Abstract

We present hydrographic and optical data collected concurrently from two different platforms, the R/P FLoating Instrument Platform and the R/V Kilo Moana, located about 2km apart in the Santa Barbara Channel in California. We show that optical variability between the two platforms was due primarily to platform effects, specifically the breakdown of stratification from mixing by the hull of R/P FLIP. Modeled underwater radiance distribution differed by as much as 50% between the two platforms during stratified conditions. We determine that the observed optical variability resulted in up to 57% differences in predicted horizontal visibility of a black target.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  39. M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

M. A. Moline, K. J. Benoit-Bird, I. C. Robbins, M. Schroth-Miller, C. M. Waluk, and B. Zelenke, “Integrated measurements of acoustical and optical thin layers II: horizontal length scales,” Cont. Shelf Res. 30, 29–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, J. F. Case, S. H. D. Haddock, C. M. Herren, C. M. Orrico, and E. Terrill, “Bioluminescence to reveal structure and interaction of coastal planktonic communities,” Deep-Sea Res. Part II 56, 232–245 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P.-W. Zhai, G. W. Kattawar and P. Yang, “Mueller matrix imaging of targets under an air-sea interface,” Appl. Opt. 48, 250–258 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, L. Hu, and M.-X. He, “Scattering by pure seawater: effect of salinity,” Opt. Express 17, 5698–5710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

S. M. Blackwell, M. A. Moline, A. Schaffner, T. Garrison, and G. Chang, “Sub-kilometer length scales in coastal waters,” Cont. Shelf Res. 28, 215–226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chao, Z. Li, J. D. Farrara, M. A. Moline, O. M. E. Schofield, and S. J. Majumdar, "Synergistic applications of autonomous underwater vehicles and the regional ocean modeling system in coastal ocean forecasting," Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2251–2263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Hibler, A. R. Maxwell, L. M. Miller, N. P. Kohn, D. L. Woodruff, M. J. Montes, J. H. Bowles, and M. A. Moline, “Improved fine scale transport model performance using AUV and HSI feedback in a tidally dominated system,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, C08036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Moline, D. L. Woodruff, and N. R. Evans, “Optical delineation of benthic habitat using an autonomous underwater vehicle,” J. Field Robotics 24, 461–471 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. E. McPhee-Shaw, D. A. Siegel, L. Washburn, M. A. Brzezinski, J. L. Jones, A. Leydecker, and J. Melack, “Mechanisms for nutrient delivery to the inner shelf: observations from the Santa Barbara Channel,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 1748–1766 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400–750nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5294–5309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Robbins, G. J. Kirkpatrick, S. M. Blackwell, J. Hillier, C. A. Knight, and M. A. Moline, “Improved monitoring of HABs using autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV),” Harmful algae news / UNESCO 6, 931–943 (2006).

2005 (2)

M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, B. Allen, T. Austin, N. Forrester, R. Goldsborogh, M. Purcell, R. Stokey, and C. von Alt, “Remote environmental monitoring units: an autonomous vehicle for characterizing coastal environments,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 22, 1797–1808 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, “Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1667–1680 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, “Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter,” Mar. Chem. 89, 69–88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. R. V. Zaneveld and W. S. Pegau, “Robust underwater visibility parameter,” Opt. Expr. 11, 2997–3009 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. S. Twardowski and P. L. Donaghay, “Photobleaching of aquatic dissolved materials: absorption removal, spectral alteration, and their interrelationship,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, and S. Herring, “Shape of the particulate beam attenuation spectrum and its inversion to obtain the shape of the particle size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4885–4893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, “Relationships of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5503–5507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,129–14,142(2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

G. R. Fournier and M. Jonasz, “Computer based underwater imaging analysis,” Proc. SPIE 3761, 62–77 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Kattawar and M. J. Rakovic, “Virtues of Mueller matrix imaging for underwater target detection,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6431–6438 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L.Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1994 (2)

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. M. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Fournier and J. L. Forand, “Analytic phase function for ocean water,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 194–201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. W. Gregg and K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

R. J. Davies-Colley, “Measuring water clarity with a black disk,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 33, 616–623 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

P. M. Saunders, “The accuracy of measurements of salinity, oxygen, and temperature in the deep ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16, 189–195 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

1954 (1)

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

1946 (1)

Allen, B.

