors for the GALEX mission,” Proc. SPIE 3765, 429–440 (1999).
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Jelinsky, P. N.

O. H. W. Siegmund, J. M. Stock, D. R. Marsh, M. A. Gummin, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, G. A. Gaines, B. Y. Welsh, B. Donakowski, P. N. Jelinsky, T. Sasseen, J. L. Tom, B. Higgins, T. Magoncelli, J. W. Hamilton, S. J. Battel, A. I. Poland, M. D. Jhabvala, K. Sizemore, and J. Shannon, “Delay-line detectors for the UVCS and SUMER instruments on the SOHO Satellite,” Proc. SPIE 2280, 89–100 (1994).
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Jelinsky, S.

O. H. W. Siegmund, P. Jelinsky, S. Jelinsky, J. Stock, J. Hull, D. Doliber, J. Zaninovich, A. S. Tremsin, and K. Kromer, “High-resolution cross delay line detectors for the GALEX mission,” Proc. SPIE 3765, 429–440 (1999).
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Jhabvala, M. D.

O. H. W. Siegmund, J. M. Stock, D. R. Marsh, M. A. Gummin, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, G. A. Gaines, B. Y. Welsh, B. Donakowski, P. N. Jelinsky, T. Sasseen, J. L. Tom, B. Higgins, T. Magoncelli, J. W. Hamilton, S. J. Battel, A. I. Poland, M. D. Jhabvala, K. Sizemore, and J. Shannon, “Delay-line detectors for the UVCS and SUMER instruments on the SOHO Satellite,” Proc. SPIE 2280, 89–100 (1994).
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R. F. Floryan and C. B. Johnson, “Resistive anode photomultiplier tube optimum operating conditions for photon correlation experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60339–343 (1989).
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Johnson, R.

E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
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Kallio, E.

E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
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I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, S. Kameda, F. Ezawa, T. Toyota, W. Miyake, M. Taguchi, M. Kikuchi, and M. Nakamura, “Telescope of extreme ultraviolet (TEX) onboard SELENE: science from the Moon,” Earth Planets Space 60, 407–416 (2008).

I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, T. Murachi, S. Kameda, H. Sagawa, S. Okano, T. Okada, and M. Nakamura, “Development of an extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer for the BepiColombo mission,” Adv. Space Res. 33, 2195–2199 (2004).
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E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
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E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
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E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
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E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
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E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
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E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
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E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
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E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
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E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
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O. Jagutzki, J. S. Lapington, L. B. C. Worth, U. Spillman, V. Mergel, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, “A broad-application microchannel-plate detector system for advanced particle or photon detection tasks: large area imaging, precise multi-hit timing information and high detection rate,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 477, 244–249 (2002).
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Milillo, A.

E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
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E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
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I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, S. Kameda, F. Ezawa, T. Toyota, W. Miyake, M. Taguchi, M. Kikuchi, and M. Nakamura, “Telescope of extreme ultraviolet (TEX) onboard SELENE: science from the Moon,” Earth Planets Space 60, 407–416 (2008).

A. Yamazaki, S. Tashiro, Y. Nakasaka, I. Yoshikawa, W. Miyake, and M. Nakamura, “Sounding-rocket observation of O II 83.4 nm emission over the polar ionosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2005–2008 (2002).
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M. Nakamura, I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, K. Shiomi, Y. Takizawa, M. Hirahara, K. Yamashita, Y. Saito, and W. Miyake, “Terrestrial plasmaspheric imaging by an extreme ultraviolet scanner on Planet-B,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 141–144 (2000).
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E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
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E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
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K. Yoshioka, K. Hikosaka, G. Murakami, I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, and H. Nozawa, “Development of the EUV detector for the BepiColombo mission,” Adv. Space Res. 41, 1392–1396(2008).
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I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, S. Kameda, F. Ezawa, T. Toyota, W. Miyake, M. Taguchi, M. Kikuchi, and M. Nakamura, “Telescope of extreme ultraviolet (TEX) onboard SELENE: science from the Moon,” Earth Planets Space 60, 407–416 (2008).

