Abstract

We demonstrate a polarization-maintaining (PM) photonic crystal fiber (PCF) based Sagnac interfero meter for downhole high pressure sensing application. The PM PCF serves as a direct pressure sensing probe. The sensor is transducer free and thus fundamentally enhances its long-term sensing stability. In addition, the PM PCF can be coiled into a small diameter to fulfill the compact size requirement of downhole application. A theoretical study of its loss and birefringence changes with different coiling diameters has been carried out. This bend-insensitive property of the fiber provides ease for sensor design and benefits practical application. The pressure sensitivities of the proposed sensor are 4.21 and 3.24nm/MPa at 1320 and 1550nm, respectively. High pressure measurement up to 20MPa was achieved with our experiment. It shows both good linearity in response to applied pressure and good repeatability within the entire measurement range. The proposed pressure sensor exhibits low temperature cross sensitivity and high temperature sustainability. It functions well without any measurable degradation effects on sensitivity or linearity at a temperature as high as 293°C. These characteristics make it a potentially ideal candidate for downhole pressure sensing.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Clowes, J. Edwards, I. Grudinin, E. L. E. Kluth, M. P. Varnham, M. N. Zervas, C. M. Crawley, and R. L. Kutlik, “Low drift fibre optic pressure sensor for oil field downhole monitoring,” Electron. Lett. 35, 926–927 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Zhao, Y. Liao, and S. Lai, “Simultaneous measurement of down-hole high pressure and temperature with a bulk-modulus and FBG sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1584–1586 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. M. Nellen, P. Mauron, A. Frank, U. Sennhauser, K. Bohnert, P. Pequignot, P. Bodor, and H. Brandle, “Reliability of fiber Bragg grating based sensors for downhole applications,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 103, 364–376 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. H. Aref, H. Latifi, M. I. Zibaii, and M. Afshari, “Fiber optic Fabry–Perot pressure sensor with low sensitivity to temperature changes for downhole application,” Opt. Commun. 269, 322–330 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. J. Wright and W. Womack, “Fiber-optic down-hole sensing: a discussion on applications and enabling wellhead connection technology,” in Proceedings of the Offshore Technology Conference (Curran Associates, 2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22, 961–963(1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, and A. Hale, “Microstructured optical fiber devices,” Opt. Express 9, 698–713 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, and L. A. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Lasers Photon. Rev. 2, 449–459 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535–2537 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D.-H. Kim and J. U. Kang, “Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber with reduced temperature sensitivity,” Opt. Express 12, 4490–4495(2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113–3 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Temperature-independent strain sensor based on a Hi-Bi photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 1453–1455 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Y. Fu, H. Y. Tam, L.- Y. Shao, Xi. Dong, P. K. A. Wai, C. Lu, and S. K. Khijwania, “Pressure sensor realized with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2835–2839 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. Y. Fu, C. Wu, M. L. V. Tse, L. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, B.-O. Guan, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber for downhole application,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75035V (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Y. Fu, S. K. Khijwania, H. Y. Au, X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, P. K. A. Wai, and C. Lu, “Novel fiber optic polarimetric torsion sensor based on polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 70042V (2008).
  18. O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, and P. Roy, “Curvature sensor using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with two asymmetric hole regions in a Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2520–2523 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. Kim, T. Cho, K. Hwang, K. Lee, K. S. Lee, Y.-G. Han, and S. B. Lee, “Strain and temperature sensitivities of an elliptical hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber based on Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Express 17, 2481–2486 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. Y. Fu, A. C. L. Wong, P. A. Childs, H. Y. Tam, Y. B. Liao, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Multiplexing of polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometric sensors,” Opt. Express 17, 18501–18512 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fusion splicing holey fibers and single-mode fibers: a simple method to reduce loss and increase strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 164–166 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (4)

H. Y. Fu, C. Wu, M. L. V. Tse, L. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, B.-O. Guan, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber for downhole application,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75035V (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Kim, T. Cho, K. Hwang, K. Lee, K. S. Lee, Y.-G. Han, and S. B. Lee, “Strain and temperature sensitivities of an elliptical hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber based on Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Express 17, 2481–2486 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Fu, A. C. L. Wong, P. A. Childs, H. Y. Tam, Y. B. Liao, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Multiplexing of polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometric sensors,” Opt. Express 17, 18501–18512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fusion splicing holey fibers and single-mode fibers: a simple method to reduce loss and increase strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 164–166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

H. Y. Fu, S. K. Khijwania, H. Y. Au, X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, P. K. A. Wai, and C. Lu, “Novel fiber optic polarimetric torsion sensor based on polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 70042V (2008).