M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, B. Allen, T. Austin, N. Forrester, R. Goldsborogh, M. Purcell, R. Stokey, and C. von Alt, “Remote environmental monitoring units: an autonomous vehicle for characterizing coastal environments,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 22, 1797–1808 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Austin, T.

M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, B. Allen, T. Austin, N. Forrester, R. Goldsborogh, M. Purcell, R. Stokey, and C. von Alt, “Remote environmental monitoring units: an autonomous vehicle for characterizing coastal environments,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 22, 1797–1808 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A. H.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400–750nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5294–5309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,129–14,142(2001).
[CrossRef]

Benoit-Bird, K. J.

M. A. Moline, K. J. Benoit-Bird, I. C. Robbins, M. Schroth-Miller, C. M. Waluk, and B. Zelenke, “Integrated measurements of acoustical and optical thin layers II: horizontal length scales,” Cont. Shelf Res. 30, 29–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Blackwell, H. R.

Blackwell, S. M.

M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, J. F. Case, S. H. D. Haddock, C. M. Herren, C. M. Orrico, and E. Terrill, “Bioluminescence to reveal structure and interaction of coastal planktonic communities,” Deep-Sea Res. Part II 56, 232–245 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Blackwell, M. A. Moline, A. Schaffner, T. Garrison, and G. Chang, “Sub-kilometer length scales in coastal waters,” Cont. Shelf Res. 28, 215–226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Robbins, G. J. Kirkpatrick, S. M. Blackwell, J. Hillier, C. A. Knight, and M. A. Moline, “Improved monitoring of HABs using autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV),” Harmful algae news / UNESCO 6, 931–943 (2006).

M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, B. Allen, T. Austin, N. Forrester, R. Goldsborogh, M. Purcell, R. Stokey, and C. von Alt, “Remote environmental monitoring units: an autonomous vehicle for characterizing coastal environments,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 22, 1797–1808 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, “Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter,” Mar. Chem. 89, 69–88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, “Relationships of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5503–5507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, and S. Herring, “Shape of the particulate beam attenuation spectrum and its inversion to obtain the shape of the particle size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4885–4893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,129–14,142(2001).
[CrossRef]

Bowles, J. H.

L. F. Hibler, A. R. Maxwell, L. M. Miller, N. P. Kohn, D. L. Woodruff, M. J. Montes, J. H. Bowles, and M. A. Moline, “Improved fine scale transport model performance using AUV and HSI feedback in a tidally dominated system,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, C08036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brzezinski, M. A.

E. E. McPhee-Shaw, D. A. Siegel, L. Washburn, M. A. Brzezinski, J. L. Jones, A. Leydecker, and J. Melack, “Mechanisms for nutrient delivery to the inner shelf: observations from the Santa Barbara Channel,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 1748–1766 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

W. W. Gregg and K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Case, J. F.

M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, J. F. Case, S. H. D. Haddock, C. M. Herren, C. M. Orrico, and E. Terrill, “Bioluminescence to reveal structure and interaction of coastal planktonic communities,” Deep-Sea Res. Part II 56, 232–245 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G.

S. M. Blackwell, M. A. Moline, A. Schaffner, T. Garrison, and G. Chang, “Sub-kilometer length scales in coastal waters,” Cont. Shelf Res. 28, 215–226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Nencioli, G. Chang, M. Twardowski, and T. D. Dickey, “Optical characterization of an eddy-induced diatom bloom west of the island of Hawaii,” Biogeosciences, 7, 151–162 (2010).

Chao, Y.

Y. Chao, Z. Li, J. D. Farrara, M. A. Moline, O. M. E. Schofield, and S. J. Majumdar, "Synergistic applications of autonomous underwater vehicles and the regional ocean modeling system in coastal ocean forecasting," Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2251–2263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Claustre, H.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cox, C.

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

Davies-Colley, R. J.

R. J. Davies-Colley, “Measuring water clarity with a black disk,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 33, 616–623 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dickey, T. D.

