Abstract

We fabricate low-noise visible-blind ultraviolet photodetectors of indium tin oxide/SrTiO3/Ag (ITO/STO/Ag) based on the properties of STO bandgap excitation and the conductance of ITO thin film. The ITO films are epitaxially grown on STO wafers as electrodes and windows of the photodetectors, simultaneously. The photodetectors have low noise and very good electromagnetic shielding. The dark current is as low as 270pA even at a 200V bias. The peak responsivity reaches to 30mA/W at the wavelength of 360nm. From the experimental results, the same ideas can be generalized to develop visible-blind and solar-blind UV photodetectors based on wide bandgap materials, such as LaAlO3, LiNbO3, LiTaO3, BaTiO3, ZnO, MgO, and ZrO2.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Osinsky, S. Gangopadhyay, B. W. Lim, M. Z. Anwar, M. A. Khan, D. V. Kuksenkov, and H. Temkin, “Schottky barrier photodetectors based on AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 742–744 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Tut, T. Yelboga, E. Ulker, and E. Ozbay, “Solar-blind AlGaN-based p-i-n photodetectors with high breakdown voltage and detectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103502 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Jiang and T. Egawa, “High quality AlGaN solar-blind Schottky photodiodes fabricated on AIN/sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121121 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. A. Garrido, I. Izpura, F. J. Sánchez, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Photoconductor gain mechanisms in GaN ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 870–872 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Mikulics, M. Marso, P. Javorka, P. Kordo, and H. Lüth, “Ultrafast metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on low-temperature-grown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211110(2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Soltani, H. A. Barkad, M. Mattalah, B. Benbakhti, J.-C. De Jaeger, Y. M. Chong, Y. S. Zou, W. J. Zhang, S. T. Lee, A. BenMoussa, B. Giordanengo, and J.-F. Hochedez, “193 nm deep-ultraviolet solar-blind cubic boron nitride based photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053501 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Sharma, K. Sreenivas, and K. V. Rao, “Analysis of ultraviolet photoconductivity in ZnO films prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3963–3970 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Balducci, M. Marinelli, E. Milani, M. E. Morgada, A. Tucciarone, and G. Verona-Rinati, “Extreme ultraviolet single-crystal diamond detectors by chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 193509 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Zhao, K. J. Jin, Y. H. Huang, S. Q. Zhao, H. B. Lu, M. He, Z. H. Chen, Y. L. Zhou, and G. Z. Yang, “Ultraviolet fast-response photoelectric effect in tilted orientation SrTiO3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173507 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Xing, K. Zhao, H. B. Lu, X. Wang, G. Z. Liu, K. J. Jin, M. He, C. C. Wang, and G. Z. Yang, “Visible-blind, ultraviolet-sensitive photodetector based on SrTiO3 single crystal,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2526–2528 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Xing, E. J. Guo, K. J. Jin, H. B. Lu, J. Wen, and G. Z. Yang, “Solar-blind deep-ultraviolet photodetectors based on an LaAlO3 single crystal,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1675–1677 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. J. Guo, J. Xing, K. J. Jin, H. B. Lu, J. Wen, and G. Z. Yang, “Photoelectric effects of ultraviolet fast response and high sensitivity in LiNbO3 single crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023114(2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. J. Guo, J. Xing, H. B. Lu, K. J. Jin, J. Wen, and G. Z. Yang, “Ultraviolet fast-response photoelectric effects in LiTaO3single crystal,” J. Phys. D 43, 015402 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Z. Chiou and J. J. Tang, “GaN photodetectors with transparent indium tin oxide electrodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 4146–4149 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. L. Lee, P. F. Chi, and J. K. Sheu, “Photodetectors formed by an indium tin oxide/zinc oxide/p-type gallium nitride heterojunction with high ultraviolet-to-visible rejection ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 013512 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. S. Jahng, A. H. Francis, H. Moon, J. I. Nanos, and M. D. Curtis, “Is indium tin oxide a suitable electrode in organic solar cells? Photovoltaic properties of interfaces in organic p/n junction photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 093504 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Z. Yang, H. B. Lu, F. Chen, T. Zhao, and Z. H. Chen, “Laser molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of perovskite oxide thin films,” J. Cryst. Growth 227, 929 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Razeghi and A. Rogalski, “Semiconductor ultraviolet detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7433–7473 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Palacios, E. Monroy, F. Calle, and F. Omnes, “High-responsivity submicron metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1902–1904 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