I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, T. Murachi, S. Kameda, H. Sagawa, S. Okano, T. Okada, and M. Nakamura, “Development of an extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer for the BepiColombo mission,” Adv. Space Res. 33, 2195–2199 (2004).
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A. Yamazaki, S. Tashiro, Y. Nakasaka, I. Yoshikawa, W. Miyake, and M. Nakamura, “Sounding-rocket observation of O II 83.4 nm emission over the polar ionosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2005–2008 (2002).
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I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, K. Shiomi, K. Yamashita, Y. Takizawa, and M. Nakamura, “Photometric measurement of cold helium ions in the magnetotail by an EUV scanner onboard Planet-B: Evidence of the existence of cold plasmas in the near-Earth plasma sheet,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3567–3570 (2000).
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M. Nakamura, I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, K. Shiomi, Y. Takizawa, M. Hirahara, K. Yamashita, Y. Saito, and W. Miyake, “Terrestrial plasmaspheric imaging by an extreme ultraviolet scanner on Planet-B,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 141–144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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A. Yamazaki, S. Tashiro, Y. Nakasaka, I. Yoshikawa, W. Miyake, and M. Nakamura, “Sounding-rocket observation of O II 83.4 nm emission over the polar ionosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2005–2008 (2002).
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E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
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I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, T. Murachi, S. Kameda, H. Sagawa, S. Okano, T. Okada, and M. Nakamura, “Development of an extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer for the BepiColombo mission,” Adv. Space Res. 33, 2195–2199 (2004).
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E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
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I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, T. Murachi, S. Kameda, H. Sagawa, S. Okano, T. Okada, and M. Nakamura, “Development of an extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer for the BepiColombo mission,” Adv. Space Res. 33, 2195–2199 (2004).
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E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
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E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
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E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
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O. H. W. Siegmund, J. M. Stock, D. R. Marsh, M. A. Gummin, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, G. A. Gaines, B. Y. Welsh, B. Donakowski, P. N. Jelinsky, T. Sasseen, J. L. Tom, B. Higgins, T. Magoncelli, J. W. Hamilton, S. J. Battel, A. I. Poland, M. D. Jhabvala, K. Sizemore, and J. Shannon, “Delay-line detectors for the UVCS and SUMER instruments on the SOHO Satellite,” Proc. SPIE 2280, 89–100 (1994).
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E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
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E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
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O. H. W. Siegmund, J. M. Stock, D. R. Marsh, M. A. Gummin, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, G. A. Gaines, B. Y. Welsh, B. Donakowski, P. N. Jelinsky, T. Sasseen, J. L. Tom, B. Higgins, T. Magoncelli, J. W. Hamilton, S. J. Battel, A. I. Poland, M. D. Jhabvala, K. Sizemore, and J. Shannon, “Delay-line detectors for the UVCS and SUMER instruments on the SOHO Satellite,” Proc. SPIE 2280, 89–100 (1994).
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E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
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E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
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E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
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O. H. W. Siegmund, J. M. Stock, D. R. Marsh, M. A. Gummin, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, G. A. Gaines, B. Y. Welsh, B. Donakowski, P. N. Jelinsky, T. Sasseen, J. L. Tom, B. Higgins, T. Magoncelli, J. W. Hamilton, S. J. Battel, A. I. Poland, M. D. Jhabvala, K. Sizemore, and J. Shannon, “Delay-line detectors for the UVCS and SUMER instruments on the SOHO Satellite,” Proc. SPIE 2280, 89–100 (1994).
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M. Nakamura, I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, K. Shiomi, Y. Takizawa, M. Hirahara, K. Yamashita, Y. Saito, and W. Miyake, “Terrestrial plasmaspheric imaging by an extreme ultraviolet scanner on Planet-B,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 141–144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, K. Shiomi, K. Yamashita, Y. Takizawa, and M. Nakamura, “Photometric measurement of cold helium ions in the magnetotail by an EUV scanner onboard Planet-B: Evidence of the existence of cold plasmas in the near-Earth plasma sheet,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3567–3570 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Yoshikawa, M. Nakamura, M. Hirahara, Y. Takizawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, T. Yamazaki, K. Misaki, and A. Yamaguchi, “Observation of He II emission from the plasmasphere by a newly developed EUV telescope on board sounding rocket S-520-19,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19897–19902(1997).
[CrossRef]

