Abstract

We report on the construction and calibration of a dual photoelastic-modulator (PEM)-based polarimetric camera operating at 660nm. This camera is our first prototype for a multispectral system being developed for airborne and spaceborne remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols. The camera includes a dual-PEM assembly integrated into a three-element, low-polarization reflective telescope and provides both intensity and polarization imaging. A miniaturized focal-plane assembly consisting of spectral filters and patterned wire-grid polarizers provides wavelength and polarimetric selection. A custom push-broom detector array with specialized signal acquisition, readout, and processing electronics captures the radiometric and polarimetric information. Focal-plane polarizers at orientations of 0° and 45° yield the normalized Stokes parameters q=Q/I and u=U/I respectively, which are then coregistered to obtain degree of linear polarization (DOLP) and angle of linear polarization. Laboratory test data, calibration results, and outdoor imagery acquired with the camera are presented. The results show that, over a wide range of DOLP, our challenging objective of uncertainty within ±0.005 has been achieved.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (1)

F. Waquet, B. Cairns, K. Knobelspiesse, J. Chowdhary, L. D. Travis, B. Schmid, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols over land,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D01206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. Mahler, N. A. Raouf, P. K. Smith, S. C. McClain, and R. A. Chipman, “Minimizing instrumental polarization in the Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI) using diattenuation balancing between the three mirror coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

A. Mahler, P. K. Smith, and R. A. Chipman, “Low polarization optical system design,” Proc. SPIE 6682, 66820V (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahler and R. Chipman, “Tolerancing and alignment of a three-mirror off-axis telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6676, 66760I(2007).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Hasekamp and J. Landgraf, “Retrieval of aerosol properties over land surfaces: capabilities of multiple-viewing-angle intensity and polarization measurements,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3332–3344 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Diner, A. Davis, B. Hancock, G. Gutt, R. A. Chipman, and B. Cairns, “Dual photoelastic modulator-based polarimetric imaging concept for aerosol remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 46, 8428–8445 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Torres, A. Tanskanen, B. Veihelmann, C. Ahn, R. Braak, P. K. Bhartia, P. Veefkind, and P. Levelt, “Aerosols and surface UV products from Ozone Monitoring Instrument observations: an overview,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Lebsock, T. L’Ecuyer, and G. L. Stephens, “Information content of near-infrared spaceborne multiangular polarization measurements for aerosol retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D14206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

W. M. F. Grey, P. R. J. North, S. O. Los, and R. M. Mitchell, “Aerosol optical depth and land surface reflectance from multiangle AATSR measurements: global validation and intersensor comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 2184–2197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

D. J. Diner, B. H. Braswell, R. Davies, N. Gobron, J. N. Hu, Y. F. Jin, R. A. Kahn, Y. Knyazikhin, N. Loeb, J.-P Muller, A. W. Nolin, B. Pinty, C. B. Schaaf, G. Seiz, and J. Stroeve, “The value of multiangle measurements for retrieving structurally and radiatively consistent properties of clouds, aerosols, and surfaces,” Remote Sens. Environ. 97, 495–518 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kahn, B. J. Gaitley, J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, K. A. Crean, and B. Holben, “Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) global aerosol optical depth validation based on 2 years of coincident Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S04 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Kalashnikova, R. Kahn, I. N. Sokolik, and W.-H Li, “Ability of multiangle remote sensing observations to identify and distinguish mineral dust types: Optical models and retrievals of optically thick plumes,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D18S14 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Herman, J.-L Deuzé, A. Marchand, B. Roger, and P. Lallart, “Aerosol remote sensing from POLDER/ADEOS over the ocean: improved retrieval using a nonspherical particle model,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S02 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R. R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947–973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

B. Wang, J. List, and R. R. Rockwell, “A Stokes polarimeter using two photoelastic modulators,” Proc. SPIE 4819, 1–8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, M. M. Smyth, and J. Zong, “MISR in-flight camera geometric model calibration and georectification performance,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 1512–1519 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. TorresP. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Syniuk, P. Ginoux, and B. Holben, “A long term record of aerosol optical depth from TOMS observations and comparison to AERONET measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 398–413 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Case studies of aerosol retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 383–397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