E. J. Guo, J. Xing, H. B. Lu, K. J. Jin, J. Wen, and G. Z. Yang, “Ultraviolet fast-response photoelectric effects in LiTaO3single crystal,” J. Phys. D 43, 015402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

E. J. Guo, J. Xing, K. J. Jin, H. B. Lu, J. Wen, and G. Z. Yang, “Photoelectric effects of ultraviolet fast response and high sensitivity in LiNbO3 single crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023114(2009).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, P. F. Chi, and J. K. Sheu, “Photodetectors formed by an indium tin oxide/zinc oxide/p-type gallium nitride heterojunction with high ultraviolet-to-visible rejection ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 013512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Xing, E. J. Guo, K. J. Jin, H. B. Lu, J. Wen, and G. Z. Yang, “Solar-blind deep-ultraviolet photodetectors based on an LaAlO3 single crystal,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1675–1677 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

T. Tut, T. Yelboga, E. Ulker, and E. Ozbay, “Solar-blind AlGaN-based p-i-n photodetectors with high breakdown voltage and detectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Soltani, H. A. Barkad, M. Mattalah, B. Benbakhti, J.-C. De Jaeger, Y. M. Chong, Y. S. Zou, W. J. Zhang, S. T. Lee, A. BenMoussa, B. Giordanengo, and J.-F. Hochedez, “193 nm deep-ultraviolet solar-blind cubic boron nitride based photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

K. Zhao, K. J. Jin, Y. H. Huang, S. Q. Zhao, H. B. Lu, M. He, Z. H. Chen, Y. L. Zhou, and G. Z. Yang, “Ultraviolet fast-response photoelectric effect in tilted orientation SrTiO3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Jahng, A. H. Francis, H. Moon, J. I. Nanos, and M. D. Curtis, “Is indium tin oxide a suitable electrode in organic solar cells? Photovoltaic properties of interfaces in organic p/n junction photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 093504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Balducci, M. Marinelli, E. Milani, M. E. Morgada, A. Tucciarone, and G. Verona-Rinati, “Extreme ultraviolet single-crystal diamond detectors by chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 193509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Mikulics, M. Marso, P. Javorka, P. Kordo, and H. Lüth, “Ultrafast metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on low-temperature-grown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211110(2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Y. Z. Chiou and J. J. Tang, “GaN photodetectors with transparent indium tin oxide electrodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 4146–4149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. Sharma, K. Sreenivas, and K. V. Rao, “Analysis of ultraviolet photoconductivity in ZnO films prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3963–3970 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Palacios, E. Monroy, F. Calle, and F. Omnes, “High-responsivity submicron metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1902–1904 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. Z. Yang, H. B. Lu, F. Chen, T. Zhao, and Z. H. Chen, “Laser molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of perovskite oxide thin films,” J. Cryst. Growth 227, 929 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Osinsky, S. Gangopadhyay, B. W. Lim, M. Z. Anwar, M. A. Khan, D. V. Kuksenkov, and H. Temkin, “Schottky barrier photodetectors based on AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 742–744 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. A. Garrido, I. Izpura, F. J. Sánchez, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Photoconductor gain mechanisms in GaN ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 870–872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Razeghi and A. Rogalski, “Semiconductor ultraviolet detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7433–7473 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anwar, M. Z.

A. Osinsky, S. Gangopadhyay, B. W. Lim, M. Z. Anwar, M. A. Khan, D. V. Kuksenkov, and H. Temkin, “Schottky barrier photodetectors based on AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 742–744 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Balducci, A.