F. Nencioli, G. Chang, M. Twardowski, and T. D. Dickey, “Optical characterization of an eddy-induced diatom bloom west of the island of Hawaii,” Biogeosciences, 7, 151–162 (2010).

Donaghay, P. L.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400–750nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5294–5309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, “Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1667–1680 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, “Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter,” Mar. Chem. 89, 69–88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski and P. L. Donaghay, “Photobleaching of aquatic dissolved materials: absorption removal, spectral alteration, and their interrelationship,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L.Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Duntley, S. Q.

Evans, N. R.

M. A. Moline, D. L. Woodruff, and N. R. Evans, “Optical delineation of benthic habitat using an autonomous underwater vehicle,” J. Field Robotics 24, 461–471 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Farrara, J. D.

Y. Chao, Z. Li, J. D. Farrara, M. A. Moline, O. M. E. Schofield, and S. J. Majumdar, "Synergistic applications of autonomous underwater vehicles and the regional ocean modeling system in coastal ocean forecasting," Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2251–2263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Forand, J. L.

G. R. Fournier and J. L. Forand, “Analytic phase function for ocean water,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 194–201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Forrester, N.

M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, B. Allen, T. Austin, N. Forrester, R. Goldsborogh, M. Purcell, R. Stokey, and C. von Alt, “Remote environmental monitoring units: an autonomous vehicle for characterizing coastal environments,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 22, 1797–1808 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, G. R.

G. R. Fournier and M. Jonasz, “Computer based underwater imaging analysis,” Proc. SPIE 3761, 62–77 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Fournier and J. L. Forand, “Analytic phase function for ocean water,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 194–201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, S. A.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, “Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1667–1680 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fry, E. S.

Garrison, T.

S. M. Blackwell, M. A. Moline, A. Schaffner, T. Garrison, and G. Chang, “Sub-kilometer length scales in coastal waters,” Cont. Shelf Res. 28, 215–226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gill, A. E.

A. E. Gill, Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics (Academic, 1982).

Goldsborogh, R.

M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, B. Allen, T. Austin, N. Forrester, R. Goldsborogh, M. Purcell, R. Stokey, and C. von Alt, “Remote environmental monitoring units: an autonomous vehicle for characterizing coastal environments,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 22, 1797–1808 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gray, D.

Gregg, W. W.

W. W. Gregg and K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Haddock, S. H. D.

M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, J. F. Case, S. H. D. Haddock, C. M. Herren, C. M. Orrico, and E. Terrill, “Bioluminescence to reveal structure and interaction of coastal planktonic communities,” Deep-Sea Res. Part II 56, 232–245 (2009).
[CrossRef]

He, M.-X.

Herren, C. M.

M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, J. F. Case, S. H. D. Haddock, C. M. Herren, C. M. Orrico, and E. Terrill, “Bioluminescence to reveal structure and interaction of coastal planktonic communities,” Deep-Sea Res. Part II 56, 232–245 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Herring, S.

Hibler, L. F.

L. F. Hibler, A. R. Maxwell, L. M. Miller, N. P. Kohn, D. L. Woodruff, M. J. Montes, J. H. Bowles, and M. A. Moline, “Improved fine scale transport model performance using AUV and HSI feedback in a tidally dominated system,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, C08036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hillier, J.

I. C. Robbins, G. J. Kirkpatrick, S. M. Blackwell, J. Hillier, C. A. Knight, and M. A. Moline, “Improved monitoring of HABs using autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV),” Harmful algae news / UNESCO 6, 931–943 (2006).

Hu, L.

Huot, Y.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jerlov, N. G.

N. G. Jerlov, Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, 1976).

Jonasz, M.

G. R. Fournier and M. Jonasz, “Computer based underwater imaging analysis,” Proc. SPIE 3761, 62–77 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. L.

E. E. McPhee-Shaw, D. A. Siegel, L. Washburn, M. A. Brzezinski, J. L. Jones, A. Leydecker, and J. Melack, “Mechanisms for nutrient delivery to the inner shelf: observations from the Santa Barbara Channel,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 1748–1766 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kattawar, G. W.

Kirkpatrick, G. J.