N. L. Thomas and J. D. Wolfe, “UV-shifted silver coating for astronomical mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4003, 312–323 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. J. Diner, J. C. Beckert, T. H. Reilly, C. J. Bruegge, J. E. Conel, R. A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, J.-P. Muller, R. B. Myneni, P. J. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1072–1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

A. F. Drake, “Polarisation modulation—the measurement of linear and circular dichroism,” J. Phys. E 19, 170–181 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1981 (1)

J. C. Kemp, “Photoelastic-modulator polarimeters in astronomy,” Proc. SPIE 307, 83–88 (1981).

1979 (1)

1977 (1)

J. C. Kemp, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Lebofsky, and G. V. Coyne, “The infrared polarization of NGC 1275, NGC 4151, Markarian 231, and 3C 273,” Astrophys. J. 215, L107–L110 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1969 (3)

1966 (1)

M. Billardon and J. Badoz, “Modulateur de biréfringence,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Ser. B 262, 1672–1675 (1966).

Ackerman, T. P.

D. J. Diner, J. C. Beckert, T. H. Reilly, C. J. Bruegge, J. E. Conel, R. A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, J.-P. Muller, R. B. Myneni, P. J. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1072–1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, C.

O. Torres, A. Tanskanen, B. Veihelmann, C. Ahn, R. Braak, P. K. Bhartia, P. Veefkind, and P. Levelt, “Aerosols and surface UV products from Ozone Monitoring Instrument observations: an overview,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Badoz, J.

M. Billardon and J. Badoz, “Modulateur de biréfringence,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Ser. B 262, 1672–1675 (1966).

Beckert, J. C.

D. J. Diner, J. C. Beckert, T. H. Reilly, C. J. Bruegge, J. E. Conel, R. A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, J.-P. Muller, R. B. Myneni, P. J. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1072–1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bhartia, P. K.

O. Torres, A. Tanskanen, B. Veihelmann, C. Ahn, R. Braak, P. K. Bhartia, P. Veefkind, and P. Levelt, “Aerosols and surface UV products from Ozone Monitoring Instrument observations: an overview,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. TorresP. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Syniuk, P. Ginoux, and B. Holben, “A long term record of aerosol optical depth from TOMS observations and comparison to AERONET measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 398–413 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Billardon, M.

M. Billardon and J. Badoz, “Modulateur de biréfringence,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Ser. B 262, 1672–1675 (1966).

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman,” Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles. (Wiley, 1983).

Boyer, G. R.

Braak, R.

O. Torres, A. Tanskanen, B. Veihelmann, C. Ahn, R. Braak, P. K. Bhartia, P. Veefkind, and P. Levelt, “Aerosols and surface UV products from Ozone Monitoring Instrument observations: an overview,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Braswell, B. H.

D. J. Diner, B. H. Braswell, R. Davies, N. Gobron, J. N. Hu, Y. F. Jin, R. A. Kahn, Y. Knyazikhin, N. Loeb, J.-P Muller, A. W. Nolin, B. Pinty, C. B. Schaaf, G. Seiz, and J. Stroeve, “The value of multiangle measurements for retrieving structurally and radiatively consistent properties of clouds, aerosols, and surfaces,” Remote Sens. Environ. 97, 495–518 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bruegge, C. J.

D. J. Diner, J. C. Beckert, T. H. Reilly, C. J. Bruegge, J. E. Conel, R. A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, J.-P. Muller, R. B. Myneni, P. J. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1072–1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bull, M. A.

V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, M. M. Smyth, and J. Zong, “MISR in-flight camera geometric model calibration and georectification performance,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 1512–1519 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burg, R.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, B.