Tashiro, S.

A. Yamazaki, S. Tashiro, Y. Nakasaka, I. Yoshikawa, W. Miyake, and M. Nakamura, “Sounding-rocket observation of O II 83.4 nm emission over the polar ionosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2005–2008 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Timothy, J. G.

Tom, J. L.

O. H. W. Siegmund, J. M. Stock, D. R. Marsh, M. A. Gummin, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, G. A. Gaines, B. Y. Welsh, B. Donakowski, P. N. Jelinsky, T. Sasseen, J. L. Tom, B. Higgins, T. Magoncelli, J. W. Hamilton, S. J. Battel, A. I. Poland, M. D. Jhabvala, K. Sizemore, and J. Shannon, “Delay-line detectors for the UVCS and SUMER instruments on the SOHO Satellite,” Proc. SPIE 2280, 89–100 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tournianski, M. R.

M. R. Tournianski, P. G. Carolan, and R. J. Akers, “Enhanced microchannel plate performance at high particle fluxes by pulsed exposure mode of operation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2854–2859 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Toyota, T.

I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, S. Kameda, F. Ezawa, T. Toyota, W. Miyake, M. Taguchi, M. Kikuchi, and M. Nakamura, “Telescope of extreme ultraviolet (TEX) onboard SELENE: science from the Moon,” Earth Planets Space 60, 407–416 (2008).

Tremsin, A.

J. Vallerga, J. McPhate, A. Tremsin, and O. H. W. Siegmund, “The current and future capabilities of MCP based UV detectors,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 320, 247–250 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tremsin, A. S.

O. H. W. Siegmund, A. S. Tremsin, J. V. Vallerga, R. Abiad, and J. Hull, “High resolution cross strip anodes for photon counting detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 177–181 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Tremsin and O. H. W. Siegmund, “Spatial distribution of electron cloud footprints from microchannel plates: measurements and modeling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3282–3288(1999).
[CrossRef]

O. H. W. Siegmund, P. Jelinsky, S. Jelinsky, J. Stock, J. Hull, D. Doliber, J. Zaninovich, A. S. Tremsin, and K. Kromer, “High-resolution cross delay line detectors for the GALEX mission,” Proc. SPIE 3765, 429–440 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tyutikov, A. M.

N. P. Zanodvorov, N. K. Zolina, A. M. Tyutikov, and Y. A. Flegontov, “Estimation of the modulation-transfer functions of microchannel plates,” Radio Eng. Electron. Phys. 25, 129–133(1980).

I. M. Bronshteyn, A. V. Yevdokimov, V. M. Stozharov, and A. M. Tyutikov, “Differential secondary-emission characteristics of microchannel plates,” Radio Eng. Electron. Phys. 24, 150–152(1979).

Uemizu, K.

K. Yoshioka, G. Murakami, I. Yoshikawa, M. Ueno, K. Uemizu, and A. Yamazaki, “EUV observation from the Earth-orbiting satellite, EXCEED,” Adv. Space Res. 45, 314–321(2010).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, M.

K. Yoshioka, G. Murakami, I. Yoshikawa, M. Ueno, K. Uemizu, and A. Yamazaki, “EUV observation from the Earth-orbiting satellite, EXCEED,” Adv. Space Res. 45, 314–321(2010).
[CrossRef]

Vallerga, J.