I. C. Robbins, G. J. Kirkpatrick, S. M. Blackwell, J. Hillier, C. A. Knight, and M. A. Moline, “Improved monitoring of HABs using autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV),” Harmful algae news / UNESCO 6, 931–943 (2006).

Kitchen, J. C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. M. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Knight, C. A.

I. C. Robbins, G. J. Kirkpatrick, S. M. Blackwell, J. Hillier, C. A. Knight, and M. A. Moline, “Improved monitoring of HABs using autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV),” Harmful algae news / UNESCO 6, 931–943 (2006).

Kohn, N. P.

L. F. Hibler, A. R. Maxwell, L. M. Miller, N. P. Kohn, D. L. Woodruff, M. J. Montes, J. H. Bowles, and M. A. Moline, “Improved fine scale transport model performance using AUV and HSI feedback in a tidally dominated system,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, C08036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leydecker, A.

E. E. McPhee-Shaw, D. A. Siegel, L. Washburn, M. A. Brzezinski, J. L. Jones, A. Leydecker, and J. Melack, “Mechanisms for nutrient delivery to the inner shelf: observations from the Santa Barbara Channel,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 1748–1766 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Y. Chao, Z. Li, J. D. Farrara, M. A. Moline, O. M. E. Schofield, and S. J. Majumdar, "Synergistic applications of autonomous underwater vehicles and the regional ocean modeling system in coastal ocean forecasting," Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2251–2263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Macdonald, J. B.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,129–14,142(2001).
[CrossRef]

Majumdar, S. J.

Y. Chao, Z. Li, J. D. Farrara, M. A. Moline, O. M. E. Schofield, and S. J. Majumdar, "Synergistic applications of autonomous underwater vehicles and the regional ocean modeling system in coastal ocean forecasting," Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2251–2263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell, A. R.

L. F. Hibler, A. R. Maxwell, L. M. Miller, N. P. Kohn, D. L. Woodruff, M. J. Montes, J. H. Bowles, and M. A. Moline, “Improved fine scale transport model performance using AUV and HSI feedback in a tidally dominated system,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, C08036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McPhee-Shaw, E. E.

E. E. McPhee-Shaw, D. A. Siegel, L. Washburn, M. A. Brzezinski, J. L. Jones, A. Leydecker, and J. Melack, “Mechanisms for nutrient delivery to the inner shelf: observations from the Santa Barbara Channel,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 1748–1766 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Melack, J.

E. E. McPhee-Shaw, D. A. Siegel, L. Washburn, M. A. Brzezinski, J. L. Jones, A. Leydecker, and J. Melack, “Mechanisms for nutrient delivery to the inner shelf: observations from the Santa Barbara Channel,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 1748–1766 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miller, L. M.

L. F. Hibler, A. R. Maxwell, L. M. Miller, N. P. Kohn, D. L. Woodruff, M. J. Montes, J. H. Bowles, and M. A. Moline, “Improved fine scale transport model performance using AUV and HSI feedback in a tidally dominated system,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, C08036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

Moline, M. A.

M. A. Moline, K. J. Benoit-Bird, I. C. Robbins, M. Schroth-Miller, C. M. Waluk, and B. Zelenke, “Integrated measurements of acoustical and optical thin layers II: horizontal length scales,” Cont. Shelf Res. 30, 29–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, J. F. Case, S. H. D. Haddock, C. M. Herren, C. M. Orrico, and E. Terrill, “Bioluminescence to reveal structure and interaction of coastal planktonic communities,” Deep-Sea Res. Part II 56, 232–245 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Blackwell, M. A. Moline, A. Schaffner, T. Garrison, and G. Chang, “Sub-kilometer length scales in coastal waters,” Cont. Shelf Res. 28, 215–226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Hibler, A. R. Maxwell, L. M. Miller, N. P. Kohn, D. L. Woodruff, M. J. Montes, J. H. Bowles, and M. A. Moline, “Improved fine scale transport model performance using AUV and HSI feedback in a tidally dominated system,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, C08036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chao, Z. Li, J. D. Farrara, M. A. Moline, O. M. E. Schofield, and S. J. Majumdar, "Synergistic applications of autonomous underwater vehicles and the regional ocean modeling system in coastal ocean forecasting," Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2251–2263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Moline, D. L. Woodruff, and N. R. Evans, “Optical delineation of benthic habitat using an autonomous underwater vehicle,” J. Field Robotics 24, 461–471 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Robbins, G. J. Kirkpatrick, S. M. Blackwell, J. Hillier, C. A. Knight, and M. A. Moline, “Improved monitoring of HABs using autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV),” Harmful algae news / UNESCO 6, 931–943 (2006).