F. Waquet, B. Cairns, K. Knobelspiesse, J. Chowdhary, L. D. Travis, B. Schmid, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols over land,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D01206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Diner, A. Davis, B. Hancock, G. Gutt, R. A. Chipman, and B. Cairns, “Dual photoelastic modulator-based polarimetric imaging concept for aerosol remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 46, 8428–8445 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Case studies of aerosol retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 383–397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chipman, R.

A. Mahler and R. Chipman, “Tolerancing and alignment of a three-mirror off-axis telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6676, 66760I(2007).
[CrossRef]

Chipman, R. A.

A. Mahler, N. A. Raouf, P. K. Smith, S. C. McClain, and R. A. Chipman, “Minimizing instrumental polarization in the Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI) using diattenuation balancing between the three mirror coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahler, P. K. Smith, and R. A. Chipman, “Low polarization optical system design,” Proc. SPIE 6682, 66820V (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Diner, A. Davis, B. Hancock, G. Gutt, R. A. Chipman, and B. Cairns, “Dual photoelastic modulator-based polarimetric imaging concept for aerosol remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 46, 8428–8445 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chowdhary, J.

F. Waquet, B. Cairns, K. Knobelspiesse, J. Chowdhary, L. D. Travis, B. Schmid, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols over land,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D01206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Case studies of aerosol retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 383–397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chu, D. A.

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R. R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947–973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Conel, J. E.

D. J. Diner, J. C. Beckert, T. H. Reilly, C. J. Bruegge, J. E. Conel, R. A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, J.-P. Muller, R. B. Myneni, P. J. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1072–1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Coyne, G. V.

J. C. Kemp, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Lebofsky, and G. V. Coyne, “The infrared polarization of NGC 1275, NGC 4151, Markarian 231, and 3C 273,” Astrophys. J. 215, L107–L110 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Crean, K. A.

R. A. Kahn, B. J. Gaitley, J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, K. A. Crean, and B. Holben, “Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) global aerosol optical depth validation based on 2 years of coincident Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S04 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davies, R.

D. J. Diner, B. H. Braswell, R. Davies, N. Gobron, J. N. Hu, Y. F. Jin, R. A. Kahn, Y. Knyazikhin, N. Loeb, J.-P Muller, A. W. Nolin, B. Pinty, C. B. Schaaf, G. Seiz, and J. Stroeve, “The value of multiangle measurements for retrieving structurally and radiatively consistent properties of clouds, aerosols, and surfaces,” Remote Sens. Environ. 97, 495–518 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Diner, J. C. Beckert, T. H. Reilly, C. J. Bruegge, J. E. Conel, R. A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, J.-P. Muller, R. B. Myneni, P. J. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1072–1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davis, A.

Deuzé, J.-L

M. Herman, J.-L Deuzé, A. Marchand, B. Roger, and P. Lallart, “Aerosol remote sensing from POLDER/ADEOS over the ocean: improved retrieval using a nonspherical particle model,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S02 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Diner, D. J.

D. J. Diner, A. Davis, B. Hancock, G. Gutt, R. A. Chipman, and B. Cairns, “Dual photoelastic modulator-based polarimetric imaging concept for aerosol remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 46, 8428–8445 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Kahn, B. J. Gaitley, J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, K. A. Crean, and B. Holben, “Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) global aerosol optical depth validation based on 2 years of coincident Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S04 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Rockwell, R. R.

B. Wang, J. List, and R. R. Rockwell, “A Stokes polarimeter using two photoelastic modulators,” Proc. SPIE 4819, 1–8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roger, B.

M. Herman, J.-L Deuzé, A. Marchand, B. Roger, and P. Lallart, “Aerosol remote sensing from POLDER/ADEOS over the ocean: improved retrieval using a nonspherical particle model,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S02 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schaaf, C. B.

D. J. Diner, B. H. Braswell, R. Davies, N. Gobron, J. N. Hu, Y. F. Jin, R. A. Kahn, Y. Knyazikhin, N. Loeb, J.-P Muller, A. W. Nolin, B. Pinty, C. B. Schaaf, G. Seiz, and J. Stroeve, “The value of multiangle measurements for retrieving structurally and radiatively consistent properties of clouds, aerosols, and surfaces,” Remote Sens. Environ. 97, 495–518 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, B.