A. Balducci, M. Marinelli, E. Milani, M. E. Morgada, A. Tucciarone, and G. Verona-Rinati, “Extreme ultraviolet single-crystal diamond detectors by chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 193509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barkad, H. A.

A. Soltani, H. A. Barkad, M. Mattalah, B. Benbakhti, J.-C. De Jaeger, Y. M. Chong, Y. S. Zou, W. J. Zhang, S. T. Lee, A. BenMoussa, B. Giordanengo, and J.-F. Hochedez, “193 nm deep-ultraviolet solar-blind cubic boron nitride based photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beaumont, B.

E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. A. Garrido, I. Izpura, F. J. Sánchez, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Photoconductor gain mechanisms in GaN ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 870–872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Benbakhti, B.

A. Soltani, H. A. Barkad, M. Mattalah, B. Benbakhti, J.-C. De Jaeger, Y. M. Chong, Y. S. Zou, W. J. Zhang, S. T. Lee, A. BenMoussa, B. Giordanengo, and J.-F. Hochedez, “193 nm deep-ultraviolet solar-blind cubic boron nitride based photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

BenMoussa, A.

A. Soltani, H. A. Barkad, M. Mattalah, B. Benbakhti, J.-C. De Jaeger, Y. M. Chong, Y. S. Zou, W. J. Zhang, S. T. Lee, A. BenMoussa, B. Giordanengo, and J.-F. Hochedez, “193 nm deep-ultraviolet solar-blind cubic boron nitride based photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Calle, F.

T. Palacios, E. Monroy, F. Calle, and F. Omnes, “High-responsivity submicron metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1902–1904 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Calleja, E.

E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. A. Garrido, I. Izpura, F. J. Sánchez, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Photoconductor gain mechanisms in GaN ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 870–872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

G. Z. Yang, H. B. Lu, F. Chen, T. Zhao, and Z. H. Chen, “Laser molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of perovskite oxide thin films,” J. Cryst. Growth 227, 929 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. H.

K. Zhao, K. J. Jin, Y. H. Huang, S. Q. Zhao, H. B. Lu, M. He, Z. H. Chen, Y. L. Zhou, and G. Z. Yang, “Ultraviolet fast-response photoelectric effect in tilted orientation SrTiO3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Z. Yang, H. B. Lu, F. Chen, T. Zhao, and Z. H. Chen, “Laser molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of perovskite oxide thin films,” J. Cryst. Growth 227, 929 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chi, P. F.

M. L. Lee, P. F. Chi, and J. K. Sheu, “Photodetectors formed by an indium tin oxide/zinc oxide/p-type gallium nitride heterojunction with high ultraviolet-to-visible rejection ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 013512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiou, Y. Z.

Y. Z. Chiou and J. J. Tang, “GaN photodetectors with transparent indium tin oxide electrodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 4146–4149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chong, Y. M.

A. Soltani, H. A. Barkad, M. Mattalah, B. Benbakhti, J.-C. De Jaeger, Y. M. Chong, Y. S. Zou, W. J. Zhang, S. T. Lee, A. BenMoussa, B. Giordanengo, and J.-F. Hochedez, “193 nm deep-ultraviolet solar-blind cubic boron nitride based photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, M. D.

W. S. Jahng, A. H. Francis, H. Moon, J. I. Nanos, and M. D. Curtis, “Is indium tin oxide a suitable electrode in organic solar cells? Photovoltaic properties of interfaces in organic p/n junction photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 093504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Jaeger, J.-C.

A. Soltani, H. A. Barkad, M. Mattalah, B. Benbakhti, J.-C. De Jaeger, Y. M. Chong, Y. S. Zou, W. J. Zhang, S. T. Lee, A. BenMoussa, B. Giordanengo, and J.-F. Hochedez, “193 nm deep-ultraviolet solar-blind cubic boron nitride based photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Egawa, T.

H. Jiang and T. Egawa, “High quality AlGaN solar-blind Schottky photodiodes fabricated on AIN/sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Francis, A. H.