M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, B. Allen, T. Austin, N. Forrester, R. Goldsborogh, M. Purcell, R. Stokey, and C. von Alt, “Remote environmental monitoring units: an autonomous vehicle for characterizing coastal environments,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 22, 1797–1808 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Montes, M. J.

L. F. Hibler, A. R. Maxwell, L. M. Miller, N. P. Kohn, D. L. Woodruff, M. J. Montes, J. H. Bowles, and M. A. Moline, “Improved fine scale transport model performance using AUV and HSI feedback in a tidally dominated system,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, C08036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C. M.

Munk, W.

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

Nencioli, F.

F. Nencioli, G. Chang, M. Twardowski, and T. D. Dickey, “Optical characterization of an eddy-induced diatom bloom west of the island of Hawaii,” Biogeosciences, 7, 151–162 (2010).

Orrico, C. M.

M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, J. F. Case, S. H. D. Haddock, C. M. Herren, C. M. Orrico, and E. Terrill, “Bioluminescence to reveal structure and interaction of coastal planktonic communities,” Deep-Sea Res. Part II 56, 232–245 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pegau, W. S.

J. R. V. Zaneveld and W. S. Pegau, “Robust underwater visibility parameter,” Opt. Expr. 11, 2997–3009 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,129–14,142(2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, “Relationships of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5503–5507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6035–6046 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pope, R. M.

Preisendorfer, R. W.

R. W. Preisendorfer, Hydrologic Optics (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1976), Vol. 1.

Purcell, M.

M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, B. Allen, T. Austin, N. Forrester, R. Goldsborogh, M. Purcell, R. Stokey, and C. von Alt, “Remote environmental monitoring units: an autonomous vehicle for characterizing coastal environments,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 22, 1797–1808 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rakovic, M. J.

Rhoades, B.

Robbins, I. C.

M. A. Moline, K. J. Benoit-Bird, I. C. Robbins, M. Schroth-Miller, C. M. Waluk, and B. Zelenke, “Integrated measurements of acoustical and optical thin layers II: horizontal length scales,” Cont. Shelf Res. 30, 29–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Robbins, G. J. Kirkpatrick, S. M. Blackwell, J. Hillier, C. A. Knight, and M. A. Moline, “Improved monitoring of HABs using autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV),” Harmful algae news / UNESCO 6, 931–943 (2006).

Saunders, P. M.

P. M. Saunders, “The accuracy of measurements of salinity, oxygen, and temperature in the deep ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16, 189–195 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Schaffner, A.

S. M. Blackwell, M. A. Moline, A. Schaffner, T. Garrison, and G. Chang, “Sub-kilometer length scales in coastal waters,” Cont. Shelf Res. 28, 215–226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schofield, O. M. E.

Y. Chao, Z. Li, J. D. Farrara, M. A. Moline, O. M. E. Schofield, and S. J. Majumdar, "Synergistic applications of autonomous underwater vehicles and the regional ocean modeling system in coastal ocean forecasting," Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2251–2263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schroth-Miller, M.

M. A. Moline, K. J. Benoit-Bird, I. C. Robbins, M. Schroth-Miller, C. M. Waluk, and B. Zelenke, “Integrated measurements of acoustical and optical thin layers II: horizontal length scales,” Cont. Shelf Res. 30, 29–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D. A.

E. E. McPhee-Shaw, D. A. Siegel, L. Washburn, M. A. Brzezinski, J. L. Jones, A. Leydecker, and J. Melack, “Mechanisms for nutrient delivery to the inner shelf: observations from the Santa Barbara Channel,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 1748–1766 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, R. H.