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, and P. Roy, “Curvature sensor using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with two asymmetric hole regions in a Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2520–2523 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Fu, H. Y. Tam, L.- Y. Shao, Xi. Dong, P. K. A. Wai, C. Lu, and S. K. Khijwania, “Pressure sensor realized with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2835–2839 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, and L. A. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Lasers Photon. Rev. 2, 449–459 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

S. H. Aref, H. Latifi, M. I. Zibaii, and M. Afshari, “Fiber optic Fabry–Perot pressure sensor with low sensitivity to temperature changes for downhole application,” Opt. Commun. 269, 322–330 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113–3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Temperature-independent strain sensor based on a Hi-Bi photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 1453–1455 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

P. J. Wright and W. Womack, “Fiber-optic down-hole sensing: a discussion on applications and enabling wellhead connection technology,” in Proceedings of the Offshore Technology Conference (Curran Associates, 2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535–2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Kim and J. U. Kang, “Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber with reduced temperature sensitivity,” Opt. Express 12, 4490–4495(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Nellen, P. Mauron, A. Frank, U. Sennhauser, K. Bohnert, P. Pequignot, P. Bodor, and H. Brandle, “Reliability of fiber Bragg grating based sensors for downhole applications,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 103, 364–376 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Y. Zhao, Y. Liao, and S. Lai, “Simultaneous measurement of down-hole high pressure and temperature with a bulk-modulus and FBG sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1584–1586 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, and A. Hale, “Microstructured optical fiber devices,” Opt. Express 9, 698–713 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. Clowes, J. Edwards, I. Grudinin, E. L. E. Kluth, M. P. Varnham, M. N. Zervas, C. M. Crawley, and R. L. Kutlik, “Low drift fibre optic pressure sensor for oil field downhole monitoring,” Electron. Lett. 35, 926–927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Afshari, M.

S. H. Aref, H. Latifi, M. I. Zibaii, and M. Afshari, “Fiber optic Fabry–Perot pressure sensor with low sensitivity to temperature changes for downhole application,” Opt. Commun. 269, 322–330 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Araújo, F. M.

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, and L. A. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Lasers Photon. Rev. 2, 449–459 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aref, S. H.

S. H. Aref, H. Latifi, M. I. Zibaii, and M. Afshari, “Fiber optic Fabry–Perot pressure sensor with low sensitivity to temperature changes for downhole application,” Opt. Commun. 269, 322–330 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Au, H. Y.

H. Y. Fu, S. K. Khijwania, H. Y. Au, X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, P. K. A. Wai, and C. Lu, “Novel fiber optic polarimetric torsion sensor based on polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 70042V (2008).

Baggett, J. C.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baptista, J. M.

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, and P. Roy, “Curvature sensor using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with two asymmetric hole regions in a Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2520–2523 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Temperature-independent strain sensor based on a Hi-Bi photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 1453–1455 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Belardi, W.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Bodor, P.

P. M. Nellen, P. Mauron, A. Frank, U. Sennhauser, K. Bohnert, P. Pequignot, P. Bodor, and H. Brandle, “Reliability of fiber Bragg grating based sensors for downhole applications,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 103, 364–376 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bohnert, K.

P. M. Nellen, P. Mauron, A. Frank, U. Sennhauser, K. Bohnert, P. Pequignot, P. Bodor, and H. Brandle, “Reliability of fiber Bragg grating based sensors for downhole applications,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 103, 364–376 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brandle, H.

P. M. Nellen, P. Mauron, A. Frank, U. Sennhauser, K. Bohnert, P. Pequignot, P. Bodor, and H. Brandle, “Reliability of fiber Bragg grating based sensors for downhole applications,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 103, 364–376 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Broderick, N. G. R.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Childs, P. A.

Cho, T.

Clowes, J.

J. Clowes, J. Edwards, I. Grudinin, E. L. E. Kluth, M. P. Varnham, M. N. Zervas, C. M. Crawley, and R. L. Kutlik, “Low drift fibre optic pressure sensor for oil field downhole monitoring,” Electron. Lett. 35, 926–927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Crawley, C. M.

J. Clowes, J. Edwards, I. Grudinin, E. L. E. Kluth, M. P. Varnham, M. N. Zervas, C. M. Crawley, and R. L. Kutlik, “Low drift fibre optic pressure sensor for oil field downhole monitoring,” Electron. Lett. 35, 926–927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Demokan, M. S.