J. Vallerga, J. McPhate, A. Tremsin, and O. H. W. Siegmund, “The current and future capabilities of MCP based UV detectors,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 320, 247–250 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. H. W. Siegmund, J. Vallerga, and B. Wargelin, “Background events in microchannel plates,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 35, 524–528 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Vallerga, J. V.

O. H. W. Siegmund, A. S. Tremsin, J. V. Vallerga, R. Abiad, and J. Hull, “High resolution cross strip anodes for photon counting detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 177–181 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wargelin, B.

O. H. W. Siegmund, J. Vallerga, and B. Wargelin, “Background events in microchannel plates,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 35, 524–528 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Welsh, B. Y.

O. H. W. Siegmund, J. M. Stock, D. R. Marsh, M. A. Gummin, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, G. A. Gaines, B. Y. Welsh, B. Donakowski, P. N. Jelinsky, T. Sasseen, J. L. Tom, B. Higgins, T. Magoncelli, J. W. Hamilton, S. J. Battel, A. I. Poland, M. D. Jhabvala, K. Sizemore, and J. Shannon, “Delay-line detectors for the UVCS and SUMER instruments on the SOHO Satellite,” Proc. SPIE 2280, 89–100 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wiza, J. L.

J. L. Wiza, P. R. Henkel, and R. L. Roy, “Improved microchannel plate performance with a resistive anode encoder,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1217–1218 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Worth, L. B. C.

O. Jagutzki, J. S. Lapington, L. B. C. Worth, U. Spillman, V. Mergel, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, “A broad-application microchannel-plate detector system for advanced particle or photon detection tasks: large area imaging, precise multi-hit timing information and high detection rate,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 477, 244–249 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, A.

I. Yoshikawa, M. Nakamura, M. Hirahara, Y. Takizawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, T. Yamazaki, K. Misaki, and A. Yamaguchi, “Observation of He II emission from the plasmasphere by a newly developed EUV telescope on board sounding rocket S-520-19,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19897–19902(1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, K.

I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, K. Shiomi, K. Yamashita, Y. Takizawa, and M. Nakamura, “Photometric measurement of cold helium ions in the magnetotail by an EUV scanner onboard Planet-B: Evidence of the existence of cold plasmas in the near-Earth plasma sheet,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3567–3570 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakamura, I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, K. Shiomi, Y. Takizawa, M. Hirahara, K. Yamashita, Y. Saito, and W. Miyake, “Terrestrial plasmaspheric imaging by an extreme ultraviolet scanner on Planet-B,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 141–144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Yoshikawa, M. Nakamura, M. Hirahara, Y. Takizawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, T. Yamazaki, K. Misaki, and A. Yamaguchi, “Observation of He II emission from the plasmasphere by a newly developed EUV telescope on board sounding rocket S-520-19,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19897–19902(1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, A.

K. Yoshioka, G. Murakami, I. Yoshikawa, M. Ueno, K. Uemizu, and A. Yamazaki, “EUV observation from the Earth-orbiting satellite, EXCEED,” Adv. Space Res. 45, 314–321(2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, S. Kameda, F. Ezawa, T. Toyota, W. Miyake, M. Taguchi, M. Kikuchi, and M. Nakamura, “Telescope of extreme ultraviolet (TEX) onboard SELENE: science from the Moon,” Earth Planets Space 60, 407–416 (2008).