R. H. Stewart, “Introduction to physical oceanography,” http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/resources/ocng_textbook/contents.html.

Stokey, R.

M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, B. Allen, T. Austin, N. Forrester, R. Goldsborogh, M. Purcell, R. Stokey, and C. von Alt, “Remote environmental monitoring units: an autonomous vehicle for characterizing coastal environments,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 22, 1797–1808 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA, 92093 (personal communication, 2008).

Sullivan, J. M.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400–750nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5294–5309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, “Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1667–1680 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, “Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter,” Mar. Chem. 89, 69–88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L.Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sundman, L. K.

Terrill, E.

M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, J. F. Case, S. H. D. Haddock, C. M. Herren, C. M. Orrico, and E. Terrill, “Bioluminescence to reveal structure and interaction of coastal planktonic communities,” Deep-Sea Res. Part II 56, 232–245 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Twardowski, M.

F. Nencioli, G. Chang, M. Twardowski, and T. D. Dickey, “Optical characterization of an eddy-induced diatom bloom west of the island of Hawaii,” Biogeosciences, 7, 151–162 (2010).

Twardowski, M. S.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400–750nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5294–5309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, “Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1667–1680 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, “Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter,” Mar. Chem. 89, 69–88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski and P. L. Donaghay, “Photobleaching of aquatic dissolved materials: absorption removal, spectral alteration, and their interrelationship,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,129–14,142(2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, and S. Herring, “Shape of the particulate beam attenuation spectrum and its inversion to obtain the shape of the particle size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4885–4893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L.Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

von Alt, C.

M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, B. Allen, T. Austin, N. Forrester, R. Goldsborogh, M. Purcell, R. Stokey, and C. von Alt, “Remote environmental monitoring units: an autonomous vehicle for characterizing coastal environments,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 22, 1797–1808 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Waluk, C. M.

M. A. Moline, K. J. Benoit-Bird, I. C. Robbins, M. Schroth-Miller, C. M. Waluk, and B. Zelenke, “Integrated measurements of acoustical and optical thin layers II: horizontal length scales,” Cont. Shelf Res. 30, 29–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Washburn, L.

E. E. McPhee-Shaw, D. A. Siegel, L. Washburn, M. A. Brzezinski, J. L. Jones, A. Leydecker, and J. Melack, “Mechanisms for nutrient delivery to the inner shelf: observations from the Santa Barbara Channel,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 1748–1766 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Woodruff, D. L.

L. F. Hibler, A. R. Maxwell, L. M. Miller, N. P. Kohn, D. L. Woodruff, M. J. Montes, J. H. Bowles, and M. A. Moline, “Improved fine scale transport model performance using AUV and HSI feedback in a tidally dominated system,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, C08036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Moline, D. L. Woodruff, and N. R. Evans, “Optical delineation of benthic habitat using an autonomous underwater vehicle,” J. Field Robotics 24, 461–471 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400–750nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5294–5309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. V. Zaneveld and W. S. Pegau, “Robust underwater visibility parameter,” Opt. Expr. 11, 2997–3009 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,129–14,142(2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L.Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6035–6046 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. M. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zelenke, B.

M. A. Moline, K. J. Benoit-Bird, I. C. Robbins, M. Schroth-Miller, C. M. Waluk, and B. Zelenke, “Integrated measurements of acoustical and optical thin layers II: horizontal length scales,” Cont. Shelf Res. 30, 29–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, P.-W.

Zhang, X.

Appl. Opt. (9)

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6035–6046 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Kattawar and M. J. Rakovic, “Virtues of Mueller matrix imaging for underwater target detection,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6431–6438 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Pope and E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700nm) of pure water. II. integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, and S. Herring, “Shape of the particulate beam attenuation spectrum and its inversion to obtain the shape of the particle size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4885–4893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, “Relationships of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5503–5507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, “Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1667–1680 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400–750nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5294–5309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-W. Zhai, G. W. Kattawar and P. Yang, “Mueller matrix imaging of targets under an air-sea interface,” Appl. Opt. 48, 250–258 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biogeosciences (1)

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cont. Shelf Res. (2)