W. S. Jahng, A. H. Francis, H. Moon, J. I. Nanos, and M. D. Curtis, “Is indium tin oxide a suitable electrode in organic solar cells? Photovoltaic properties of interfaces in organic p/n junction photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 093504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gangopadhyay, S.

A. Osinsky, S. Gangopadhyay, B. W. Lim, M. Z. Anwar, M. A. Khan, D. V. Kuksenkov, and H. Temkin, “Schottky barrier photodetectors based on AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 742–744 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garrido, J. A.

E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. A. Garrido, I. Izpura, F. J. Sánchez, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Photoconductor gain mechanisms in GaN ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 870–872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gibart, P.

E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. A. Garrido, I. Izpura, F. J. Sánchez, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Photoconductor gain mechanisms in GaN ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 870–872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Giordanengo, B.

A. Soltani, H. A. Barkad, M. Mattalah, B. Benbakhti, J.-C. De Jaeger, Y. M. Chong, Y. S. Zou, W. J. Zhang, S. T. Lee, A. BenMoussa, B. Giordanengo, and J.-F. Hochedez, “193 nm deep-ultraviolet solar-blind cubic boron nitride based photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, E. J.

E. J. Guo, J. Xing, H. B. Lu, K. J. Jin, J. Wen, and G. Z. Yang, “Ultraviolet fast-response photoelectric effects in LiTaO3single crystal,” J. Phys. D 43, 015402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Xing, E. J. Guo, K. J. Jin, H. B. Lu, J. Wen, and G. Z. Yang, “Solar-blind deep-ultraviolet photodetectors based on an LaAlO3 single crystal,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1675–1677 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Guo, J. Xing, K. J. Jin, H. B. Lu, J. Wen, and G. Z. Yang, “Photoelectric effects of ultraviolet fast response and high sensitivity in LiNbO3 single crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023114(2009).
[CrossRef]

He, M.

J. Xing, K. Zhao, H. B. Lu, X. Wang, G. Z. Liu, K. J. Jin, M. He, C. C. Wang, and G. Z. Yang, “Visible-blind, ultraviolet-sensitive photodetector based on SrTiO3 single crystal,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2526–2528 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhao, K. J. Jin, Y. H. Huang, S. Q. Zhao, H. B. Lu, M. He, Z. H. Chen, Y. L. Zhou, and G. Z. Yang, “Ultraviolet fast-response photoelectric effect in tilted orientation SrTiO3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hochedez, J.-F.

A. Soltani, H. A. Barkad, M. Mattalah, B. Benbakhti, J.-C. De Jaeger, Y. M. Chong, Y. S. Zou, W. J. Zhang, S. T. Lee, A. BenMoussa, B. Giordanengo, and J.-F. Hochedez, “193 nm deep-ultraviolet solar-blind cubic boron nitride based photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. H.

K. Zhao, K. J. Jin, Y. H. Huang, S. Q. Zhao, H. B. Lu, M. He, Z. H. Chen, Y. L. Zhou, and G. Z. Yang, “Ultraviolet fast-response photoelectric effect in tilted orientation SrTiO3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Izpura, I.

E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. A. Garrido, I. Izpura, F. J. Sánchez, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Photoconductor gain mechanisms in GaN ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 870–872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jahng, W. S.

W. S. Jahng, A. H. Francis, H. Moon, J. I. Nanos, and M. D. Curtis, “Is indium tin oxide a suitable electrode in organic solar cells? Photovoltaic properties of interfaces in organic p/n junction photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 093504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Javorka, P.

M. Mikulics, M. Marso, P. Javorka, P. Kordo, and H. Lüth, “Ultrafast metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on low-temperature-grown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211110(2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

H. Jiang and T. Egawa, “High quality AlGaN solar-blind Schottky photodiodes fabricated on AIN/sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jin, K. J.