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535–2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fusion splicing holey fibers and single-mode fibers: a simple method to reduce loss and increase strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 164–166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

H. Y. Fu, S. K. Khijwania, H. Y. Au, X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, P. K. A. Wai, and C. Lu, “Novel fiber optic polarimetric torsion sensor based on polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 70042V (2008).

Dong, X.

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113–3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Xi.

Edwards, J.

J. Clowes, J. Edwards, I. Grudinin, E. L. E. Kluth, M. P. Varnham, M. N. Zervas, C. M. Crawley, and R. L. Kutlik, “Low drift fibre optic pressure sensor for oil field downhole monitoring,” Electron. Lett. 35, 926–927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Ferreira, L. A.

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, and L. A. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Lasers Photon. Rev. 2, 449–459 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Frank, A.

P. M. Nellen, P. Mauron, A. Frank, U. Sennhauser, K. Bohnert, P. Pequignot, P. Bodor, and H. Brandle, “Reliability of fiber Bragg grating based sensors for downhole applications,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 103, 364–376 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frazão, O.

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, and L. A. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Lasers Photon. Rev. 2, 449–459 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, and P. Roy, “Curvature sensor using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with two asymmetric hole regions in a Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2520–2523 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Temperature-independent strain sensor based on a Hi-Bi photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 1453–1455 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fu, H. Y.

H. Y. Fu, C. Wu, M. L. V. Tse, L. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, B.-O. Guan, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber for downhole application,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75035V (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Fu, A. C. L. Wong, P. A. Childs, H. Y. Tam, Y. B. Liao, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Multiplexing of polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometric sensors,” Opt. Express 17, 18501–18512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Fu, S. K. Khijwania, H. Y. Au, X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, P. K. A. Wai, and C. Lu, “Novel fiber optic polarimetric torsion sensor based on polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 70042V (2008).

H. Y. Fu, H. Y. Tam, L.- Y. Shao, Xi. Dong, P. K. A. Wai, C. Lu, and S. K. Khijwania, “Pressure sensor realized with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2835–2839 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, L. B.

M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fusion splicing holey fibers and single-mode fibers: a simple method to reduce loss and increase strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 164–166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Furusawa, K.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grudinin, I.

J. Clowes, J. Edwards, I. Grudinin, E. L. E. Kluth, M. P. Varnham, M. N. Zervas, C. M. Crawley, and R. L. Kutlik, “Low drift fibre optic pressure sensor for oil field downhole monitoring,” Electron. Lett. 35, 926–927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guan, B.-O.

H. Y. Fu, C. Wu, M. L. V. Tse, L. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, B.-O. Guan, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber for downhole application,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75035V (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hale, A.

Han, Y.-G.

Hwang, K.

Jin, W.

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535–2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

Kerbage, C.

Khijwania, S. K.

H. Y. Fu, H. Y. Tam, L.- Y. Shao, Xi. Dong, P. K. A. Wai, C. Lu, and S. K. Khijwania, “Pressure sensor realized with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2835–2839 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Fu, S. K. Khijwania, H. Y. Au, X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, P. K. A. Wai, and C. Lu, “Novel fiber optic polarimetric torsion sensor based on polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 70042V (2008).

Kim, D.-H.

Kim, G.

Kluth, E. L. E.

J. Clowes, J. Edwards, I. Grudinin, E. L. E. Kluth, M. P. Varnham, M. N. Zervas, C. M. Crawley, and R. L. Kutlik, “Low drift fibre optic pressure sensor for oil field downhole monitoring,” Electron. Lett. 35, 926–927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Kutlik, R. L.

J. Clowes, J. Edwards, I. Grudinin, E. L. E. Kluth, M. P. Varnham, M. N. Zervas, C. M. Crawley, and R. L. Kutlik, “Low drift fibre optic pressure sensor for oil field downhole monitoring,” Electron. Lett. 35, 926–927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lai, S.

Y. Zhao, Y. Liao, and S. Lai, “Simultaneous measurement of down-hole high pressure and temperature with a bulk-modulus and FBG sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1584–1586 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Latifi, H.

S. H. Aref, H. Latifi, M. I. Zibaii, and M. Afshari, “Fiber optic Fabry–Perot pressure sensor with low sensitivity to temperature changes for downhole application,” Opt. Commun. 269, 322–330 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. S.

Lee, K.

Lee, S. B.

Liao, Y.

Y. Zhao, Y. Liao, and S. Lai, “Simultaneous measurement of down-hole high pressure and temperature with a bulk-modulus and FBG sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1584–1586 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y. B.