M. A. Moline, K. J. Benoit-Bird, I. C. Robbins, M. Schroth-Miller, C. M. Waluk, and B. Zelenke, “Integrated measurements of acoustical and optical thin layers II: horizontal length scales,” Cont. Shelf Res. 30, 29–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Blackwell, M. A. Moline, A. Schaffner, T. Garrison, and G. Chang, “Sub-kilometer length scales in coastal waters,” Cont. Shelf Res. 28, 215–226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Res. Part II (1)

M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, J. F. Case, S. H. D. Haddock, C. M. Herren, C. M. Orrico, and E. Terrill, “Bioluminescence to reveal structure and interaction of coastal planktonic communities,” Deep-Sea Res. Part II 56, 232–245 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harmful algae news / UNESCO (1)

I. C. Robbins, G. J. Kirkpatrick, S. M. Blackwell, J. Hillier, C. A. Knight, and M. A. Moline, “Improved monitoring of HABs using autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV),” Harmful algae news / UNESCO 6, 931–943 (2006).

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L.Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. (1)

M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, B. Allen, T. Austin, N. Forrester, R. Goldsborogh, M. Purcell, R. Stokey, and C. von Alt, “Remote environmental monitoring units: an autonomous vehicle for characterizing coastal environments,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 22, 1797–1808 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Field Robotics (1)

M. A. Moline, D. L. Woodruff, and N. R. Evans, “Optical delineation of benthic habitat using an autonomous underwater vehicle,” J. Field Robotics 24, 461–471 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,129–14,142(2001).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Hibler, A. R. Maxwell, L. M. Miller, N. P. Kohn, D. L. Woodruff, M. J. Montes, J. H. Bowles, and M. A. Moline, “Improved fine scale transport model performance using AUV and HSI feedback in a tidally dominated system,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, C08036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski and P. L. Donaghay, “Photobleaching of aquatic dissolved materials: absorption removal, spectral alteration, and their interrelationship,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Res. (1)

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Phys. Oceanogr. (1)

P. M. Saunders, “The accuracy of measurements of salinity, oxygen, and temperature in the deep ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16, 189–195 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (4)

E. E. McPhee-Shaw, D. A. Siegel, L. Washburn, M. A. Brzezinski, J. L. Jones, A. Leydecker, and J. Melack, “Mechanisms for nutrient delivery to the inner shelf: observations from the Santa Barbara Channel,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 1748–1766 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Mar. Chem. (1)

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Opt. Expr. (1)

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Opt. Express (1)