E. J. Guo, J. Xing, H. B. Lu, K. J. Jin, J. Wen, and G. Z. Yang, “Ultraviolet fast-response photoelectric effects in LiTaO3single crystal,” J. Phys. D 43, 015402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Xing, E. J. Guo, K. J. Jin, H. B. Lu, J. Wen, and G. Z. Yang, “Solar-blind deep-ultraviolet photodetectors based on an LaAlO3 single crystal,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1675–1677 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Guo, J. Xing, K. J. Jin, H. B. Lu, J. Wen, and G. Z. Yang, “Photoelectric effects of ultraviolet fast response and high sensitivity in LiNbO3 single crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023114(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Xing, K. Zhao, H. B. Lu, X. Wang, G. Z. Liu, K. J. Jin, M. He, C. C. Wang, and G. Z. Yang, “Visible-blind, ultraviolet-sensitive photodetector based on SrTiO3 single crystal,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2526–2528 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhao, K. J. Jin, Y. H. Huang, S. Q. Zhao, H. B. Lu, M. He, Z. H. Chen, Y. L. Zhou, and G. Z. Yang, “Ultraviolet fast-response photoelectric effect in tilted orientation SrTiO3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. A.

A. Osinsky, S. Gangopadhyay, B. W. Lim, M. Z. Anwar, M. A. Khan, D. V. Kuksenkov, and H. Temkin, “Schottky barrier photodetectors based on AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 742–744 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kordo, P.

M. Mikulics, M. Marso, P. Javorka, P. Kordo, and H. Lüth, “Ultrafast metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on low-temperature-grown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211110(2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuksenkov, D. V.

A. Osinsky, S. Gangopadhyay, B. W. Lim, M. Z. Anwar, M. A. Khan, D. V. Kuksenkov, and H. Temkin, “Schottky barrier photodetectors based on AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 742–744 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. L.

M. L. Lee, P. F. Chi, and J. K. Sheu, “Photodetectors formed by an indium tin oxide/zinc oxide/p-type gallium nitride heterojunction with high ultraviolet-to-visible rejection ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 013512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. T.

A. Soltani, H. A. Barkad, M. Mattalah, B. Benbakhti, J.-C. De Jaeger, Y. M. Chong, Y. S. Zou, W. J. Zhang, S. T. Lee, A. BenMoussa, B. Giordanengo, and J.-F. Hochedez, “193 nm deep-ultraviolet solar-blind cubic boron nitride based photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lim, B. W.

A. Osinsky, S. Gangopadhyay, B. W. Lim, M. Z. Anwar, M. A. Khan, D. V. Kuksenkov, and H. Temkin, “Schottky barrier photodetectors based on AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 742–744 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G. Z.

Lu, H. B.

E. J. Guo, J. Xing, H. B. Lu, K. J. Jin, J. Wen, and G. Z. Yang, “Ultraviolet fast-response photoelectric effects in LiTaO3single crystal,” J. Phys. D 43, 015402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Xing, E. J. Guo, K. J. Jin, H. B. Lu, J. Wen, and G. Z. Yang, “Solar-blind deep-ultraviolet photodetectors based on an LaAlO3 single crystal,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1675–1677 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Guo, J. Xing, K. J. Jin, H. B. Lu, J. Wen, and G. Z. Yang, “Photoelectric effects of ultraviolet fast response and high sensitivity in LiNbO3 single crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023114(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Xing, K. Zhao, H. B. Lu, X. Wang, G. Z. Liu, K. J. Jin, M. He, C. C. Wang, and G. Z. Yang, “Visible-blind, ultraviolet-sensitive photodetector based on SrTiO3 single crystal,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2526–2528 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhao, K. J. Jin, Y. H. Huang, S. Q. Zhao, H. B. Lu, M. He, Z. H. Chen, Y. L. Zhou, and G. Z. Yang, “Ultraviolet fast-response photoelectric effect in tilted orientation SrTiO3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Z. Yang, H. B. Lu, F. Chen, T. Zhao, and Z. H. Chen, “Laser molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of perovskite oxide thin films,” J. Cryst. Growth 227, 929 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lüth, H.

M. Mikulics, M. Marso, P. Javorka, P. Kordo, and H. Lüth, “Ultrafast metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on low-temperature-grown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211110(2005).
[CrossRef]

Marinelli, M.