K. Yoshioka, K. Hikosaka, G. Murakami, I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, and H. Nozawa, “Development of the EUV detector for the BepiColombo mission,” Adv. Space Res. 41, 1392–1396(2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, T. Murachi, S. Kameda, H. Sagawa, S. Okano, T. Okada, and M. Nakamura, “Development of an extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer for the BepiColombo mission,” Adv. Space Res. 33, 2195–2199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Yamazaki, S. Tashiro, Y. Nakasaka, I. Yoshikawa, W. Miyake, and M. Nakamura, “Sounding-rocket observation of O II 83.4 nm emission over the polar ionosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2005–2008 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, K. Shiomi, K. Yamashita, Y. Takizawa, and M. Nakamura, “Photometric measurement of cold helium ions in the magnetotail by an EUV scanner onboard Planet-B: Evidence of the existence of cold plasmas in the near-Earth plasma sheet,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3567–3570 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakamura, I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, K. Shiomi, Y. Takizawa, M. Hirahara, K. Yamashita, Y. Saito, and W. Miyake, “Terrestrial plasmaspheric imaging by an extreme ultraviolet scanner on Planet-B,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 141–144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, T.

I. Yoshikawa, M. Nakamura, M. Hirahara, Y. Takizawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, T. Yamazaki, K. Misaki, and A. Yamaguchi, “Observation of He II emission from the plasmasphere by a newly developed EUV telescope on board sounding rocket S-520-19,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19897–19902(1997).
[CrossRef]

Yan, N.

E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yevdokimov, A. V.

I. M. Bronshteyn, A. V. Yevdokimov, V. M. Stozharov, and A. M. Tyutikov, “Differential secondary-emission characteristics of microchannel plates,” Radio Eng. Electron. Phys. 24, 150–152(1979).

Yokota, S.

S. Yokota and Y. Saito, “Circular one-dimensional position-sensitive time-of-flight microchannel plate detector using resistive anode for space plasma measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 013301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshikawa, I.

E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshioka, G. Murakami, I. Yoshikawa, M. Ueno, K. Uemizu, and A. Yamazaki, “EUV observation from the Earth-orbiting satellite, EXCEED,” Adv. Space Res. 45, 314–321(2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, S. Kameda, F. Ezawa, T. Toyota, W. Miyake, M. Taguchi, M. Kikuchi, and M. Nakamura, “Telescope of extreme ultraviolet (TEX) onboard SELENE: science from the Moon,” Earth Planets Space 60, 407–416 (2008).

K. Yoshioka, K. Hikosaka, G. Murakami, I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, and H. Nozawa, “Development of the EUV detector for the BepiColombo mission,” Adv. Space Res. 41, 1392–1396(2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, T. Murachi, S. Kameda, H. Sagawa, S. Okano, T. Okada, and M. Nakamura, “Development of an extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer for the BepiColombo mission,” Adv. Space Res. 33, 2195–2199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Yamazaki, S. Tashiro, Y. Nakasaka, I. Yoshikawa, W. Miyake, and M. Nakamura, “Sounding-rocket observation of O II 83.4 nm emission over the polar ionosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2005–2008 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, K. Shiomi, K. Yamashita, Y. Takizawa, and M. Nakamura, “Photometric measurement of cold helium ions in the magnetotail by an EUV scanner onboard Planet-B: Evidence of the existence of cold plasmas in the near-Earth plasma sheet,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3567–3570 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakamura, I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, K. Shiomi, Y. Takizawa, M. Hirahara, K. Yamashita, Y. Saito, and W. Miyake, “Terrestrial plasmaspheric imaging by an extreme ultraviolet scanner on Planet-B,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 141–144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Yoshikawa, M. Nakamura, M. Hirahara, Y. Takizawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, T. Yamazaki, K. Misaki, and A. Yamaguchi, “Observation of He II emission from the plasmasphere by a newly developed EUV telescope on board sounding rocket S-520-19,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19897–19902(1997).
[CrossRef]

Yoshioka, K.

E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshioka, G. Murakami, I. Yoshikawa, M. Ueno, K. Uemizu, and A. Yamazaki, “EUV observation from the Earth-orbiting satellite, EXCEED,” Adv. Space Res. 45, 314–321(2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, S. Kameda, F. Ezawa, T. Toyota, W. Miyake, M. Taguchi, M. Kikuchi, and M. Nakamura, “Telescope of extreme ultraviolet (TEX) onboard SELENE: science from the Moon,” Earth Planets Space 60, 407–416 (2008).