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Map of the Santa Barbara Channel, California, USA, with locations of the R/V Kilo Moana (plus) and R/P FLILP (circle) indicated. The inset shows the platform locations with AUV tracks beginning on 14 September at 08:27, 15 September at 07:08, and 15 September at 11:04.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time series of (A) wind speed (solid curve, 5 m/s denoted by dashed horizontal line) and MLD (closed circles) and (B) magnitude of current velocity measured by the ADCP from the KM. The crosses and dashed vertical lines in (A) indicate concurrent KM and FLIP sampling periods, respectively. MLD was averaged to 4 h sampling rate. Time series of (C) temperature, (D) salinity, and (E) turbidity (dark) and chlorophyll a concentration (light) measured at 30 m from the FLIP. The small closed circles in (C) and (D) are temperature and salinity, respectively, measured from the AUV at 30 m .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Vertical profiles of optical properties as a function of depth collected from the (A)–(F) KM and (G)–(L) FLIP. Data were binned to 0.25 m . The units for a g ( 412 ) , a p g ( 412 ) , c p g ( 650 ) , and b b p ( 657 ) are m 1 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Vertical profiles of (A) density ( kg / m 3 1000 ), (B) chlorophyll a concentration ( μg / liter 1 ), (C) turbidity (NTU), and (D) CDOM concentration measured by the AUV during its expedition around the KM on 14 and 15 September 2008. Data were binned to 0.25 m and averaged over each side of the box traversed, i.e., over seven profiles.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(A) Time series of wind speed collected from the Kilo Moana. Crosses and triangles indicate periods of KM optical profiler data collection. Light gray, vertical dashed lines denote concurrent KM and FLIP optical profiler data collection. (B)–(I) Profiles of percent differences between various properties measured from the KM versus from the FLIP as a function of density, σ t . The units for a g ( 412 ) , a p g ( 412 ) , c p g ( 650 ) , and b b p ( 657 ) are m 1 . Crosses indicate periods of data collection with wind speeds 5 m / s , and triangles represent wind speeds <5 m/s (except the last profile).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Vertical profiles of the exponential slope of the dissolved absorption coefficient, S, for (A) KM and (B) FLIP measurements of a g ( λ ) . Crosses indicate data collected during periods of wind speeds greater than 5 m/s, and triangles denote data collected during periods of low wind conditions ( < 5 m / s ).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Profiles of salinity as a function of depth measured from the KM (pluses) and the FLIP (circles). Approximate dates and times of profile collection are indicated.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Vertical profiles of (A) temperature and (B) salinity as a function of depth (every other data point is shown); and (C) temperature—salinity plot collected on 17 September 2008 (wind speed > 7 m/s). (D)–(F) Same as (A)–(C) but for data collected on 20 September 2008 (wind speed 5 m/s). The temperature— salinity plot in (F) is from a deep cast showing the source of higher salinity water below 30 m . Data from 30, 50, and 90 m depths are indicated with a gray square and are labeled. Pluses represent data collected from the KM, and circles denote data collected from the FLIP. Density contours are presented and labeled.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Vertical profiles of optical properties and computed percent differences between measurements from the KM and FLIP as a function of density, σ t for (A)–(C) wind speeds of greater than 7 m/s, measured on 17 September 2008 at 1233 and (D)–(F) wind speeds of about 4 m/s, measured on 20 September 2008 at 1256 PDT. Pluses represent KM data, and circles denote FLIP data. The units for a g ( 412 ) , a p g ( 412 ) , c p g ( 650 ) , and b b p ( 657 ) are m 1 .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(A) Time series of wind speed measured aboard the KM from 14 to 16 September 2008. Blue, green, and red lines indicate the time periods of AUV sampling. (B) Computed variance from data measured by the WQM mounted at 30 m on the hull of FLIP versus data measured at 30 m by the AUV on 14 September (blue), 15 September at 0708 PDT (green), and 15 September at 1104 PDT (red). (C) Computed variance of the average of profiles from the FLIP during all periods when wind speeds were less than 5 m/s versus the variance of each individual profile measured from the AUV during low winds. (D) Same as (C) except for during high wind conditions. Circles denote temperature, salinity is represented by triangles, and crosses symbolize density.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Vertical profiles of radiometric and apparent optical properties modeled using HydroLight during (A–E) high wind conditions on 13 September 2008 at 1251 PDT and (F–J) low wind conditions on 20 September 2008 at 1225 PDT. Pluses represent KM data, and circles denote FLIP data. Units for E d and E u are W m 2 nm 1 , for Lu are W m 2 nm 1 sr 1 , and for r rs is sr 1 (R is dimensionless).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Comparisons between (A) beam attenuation coefficients ( 532 nm ) collected from the KM versus those collected from the FLIP (as a function of σ t ) and (B) computed horizontal visibility of a black target, y, using data collected from the KM versus from the FLIP. Crosses and triangles denote data collected during high wind and low wind conditions, respectively.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Comparison between computed horizontal visibility of a black target, y, using data collected from the KM versus from the FLIP. Crosses and triangles denote data collected during high wind and low wind conditions, respectively. Dark and light symbols signify results for targets with a diameter of 0.2 and 0.3 m (radius of 0.1 and 0.15 m ), respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Relevant R/P FLIP, R/V KM, and REMUS-100 AUV Dates, Times, Depths, and Parameters Collected During the 2008 Santa Barbara Channel RaDyO Field Experiment

Equations (4)

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% Difference = [ ( X KM X FLIP ) / ( X KM + X FLIP ) / 2 ] * 100 ,
y = 4.8 / α ,
α = c p g ( 532 ) * 0.9 + 0.081.
σ 2 = [ ( T μ ) 2 ] / N ,

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