Lu, C.

H. Y. Fu, A. C. L. Wong, P. A. Childs, H. Y. Tam, Y. B. Liao, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Multiplexing of polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometric sensors,” Opt. Express 17, 18501–18512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fusion splicing holey fibers and single-mode fibers: a simple method to reduce loss and increase strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 164–166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Fu, C. Wu, M. L. V. Tse, L. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, B.-O. Guan, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber for downhole application,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75035V (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Fu, H. Y. Tam, L.- Y. Shao, Xi. Dong, P. K. A. Wai, C. Lu, and S. K. Khijwania, “Pressure sensor realized with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2835–2839 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Fu, S. K. Khijwania, H. Y. Au, X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, P. K. A. Wai, and C. Lu, “Novel fiber optic polarimetric torsion sensor based on polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 70042V (2008).

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535–2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mauron, P.

P. M. Nellen, P. Mauron, A. Frank, U. Sennhauser, K. Bohnert, P. Pequignot, P. Bodor, and H. Brandle, “Reliability of fiber Bragg grating based sensors for downhole applications,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 103, 364–376 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nellen, P. M.

P. M. Nellen, P. Mauron, A. Frank, U. Sennhauser, K. Bohnert, P. Pequignot, P. Bodor, and H. Brandle, “Reliability of fiber Bragg grating based sensors for downhole applications,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 103, 364–376 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pequignot, P.

P. M. Nellen, P. Mauron, A. Frank, U. Sennhauser, K. Bohnert, P. Pequignot, P. Bodor, and H. Brandle, “Reliability of fiber Bragg grating based sensors for downhole applications,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 103, 364–376 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Roy, P.

Russell, P. St. J.

Santos, J. L.

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, and L. A. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Lasers Photon. Rev. 2, 449–459 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, and P. Roy, “Curvature sensor using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with two asymmetric hole regions in a Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2520–2523 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Temperature-independent strain sensor based on a Hi-Bi photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 1453–1455 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sennhauser, U.

P. M. Nellen, P. Mauron, A. Frank, U. Sennhauser, K. Bohnert, P. Pequignot, P. Bodor, and H. Brandle, “Reliability of fiber Bragg grating based sensors for downhole applications,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 103, 364–376 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shao, L.- Y.

Shum, P.

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113–3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

H. Y. Fu, C. Wu, M. L. V. Tse, L. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, B.-O. Guan, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber for downhole application,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75035V (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fusion splicing holey fibers and single-mode fibers: a simple method to reduce loss and increase strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 164–166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Fu, A. C. L. Wong, P. A. Childs, H. Y. Tam, Y. B. Liao, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Multiplexing of polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometric sensors,” Opt. Express 17, 18501–18512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Fu, S. K. Khijwania, H. Y. Au, X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, P. K. A. Wai, and C. Lu, “Novel fiber optic polarimetric torsion sensor based on polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 70042V (2008).

H. Y. Fu, H. Y. Tam, L.- Y. Shao, Xi. Dong, P. K. A. Wai, C. Lu, and S. K. Khijwania, “Pressure sensor realized with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2835–2839 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113–3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, B. K.

M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fusion splicing holey fibers and single-mode fibers: a simple method to reduce loss and increase strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 164–166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tse, M. L. V.

M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fusion splicing holey fibers and single-mode fibers: a simple method to reduce loss and increase strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 164–166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Fu, C. Wu, M. L. V. Tse, L. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, B.-O. Guan, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber for downhole application,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75035V (2009).
[CrossRef]

Varnham, M. P.

J. Clowes, J. Edwards, I. Grudinin, E. L. E. Kluth, M. P. Varnham, M. N. Zervas, C. M. Crawley, and R. L. Kutlik, “Low drift fibre optic pressure sensor for oil field downhole monitoring,” Electron. Lett. 35, 926–927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wai, P. K. A.

H. Y. Fu, C. Wu, M. L. V. Tse, L. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, B.-O. Guan, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber for downhole application,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75035V (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Fu, A. C. L. Wong, P. A. Childs, H. Y. Tam, Y. B. Liao, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Multiplexing of polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometric sensors,” Opt. Express 17, 18501–18512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fusion splicing holey fibers and single-mode fibers: a simple method to reduce loss and increase strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 164–166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Fu, S. K. Khijwania, H. Y. Au, X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, P. K. A. Wai, and C. Lu, “Novel fiber optic polarimetric torsion sensor based on polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 70042V (2008).