F. Waquet, B. Cairns, K. Knobelspiesse, J. Chowdhary, L. D. Travis, B. Schmid, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols over land,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D01206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schnatterly, S. E.

S. N. Jasperson and S. E. Schnatterly, “An improved method for high reflectivity ellipsometry based on a new polarization modulation technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. . 40, 761–767 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Seiz, G.

D. J. Diner, B. H. Braswell, R. Davies, N. Gobron, J. N. Hu, Y. F. Jin, R. A. Kahn, Y. Knyazikhin, N. Loeb, J.-P Muller, A. W. Nolin, B. Pinty, C. B. Schaaf, G. Seiz, and J. Stroeve, “The value of multiangle measurements for retrieving structurally and radiatively consistent properties of clouds, aerosols, and surfaces,” Remote Sens. Environ. 97, 495–518 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sellers, P. J.

D. J. Diner, J. C. Beckert, T. H. Reilly, C. J. Bruegge, J. E. Conel, R. A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, J.-P. Muller, R. B. Myneni, P. J. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1072–1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. K.

A. Mahler, N. A. Raouf, P. K. Smith, S. C. McClain, and R. A. Chipman, “Minimizing instrumental polarization in the Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI) using diattenuation balancing between the three mirror coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahler, P. K. Smith, and R. A. Chipman, “Low polarization optical system design,” Proc. SPIE 6682, 66820V (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smyth, M.

V. Jovanovic, B. Ledeboer, M. Smyth, and J. Zong, “Georectification of the Airborne Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer,” ISPRS Workshop on High Resolution Mapping from Space, Hannover, Germany, 2001.

Smyth, M. M.

V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, M. M. Smyth, and J. Zong, “MISR in-flight camera geometric model calibration and georectification performance,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 1512–1519 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sokolik, I. N.

O. Kalashnikova, R. Kahn, I. N. Sokolik, and W.-H Li, “Ability of multiangle remote sensing observations to identify and distinguish mineral dust types: Optical models and retrievals of optically thick plumes,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D18S14 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stenflo, J. O.

Stephens, G. L.

M. D. Lebsock, T. L’Ecuyer, and G. L. Stephens, “Information content of near-infrared spaceborne multiangular polarization measurements for aerosol retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D14206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stroeve, J.

D. J. Diner, B. H. Braswell, R. Davies, N. Gobron, J. N. Hu, Y. F. Jin, R. A. Kahn, Y. Knyazikhin, N. Loeb, J.-P Muller, A. W. Nolin, B. Pinty, C. B. Schaaf, G. Seiz, and J. Stroeve, “The value of multiangle measurements for retrieving structurally and radiatively consistent properties of clouds, aerosols, and surfaces,” Remote Sens. Environ. 97, 495–518 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Syniuk, A.

O. TorresP. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Syniuk, P. Ginoux, and B. Holben, “A long term record of aerosol optical depth from TOMS observations and comparison to AERONET measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 398–413 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tanré, D.

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R. R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947–973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tanskanen, A.

O. Torres, A. Tanskanen, B. Veihelmann, C. Ahn, R. Braak, P. K. Bhartia, P. Veefkind, and P. Levelt, “Aerosols and surface UV products from Ozone Monitoring Instrument observations: an overview,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, N. L.

N. L. Thomas and J. D. Wolfe, “UV-shifted silver coating for astronomical mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4003, 312–323 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Torres, O.

O. Torres, A. Tanskanen, B. Veihelmann, C. Ahn, R. Braak, P. K. Bhartia, P. Veefkind, and P. Levelt, “Aerosols and surface UV products from Ozone Monitoring Instrument observations: an overview,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. TorresP. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Syniuk, P. Ginoux, and B. Holben, “A long term record of aerosol optical depth from TOMS observations and comparison to AERONET measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 398–413 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Travis, L. D.