K. Yoshioka, K. Hikosaka, G. Murakami, I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, and H. Nozawa, “Development of the EUV detector for the BepiColombo mission,” Adv. Space Res. 41, 1392–1396(2008).
[CrossRef]

Zaninovich, J.

O. H. W. Siegmund, P. Jelinsky, S. Jelinsky, J. Stock, J. Hull, D. Doliber, J. Zaninovich, A. S. Tremsin, and K. Kromer, “High-resolution cross delay line detectors for the GALEX mission,” Proc. SPIE 3765, 429–440 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zanodvorov, N. P.

N. P. Zanodvorov, N. K. Zolina, A. M. Tyutikov, and Y. A. Flegontov, “Estimation of the modulation-transfer functions of microchannel plates,” Radio Eng. Electron. Phys. 25, 129–133(1980).

Zolina, N. K.

N. P. Zanodvorov, N. K. Zolina, A. M. Tyutikov, and Y. A. Flegontov, “Estimation of the modulation-transfer functions of microchannel plates,” Radio Eng. Electron. Phys. 25, 129–133(1980).

Adv. Space Res. (3)

K. Yoshioka, G. Murakami, I. Yoshikawa, M. Ueno, K. Uemizu, and A. Yamazaki, “EUV observation from the Earth-orbiting satellite, EXCEED,” Adv. Space Res. 45, 314–321(2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, T. Murachi, S. Kameda, H. Sagawa, S. Okano, T. Okada, and M. Nakamura, “Development of an extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer for the BepiColombo mission,” Adv. Space Res. 33, 2195–2199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshioka, K. Hikosaka, G. Murakami, I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, and H. Nozawa, “Development of the EUV detector for the BepiColombo mission,” Adv. Space Res. 41, 1392–1396(2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astrophys. Space Sci. (1)

J. Vallerga, J. McPhate, A. Tremsin, and O. H. W. Siegmund, “The current and future capabilities of MCP based UV detectors,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 320, 247–250 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Earth Planets Space (1)

I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, S. Kameda, F. Ezawa, T. Toyota, W. Miyake, M. Taguchi, M. Kikuchi, and M. Nakamura, “Telescope of extreme ultraviolet (TEX) onboard SELENE: science from the Moon,” Earth Planets Space 60, 407–416 (2008).

Geophys. Res. Lett. (3)

M. Nakamura, I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, K. Shiomi, Y. Takizawa, M. Hirahara, K. Yamashita, Y. Saito, and W. Miyake, “Terrestrial plasmaspheric imaging by an extreme ultraviolet scanner on Planet-B,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 141–144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, K. Shiomi, K. Yamashita, Y. Takizawa, and M. Nakamura, “Photometric measurement of cold helium ions in the magnetotail by an EUV scanner onboard Planet-B: Evidence of the existence of cold plasmas in the near-Earth plasma sheet,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3567–3570 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Yamazaki, S. Tashiro, Y. Nakasaka, I. Yoshikawa, W. Miyake, and M. Nakamura, “Sounding-rocket observation of O II 83.4 nm emission over the polar ionosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2005–2008 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

O. H. W. Siegmund, J. Vallerga, and B. Wargelin, “Background events in microchannel plates,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 35, 524–528 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

I. Yoshikawa, M. Nakamura, M. Hirahara, Y. Takizawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, T. Yamazaki, K. Misaki, and A. Yamaguchi, “Observation of He II emission from the plasmasphere by a newly developed EUV telescope on board sounding rocket S-520-19,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19897–19902(1997).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (3)