A. Balducci, M. Marinelli, E. Milani, M. E. Morgada, A. Tucciarone, and G. Verona-Rinati, “Extreme ultraviolet single-crystal diamond detectors by chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 193509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marso, M.

M. Mikulics, M. Marso, P. Javorka, P. Kordo, and H. Lüth, “Ultrafast metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on low-temperature-grown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211110(2005).
[CrossRef]

Mattalah, M.

A. Soltani, H. A. Barkad, M. Mattalah, B. Benbakhti, J.-C. De Jaeger, Y. M. Chong, Y. S. Zou, W. J. Zhang, S. T. Lee, A. BenMoussa, B. Giordanengo, and J.-F. Hochedez, “193 nm deep-ultraviolet solar-blind cubic boron nitride based photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mikulics, M.

M. Mikulics, M. Marso, P. Javorka, P. Kordo, and H. Lüth, “Ultrafast metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on low-temperature-grown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211110(2005).
[CrossRef]

Milani, E.

A. Balducci, M. Marinelli, E. Milani, M. E. Morgada, A. Tucciarone, and G. Verona-Rinati, “Extreme ultraviolet single-crystal diamond detectors by chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 193509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Monroy, E.

T. Palacios, E. Monroy, F. Calle, and F. Omnes, “High-responsivity submicron metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1902–1904 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. A. Garrido, I. Izpura, F. J. Sánchez, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Photoconductor gain mechanisms in GaN ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 870–872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moon, H.

W. S. Jahng, A. H. Francis, H. Moon, J. I. Nanos, and M. D. Curtis, “Is indium tin oxide a suitable electrode in organic solar cells? Photovoltaic properties of interfaces in organic p/n junction photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 093504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morgada, M. E.

A. Balducci, M. Marinelli, E. Milani, M. E. Morgada, A. Tucciarone, and G. Verona-Rinati, “Extreme ultraviolet single-crystal diamond detectors by chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 193509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Muñoz, E.

E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. A. Garrido, I. Izpura, F. J. Sánchez, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Photoconductor gain mechanisms in GaN ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 870–872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nanos, J. I.

W. S. Jahng, A. H. Francis, H. Moon, J. I. Nanos, and M. D. Curtis, “Is indium tin oxide a suitable electrode in organic solar cells? Photovoltaic properties of interfaces in organic p/n junction photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 093504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Omnes, F.

T. Palacios, E. Monroy, F. Calle, and F. Omnes, “High-responsivity submicron metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1902–1904 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Osinsky, A.

A. Osinsky, S. Gangopadhyay, B. W. Lim, M. Z. Anwar, M. A. Khan, D. V. Kuksenkov, and H. Temkin, “Schottky barrier photodetectors based on AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 742–744 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

T. Tut, T. Yelboga, E. Ulker, and E. Ozbay, “Solar-blind AlGaN-based p-i-n photodetectors with high breakdown voltage and detectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Palacios, T.

T. Palacios, E. Monroy, F. Calle, and F. Omnes, “High-responsivity submicron metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1902–1904 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rao, K. V.

P. Sharma, K. Sreenivas, and K. V. Rao, “Analysis of ultraviolet photoconductivity in ZnO films prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3963–3970 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

M. Razeghi and A. Rogalski, “Semiconductor ultraviolet detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7433–7473 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rogalski, A.

M. Razeghi and A. Rogalski, “Semiconductor ultraviolet detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7433–7473 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez, F. J.

E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. A. Garrido, I. Izpura, F. J. Sánchez, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Photoconductor gain mechanisms in GaN ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 870–872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez-García, M. A.

E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. A. Garrido, I. Izpura, F. J. Sánchez, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Photoconductor gain mechanisms in GaN ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 870–872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, P.

P. Sharma, K. Sreenivas, and K. V. Rao, “Analysis of ultraviolet photoconductivity in ZnO films prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3963–3970 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

M. L. Lee, P. F. Chi, and J. K. Sheu, “Photodetectors formed by an indium tin oxide/zinc oxide/p-type gallium nitride heterojunction with high ultraviolet-to-visible rejection ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 013512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Soltani, A.