F. Waquet, B. Cairns, K. Knobelspiesse, J. Chowdhary, L. D. Travis, B. Schmid, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols over land,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D01206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Case studies of aerosol retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 383–397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Veefkind, P.

O. Torres, A. Tanskanen, B. Veihelmann, C. Ahn, R. Braak, P. K. Bhartia, P. Veefkind, and P. Levelt, “Aerosols and surface UV products from Ozone Monitoring Instrument observations: an overview,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Veihelmann, B.

O. Torres, A. Tanskanen, B. Veihelmann, C. Ahn, R. Braak, P. K. Bhartia, P. Veefkind, and P. Levelt, “Aerosols and surface UV products from Ozone Monitoring Instrument observations: an overview,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E.

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R. R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947–973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Verstraete, M.

D. J. Diner, J. C. Beckert, T. H. Reilly, C. J. Bruegge, J. E. Conel, R. A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, J.-P. Muller, R. B. Myneni, P. J. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1072–1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

B. Wang, J. List, and R. R. Rockwell, “A Stokes polarimeter using two photoelastic modulators,” Proc. SPIE 4819, 1–8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Waquet, F.

F. Waquet, B. Cairns, K. Knobelspiesse, J. Chowdhary, L. D. Travis, B. Schmid, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols over land,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D01206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, J. D.

N. L. Thomas and J. D. Wolfe, “UV-shifted silver coating for astronomical mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4003, 312–323 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zong, J.

V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, M. M. Smyth, and J. Zong, “MISR in-flight camera geometric model calibration and georectification performance,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 1512–1519 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Jovanovic, B. Ledeboer, M. Smyth, and J. Zong, “Georectification of the Airborne Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer,” ISPRS Workshop on High Resolution Mapping from Space, Hannover, Germany, 2001.

Appl. Opt. (5)

Astrophys. J. (1)

J. C. Kemp, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Lebofsky, and G. V. Coyne, “The infrared polarization of NGC 1275, NGC 4151, Markarian 231, and 3C 273,” Astrophys. J. 215, L107–L110 (1977).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Ser. B (1)

M. Billardon and J. Badoz, “Modulateur de biréfringence,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Ser. B 262, 1672–1675 (1966).

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (3)

V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, M. M. Smyth, and J. Zong, “MISR in-flight camera geometric model calibration and georectification performance,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 1512–1519 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Diner, J. C. Beckert, T. H. Reilly, C. J. Bruegge, J. E. Conel, R. A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, J.-P. Muller, R. B. Myneni, P. J. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1072–1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. M. F. Grey, P. R. J. North, S. O. Los, and R. M. Mitchell, “Aerosol optical depth and land surface reflectance from multiangle AATSR measurements: global validation and intersensor comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 2184–2197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (3)

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R. R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947–973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. TorresP. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Syniuk, P. Ginoux, and B. Holben, “A long term record of aerosol optical depth from TOMS observations and comparison to AERONET measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 398–413 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Case studies of aerosol retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 383–397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (6)

M. Herman, J.-L Deuzé, A. Marchand, B. Roger, and P. Lallart, “Aerosol remote sensing from POLDER/ADEOS over the ocean: improved retrieval using a nonspherical particle model,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S02 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Lebsock, T. L’Ecuyer, and G. L. Stephens, “Information content of near-infrared spaceborne multiangular polarization measurements for aerosol retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D14206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Waquet, B. Cairns, K. Knobelspiesse, J. Chowdhary, L. D. Travis, B. Schmid, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols over land,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D01206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Torres, A. Tanskanen, B. Veihelmann, C. Ahn, R. Braak, P. K. Bhartia, P. Veefkind, and P. Levelt, “Aerosols and surface UV products from Ozone Monitoring Instrument observations: an overview,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kahn, B. J. Gaitley, J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, K. A. Crean, and B. Holben, “Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) global aerosol optical depth validation based on 2 years of coincident Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S04 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Kalashnikova, R. Kahn, I. N. Sokolik, and W.-H Li, “Ability of multiangle remote sensing observations to identify and distinguish mineral dust types: Optical models and retrievals of optically thick plumes,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D18S14 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. E (1)