O. Jagutzki, J. S. Lapington, L. B. C. Worth, U. Spillman, V. Mergel, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, “A broad-application microchannel-plate detector system for advanced particle or photon detection tasks: large area imaging, precise multi-hit timing information and high detection rate,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 477, 244–249 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. H. W. Siegmund, A. S. Tremsin, J. V. Vallerga, R. Abiad, and J. Hull, “High resolution cross strip anodes for photon counting detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 177–181 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Lapington, “A comparison of readout techniques for high-resolution imaging with microchannel plate detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 525, 361–365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci. (1)

E. Chassefière, J.-L. Maria, J.-P. Goutail, E. Quémerais, F. Leblanc, S. Okano, I. Yoshikawa, O. Korablev, V. Gnedykh, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, M.-G. Pelizzo, J.-J. Correia, S. Gallet, C. Hourtoule, P.-O. Mine, C. Montaron, N. Rouanet, J.-B. Rigal, G. Murakami, K. Yoshioka, O. Kozlov, V. Kottsov, P. Moisseev, N. Semena, J.-L. Bertaux, M.-Th. Capria, J. Clarke, G. Cremonese, D. Delcourt, A. Doressoundiram, S. Erard, R. Gladstone, M. Grande, D. Hunten, W. Ip, V. Izmodenov, A. Jambon, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, R. Killen, R. Lallement, J. Luhmann, M. Mendillo, A. Milillo, H. Palme, A. Potter, S. Sasaki, D. Slater, A. Sprague, A. Stern, and N. Yan, “PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe Mercury’s exosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 58, 201–223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

O. H. W. Siegmund, J. M. Stock, D. R. Marsh, M. A. Gummin, R. Raffanti, J. Hull, G. A. Gaines, B. Y. Welsh, B. Donakowski, P. N. Jelinsky, T. Sasseen, J. L. Tom, B. Higgins, T. Magoncelli, J. W. Hamilton, S. J. Battel, A. I. Poland, M. D. Jhabvala, K. Sizemore, and J. Shannon, “Delay-line detectors for the UVCS and SUMER instruments on the SOHO Satellite,” Proc. SPIE 2280, 89–100 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. H. W. Siegmund, P. Jelinsky, S. Jelinsky, J. Stock, J. Hull, D. Doliber, J. Zaninovich, A. S. Tremsin, and K. Kromer, “High-resolution cross delay line detectors for the GALEX mission,” Proc. SPIE 3765, 429–440 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Radio Eng. Electron. Phys. (2)

N. P. Zanodvorov, N. K. Zolina, A. M. Tyutikov, and Y. A. Flegontov, “Estimation of the modulation-transfer functions of microchannel plates,” Radio Eng. Electron. Phys. 25, 129–133(1980).

I. M. Bronshteyn, A. V. Yevdokimov, V. M. Stozharov, and A. M. Tyutikov, “Differential secondary-emission characteristics of microchannel plates,” Radio Eng. Electron. Phys. 24, 150–152(1979).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (9)