H. Y. Fu, H. Y. Tam, L.- Y. Shao, Xi. Dong, P. K. A. Wai, C. Lu, and S. K. Khijwania, “Pressure sensor realized with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2835–2839 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westbrook, P. S.

Windeler, R. S.

Womack, W.

P. J. Wright and W. Womack, “Fiber-optic down-hole sensing: a discussion on applications and enabling wellhead connection technology,” in Proceedings of the Offshore Technology Conference (Curran Associates, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, A. C. L.

Wright, P. J.

P. J. Wright and W. Womack, “Fiber-optic down-hole sensing: a discussion on applications and enabling wellhead connection technology,” in Proceedings of the Offshore Technology Conference (Curran Associates, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

H. Y. Fu, C. Wu, M. L. V. Tse, L. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, B.-O. Guan, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber for downhole application,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75035V (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535–2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zervas, M. N.

J. Clowes, J. Edwards, I. Grudinin, E. L. E. Kluth, M. P. Varnham, M. N. Zervas, C. M. Crawley, and R. L. Kutlik, “Low drift fibre optic pressure sensor for oil field downhole monitoring,” Electron. Lett. 35, 926–927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

H. Y. Fu, C. Wu, M. L. V. Tse, L. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, B.-O. Guan, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber for downhole application,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75035V (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C.-L.

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535–2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, Y. Liao, and S. Lai, “Simultaneous measurement of down-hole high pressure and temperature with a bulk-modulus and FBG sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1584–1586 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zibaii, M. I.

S. H. Aref, H. Latifi, M. I. Zibaii, and M. Afshari, “Fiber optic Fabry–Perot pressure sensor with low sensitivity to temperature changes for downhole application,” Opt. Commun. 269, 322–330 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113–3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Clowes, J. Edwards, I. Grudinin, E. L. E. Kluth, M. P. Varnham, M. N. Zervas, C. M. Crawley, and R. L. Kutlik, “Low drift fibre optic pressure sensor for oil field downhole monitoring,” Electron. Lett. 35, 926–927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

Y. Zhao, Y. Liao, and S. Lai, “Simultaneous measurement of down-hole high pressure and temperature with a bulk-modulus and FBG sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1584–1586 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535–2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fusion splicing holey fibers and single-mode fibers: a simple method to reduce loss and increase strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 164–166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Temperature-independent strain sensor based on a Hi-Bi photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 1453–1455 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Photon. Rev. (1)

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, and L. A. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Lasers Photon. Rev. 2, 449–459 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. H. Aref, H. Latifi, M. I. Zibaii, and M. Afshari, “Fiber optic Fabry–Perot pressure sensor with low sensitivity to temperature changes for downhole application,” Opt. Commun. 269, 322–330 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Y. Fu, C. Wu, M. L. V. Tse, L. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, B.-O. Guan, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber for downhole application,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75035V (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators A, Phys. (1)

P. M. Nellen, P. Mauron, A. Frank, U. Sennhauser, K. Bohnert, P. Pequignot, P. Bodor, and H. Brandle, “Reliability of fiber Bragg grating based sensors for downhole applications,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 103, 364–376 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

P. J. Wright and W. Womack, “Fiber-optic down-hole sensing: a discussion on applications and enabling wellhead connection technology,” in Proceedings of the Offshore Technology Conference (Curran Associates, 2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Fu, S. K. Khijwania, H. Y. Au, X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, P. K. A. Wai, and C. Lu, “Novel fiber optic polarimetric torsion sensor based on polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 70042V (2008).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of the PM PCF based Sagnac interferometer for high pressure sensing application.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Numerical results of (a) confinement loss and (b) birefringence of the PM PCF under bending with a 6 mm diameter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Output optical spectrum of the PM PCF based Sagnac interferometric pressure sensor; the peak shows the reference FBG. (b) Output optical spectra of the pressure sensor under applied pressure from 0 to 20 MPa at room temperature. One of the transmission minima shifts from 1509.8 to 1574.8 nm , and the peak in the third spectrum indicates the reference FBG.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Wavelength shift of the transmission minimum (a) at approximately 1320 and 1550 nm under applied pressure from 0 to 20 MPa and (b) under applied pressure from 0 to 20 MPa; good repeatability is demonstrated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Wavelength shift of the transmission minimum under applied pressure from 0 to 20 MPa at temperatures of (a)  20 ° C , 66 ° C , 90 ° C , and 120 ° C and (b)  293 ° C .

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