A. F. Drake, “Polarisation modulation—the measurement of linear and circular dichroism,” J. Phys. E 19, 170–181 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (6)

A. Mahler, P. K. Smith, and R. A. Chipman, “Low polarization optical system design,” Proc. SPIE 6682, 66820V (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahler and R. Chipman, “Tolerancing and alignment of a three-mirror off-axis telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6676, 66760I(2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahler, N. A. Raouf, P. K. Smith, S. C. McClain, and R. A. Chipman, “Minimizing instrumental polarization in the Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI) using diattenuation balancing between the three mirror coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, J. List, and R. R. Rockwell, “A Stokes polarimeter using two photoelastic modulators,” Proc. SPIE 4819, 1–8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kemp, “Photoelastic-modulator polarimeters in astronomy,” Proc. SPIE 307, 83–88 (1981).

N. L. Thomas and J. D. Wolfe, “UV-shifted silver coating for astronomical mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4003, 312–323 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

D. J. Diner, B. H. Braswell, R. Davies, N. Gobron, J. N. Hu, Y. F. Jin, R. A. Kahn, Y. Knyazikhin, N. Loeb, J.-P Muller, A. W. Nolin, B. Pinty, C. B. Schaaf, G. Seiz, and J. Stroeve, “The value of multiangle measurements for retrieving structurally and radiatively consistent properties of clouds, aerosols, and surfaces,” Remote Sens. Environ. 97, 495–518 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. N. Jasperson and S. E. Schnatterly, “An improved method for high reflectivity ellipsometry based on a new polarization modulation technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. . 40, 761–767 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

C. U. Keller, “Instrumentation for astrophysical spectropolarimetry,” in Astrophysical Spectropolarimetry, J.Trujillo-Bueno, F.Moreno-Insertis, and F.Sánchez, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, 2002), pp. 303–354.

V. Jovanovic, B. Ledeboer, M. Smyth, and J. Zong, “Georectification of the Airborne Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer,” ISPRS Workshop on High Resolution Mapping from Space, Hannover, Germany, 2001.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman,” Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles. (Wiley, 1983).

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Figures (20)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Side view of a three-mirror camera design with an integrated dual-PEM circular retarder. The PEMs have a small wedge angle between them to minimize ghosting. This illustration shows the 29 mm EFL design.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Assembled LabMSPI 660 nm camera.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Timing of sample and integration intervals during a frame.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Digital number versus pixel number for the three channels of the LabMSPI camera. Response is lower in the Q and U channels than in the I channel due to the presence of the polarizers. The data are from a single subframe ( n = 14 ) as the camera viewed the 1.65 m integrating sphere.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Example of measured (solid circles) and fitted (solid lines) waveforms from the Q and U channels for pixel 700 with the external polarizer at 0 ° . δ 0 = 2.38 rad . The fits make use of the analytic signal model in Eqs. (12, 19).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Difference between extracted q ^ , u ^ (uncalibrated) and the input (true) values of q and u as a function of polarizer angle for pixel 700.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Polarization calibration coefficients c 2 and d 3 , (b) polarization calibration coefficients c 3 and d 2 , (c) the remaining c polarization calibration coefficients, and (d) the remaining d polarization calibration coefficients. Results are plotted as a function of pixel.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Uncalibrated (gray) and calibrated (black) DOLP as a function of polarizer angle for pixel 700.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Mean DOLP, averaged over all external polarizer orientations, as a function of pixel. Both uncalibrated (gray) and calibrated (black) results are shown.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Standard deviation of DOLP, calculated over all external polarizer orientations, as a function of pixel. Both uncalibrated (gray) and calibrated (black) results are shown.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Uncalibrated (gray) and calibrated (black) AOLP error as a function of polarizer angle for pixel 700.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Gray: measured signal in electrons versus horizontal position of the PSG translation stage. Black: extracted DOLP versus position. These data are for a PSG nominal DOLP of 0.025. (b) Similar to (a), but for a PSG nominal DOLP of 0.300.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Residual DOLP extracted from LabMSPI measurements versus DOLP set by the PSG. The RMS residual is 0.0016.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