J. L. Wiza, P. R. Henkel, and R. L. Roy, “Improved microchannel plate performance with a resistive anode encoder,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1217–1218 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Tournianski, P. G. Carolan, and R. J. Akers, “Enhanced microchannel plate performance at high particle fluxes by pulsed exposure mode of operation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2854–2859 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Yokota and Y. Saito, “Circular one-dimensional position-sensitive time-of-flight microchannel plate detector using resistive anode for space plasma measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 013301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lampton and C. W. Carlson, “Low-distortion resistive anodes for two-dimensional position-sensitive MCP systems,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 50, 1093–1097 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cerezo, T. J. Godfrey, and D. W. Smith, “Application of a position-sensitive detector to atom probe,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 862–866 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. Firmani, E. Ruiz, C. W. Carlson, M. Lampton, and F. Paresce, “High-resolution imaging with a two-dimensional resistive photon counter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53, 570–574 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Floryan and C. B. Johnson, “Resistive anode photomultiplier tube optimum operating conditions for photon correlation experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60339–343 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Tremsin and O. H. W. Siegmund, “Spatial distribution of electron cloud footprints from microchannel plates: measurements and modeling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3282–3288(1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Saito, Y. Saito, K. Asamura, and T. Mukai, “Spatial charge cloud size of microchannel plates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 023302 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the coordinate system used for the calculation of the charge cloud spreading. Potentials accelerating electrons from the V stack toward the Z stack are considered positive.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy distribution curves of electrons at MCP output at fixed output angles, measured by Bronshteyn et al. (1979)]. The electrons with high energy are concentrated in small output angles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Distribution of the electron cloud at the Z-stack input calculated with the ballistic model. The total number of electrons arriving at the Z stack for each V g is normalized. (b) FWHM of the electron distribution at the Z-stack input for each V g . Applying the negative interstack potential clearly reduced the size of the electron cloud, rather than applying the positive interstack potential.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of the prototype detector. The detector requires five separate potentials to operate: the potential between the photocathode and the input surface of the V stack ( V p ), that across the V stack ( V v ), that between the output surface of the V stack and the input surface of the Z stack ( V g ), that across the Z stack ( V z ), and that between the output surface of the Z stack and the resistive anode ( V a ).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Test target image obtained by the experimental detector. (b) Cross-sectional profile of (a) taken along the white line at 4.7   lines / mm . In this case, the contrast at 4.7   lines / mm is 0.76.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of the contrast on the potential applied between the photocathode and the V-stack input ( V p ). Each contrast measured at 4.7 and 5.2   lines / mm is shown. The contrast clearly increases with V p and is saturated at V p of 350 400 V .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dependence of the contrast on the potential applied between the Z-stack output and the RAE ( V a ). Each contrast measured at 4.7 and 5.2   lines / mm is shown. There seems to be no correlation between the contrast and the V a from 200 to 600 V .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) PHDs with various high voltages applied. The gain increases and the distribution becomes wider as applied voltage increases. (b) Dependence of the contrast at 6.3   lines / mm on the gain. The PHD corresponding to each point is shown in (a) in the same symbol. While the contrast linearly increases with the gain below 1.6 × 10 7 , there seems to be no correlation between the contrast and the gain over 1.6 × 10 7 .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Examples of the PHDs with various applied potentials. The applied potentials are controlled appropriately so that each PHD has approximately the same gain at the peak.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Dependence of the PHR on the interstack potential ( V g ). The potential applied at each stack ( V v and V z ) is controlled to obtain the lowest PHR for each V g . The PHRs with negative V g are clearly smaller than those with positive V g .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Dependence of the contrast on the interstack potential ( V g ). Each contrast measured at 4.7 and 5.2   lines / mm is shown. The potential applied at each stack ( V v and V z ) is controlled to obtain the highest contrast for each V g .

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Modulation transfer function with the optimum potential ( V p = 350 V , V v = 1800 V , V g = 100 V , V z = 1900 V , and V a = 500 V ). The spatial frequency where the contrast equals 0.33 is 11.0   lines / mm , which indicates that the spatial resolution of our detector is 45 μm .

Equations (6)

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f ( E , θ ) = e τ 2 / 2 Δ 2 | A ( τ ) e ( E E 0 ) 2 / 2 σ 0 2 B ( τ ) e ( E E 1 ( τ ) ) 2 / 2 σ 1 2 ( τ ) | ,
E 0 = 3 eV , σ 0 = 12 eV , Δ = 0.2 , A ( τ ) = 50.398 e 7.3822 τ , B ( τ ) = 25.992 e 9.8642 τ , E 1 ( τ ) = 314.45 e 6.9515 τ , σ 1 ( τ ) = 147.62 e 9.7077 τ .
r = 2 E m e t sin θ ,
z = 2 E m e t cos θ + q e V g t 2 2 m e D ,
X = A + B A + B + C + D ,
Y = B + C A + B + C + D .

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