L1A1 (top), L1A2 (middle), and L1B1 (bottom) data from a 300 line portion of a LabMSPI image acquired at 1611Z on 30 June 2009. The L1A1 and L1A2 images used a histogram equalization stretch to enhance subtle details. A linear stretch was applied to the calibrated L1B1 intensity image. The detector line arrays are oriented horizontally and the camera is rotated about the horizontal axis to obtain a vertical scan.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Comparison of intensity processed through L1B1 (left) and L1B2 (right) from a LabMSPI scan acquired at 1611Z on 30 June 2009. The area shown covers the entire 1536 pixel width of the detector array and is 5000 lines high. Note the correction for camera geometric distortion in the L1B2 image. The gray scale is in units of W m 2 sr 1 nm 1 .

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Histograms of intensity ( W m 2 sr 1 nm 1 ) processed through L1B1 and derived from the I channel (denoted I), Q channel (denoted I 0 ), and the U channel (denoted I 45 ) from the LabMSPI scan acquired at 1611Z on 30 June 2009. The data correspond to pixels 100–1150 and the entire 5000 line image height. To make the comparison easier to see, the histogram for I 0 has been offset vertically by + 2000 counts, and the histogram for I 45 has been offset vertically by + 4000 counts.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Stokes parameters Q (left) and U (right) processed through L1B1. Q and U are in the camera coordinate system. The area shown is the same as in Fig. 15. A higher level of noise is apparent in the severely vignetted portion of the focal plane at the right-hand side of the images. The gray scale is in units of W m 2 sr 1 nm 1 .

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Intensity (left) and DOLP (right) processed through L1B2. The area shown has been cropped to highlight details within a 780 × 1290 pixel area of the scene. The top row of numbers on the gray scale corresponds to intensity and is in units of W m 2 sr 1 nm 1 . The bottom row of numbers refers to DOLP, which is dimensionless.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Top: intensity in W m 2 sr 1 nm 1 (left) and DOLP (right) processed through L1B2. The area shown has been cropped to highlight details within a 300 × 300 pixel area of the scene. Bottom: cross-sectional plots of intensity (black) and DOLP (gray) along the line shown in the images. Each plot was smoothed with an 8 pixel running mean filter.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Intensity gradient parameter c I (left) and AOLP relative to the principal scattering plane (right) processed through L1B2. The images have been cropped to highlight the same 780 × 1290 pixel area shown in Fig. 18. The top row of numbers on the gray scale corresponds to the c I parameter. The bottom row of numbers refers to AOLP (degrees).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Instrument Specification Comparisons

Equations (36)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

DOLP = ( Q / I ) 2 + ( U / I ) 2 = q 2 + u 2 ,
AOLP = 1 2 tan 1 ( u / q ) ,
figure of merit = T 1 T 2 T 1 + T 2 = T 1 T 2 T 1 + T 2 T 1 + T 2 = e 1 e + 1 T .
ω ¯ = ( ω 1 + ω 2 ) 2 ,
ω b = | ω 2 ω 1 | 2 ,
t ˜ n = ( p 1 , n + p 2 , n ) t frame 2 ,
t frame = π ω b .
x n = ( t ˜ n 1 2 t frame ) t frame = ω b t ˜ n π 1 2 = ( p 1 , n + p 2 , n 1 ) 2 .
d corr = d ( 1 + C d ) ,
d corr = d ( A + B d ) .
I n = I + I c I x n , Q n = Q + I c Q x n , U n = U + I c U x n ,
d 0 , n = g 0 2 { I + sign 0 Q F ( x n ) + I c I x n + sign 0 I c Q F ( x n ) x n + sign 0 Q y G ( x n ) } ,
y = 1 12 ( Δ λ λ ) 2 ( δ 0 δ ^ 0 δ ^ 0 ) ,
F ( x n ) = J 0 [ z ( x n ) ] + 1 3 ( α π ω b ω ¯ ) 2 δ ^ 0 2 { J 2 [ z ( x n ) ] + [ z 2 ( x n ) 2 δ ^ 0 2 1 ] J 0 [ z ( x n ) ] } + D 2 [ z 2 ( x n ) 4 δ ^ 0 2 1 ] ( J 0 [ z ( x n ) ] + J 2 [ z ( x n ) ] ) = F 0 ( x n ) + 1 3 ( α π ω b ω ¯ ) 2 F 1 ( x n ) + D 2 F 2 ( x n ) = F 0 ( x n ) + 1 3 [ π ( p 2 , n p 1 , n ) 2 ] 2 F 1 ( x n ) + D 2 F 2 ( x n ) ,
α = ( p 2 , n p 1 , n ) ω ¯ 2 ω b
G ( x n ) = z ( x n ) J 1 [ z ( x n ) ] .
z ( x n ) = 2 δ ^ 0 sin ( π x n η ) ,
η = π ( t peak 1 2 t frame ) t frame .
d 45 , n = g 45 2 { I + sign 45 U F ( x n ) + I c I x n + sign 45 I c U F ( x n ) x n + sign 45 U y G ( x n ) } ,
P = 1 2 [ 1 F ( x 1 ) x 1 F ( x 1 ) x 1 G x 1 1 F ( x 2 ) x 2 F ( x 2 ) x 2 G x 2 1 F ( x N ) x N F ( x N ) x N G ( x N ) ] .
W = ( P T P ) 1 P T ,
[ g 0 I g 0 sign 0 Q g 0 I c I g 0 sign 0 I c Q g 0 sign 0 Q y ] est = W d 0 , [ g 45 I g 45 sign 45 U g 45 I c I g 45 sign 45 I c U g 45 sign 45 U y ] est = W d 45 ,
d n = g { I + P F ( x n ) + I c I x n } ,
d = B · [ g I g P g I c I ] = [ 1 F ( x 1 ) x 1 1 F ( x 2 ) x 2 1 F ( x N ) x N ] · [ g I g P g I c I ] .
V = ( B T B ) 1 B T ,
[ g I g P g I c I ] est = V · d .
I est , 0 = c 4 I + c 5 Q + c 6 U ,
Q est = c 1 I + c 2 Q + c 3 U ,
I est , 45 = d 4 I + d 5 Q + d 6 U ,
U est = d 1 I + d 2 Q + d 3 U ,
q ^ = g 0 Q est g 0 I est , 0 = c 1 + c 2 q + c 3 u c 4 + c 5 q + c 6 u = c 1 + c 2 q + c 3 u 1 + c 5 q + c 6 u ,
u ^ = g 45 U est g 45 I est , 45 = d 1 + d 2 q + d 3 u d 4 + d 5 q + d 6 u = d 1 + d 2 q + d 3 u 1 + d 5 q + d 6 u .
( q u ) = [ c 2 c 5 q ^ c 3 c 6 q ^ d 2 d 5 u ^ d 3 d 6 u ^ ] 1 · ( q ^ c 1 u ^ d 1 ) .
q n = cos 2 χ n , u n = sin 2 χ n ,
q ^ n , model = c 1 + c 2 cos 2 χ n + c 3 sin 2 χ n 1 + c 5 cos 2 χ n + c 6 sin 2 χ n = c 1 + c 2 q n + c 3 u n 1 + c 5 q n + c 6 u n ,
u ^ n , model = d 1 + d 2 cos 2 χ n + d 3 sin 2 χ n 1 + d 5 cos 2 χ n + d 6 sin 2 χ n = d 1 + d 2 q n + d 3 u n 1 + d 5 q n + d 6 u n .

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