A. Soltani, H. A. Barkad, M. Mattalah, B. Benbakhti, J.-C. De Jaeger, Y. M. Chong, Y. S. Zou, W. J. Zhang, S. T. Lee, A. BenMoussa, B. Giordanengo, and J.-F. Hochedez, “193 nm deep-ultraviolet solar-blind cubic boron nitride based photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sreenivas, K.

P. Sharma, K. Sreenivas, and K. V. Rao, “Analysis of ultraviolet photoconductivity in ZnO films prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3963–3970 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tang, J. J.

Y. Z. Chiou and J. J. Tang, “GaN photodetectors with transparent indium tin oxide electrodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 4146–4149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Temkin, H.

A. Osinsky, S. Gangopadhyay, B. W. Lim, M. Z. Anwar, M. A. Khan, D. V. Kuksenkov, and H. Temkin, “Schottky barrier photodetectors based on AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 742–744 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tucciarone, A.

A. Balducci, M. Marinelli, E. Milani, M. E. Morgada, A. Tucciarone, and G. Verona-Rinati, “Extreme ultraviolet single-crystal diamond detectors by chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 193509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tut, T.

T. Tut, T. Yelboga, E. Ulker, and E. Ozbay, “Solar-blind AlGaN-based p-i-n photodetectors with high breakdown voltage and detectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ulker, E.

T. Tut, T. Yelboga, E. Ulker, and E. Ozbay, “Solar-blind AlGaN-based p-i-n photodetectors with high breakdown voltage and detectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Verona-Rinati, G.

A. Balducci, M. Marinelli, E. Milani, M. E. Morgada, A. Tucciarone, and G. Verona-Rinati, “Extreme ultraviolet single-crystal diamond detectors by chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 193509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. C.

Wang, X.

Wen, J.

E. J. Guo, J. Xing, H. B. Lu, K. J. Jin, J. Wen, and G. Z. Yang, “Ultraviolet fast-response photoelectric effects in LiTaO3single crystal,” J. Phys. D 43, 015402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Xing, E. J. Guo, K. J. Jin, H. B. Lu, J. Wen, and G. Z. Yang, “Solar-blind deep-ultraviolet photodetectors based on an LaAlO3 single crystal,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1675–1677 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Guo, J. Xing, K. J. Jin, H. B. Lu, J. Wen, and G. Z. Yang, “Photoelectric effects of ultraviolet fast response and high sensitivity in LiNbO3 single crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023114(2009).
[CrossRef]

Xing, J.

E. J. Guo, J. Xing, H. B. Lu, K. J. Jin, J. Wen, and G. Z. Yang, “Ultraviolet fast-response photoelectric effects in LiTaO3single crystal,” J. Phys. D 43, 015402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Xing, E. J. Guo, K. J. Jin, H. B. Lu, J. Wen, and G. Z. Yang, “Solar-blind deep-ultraviolet photodetectors based on an LaAlO3 single crystal,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1675–1677 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Guo, J. Xing, K. J. Jin, H. B. Lu, J. Wen, and G. Z. Yang, “Photoelectric effects of ultraviolet fast response and high sensitivity in LiNbO3 single crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023114(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Xing, K. Zhao, H. B. Lu, X. Wang, G. Z. Liu, K. J. Jin, M. He, C. C. Wang, and G. Z. Yang, “Visible-blind, ultraviolet-sensitive photodetector based on SrTiO3 single crystal,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2526–2528 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, G. Z.

E. J. Guo, J. Xing, H. B. Lu, K. J. Jin, J. Wen, and G. Z. Yang, “Ultraviolet fast-response photoelectric effects in LiTaO3single crystal,” J. Phys. D 43, 015402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Xing, E. J. Guo, K. J. Jin, H. B. Lu, J. Wen, and G. Z. Yang, “Solar-blind deep-ultraviolet photodetectors based on an LaAlO3 single crystal,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1675–1677 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Guo, J. Xing, K. J. Jin, H. B. Lu, J. Wen, and G. Z. Yang, “Photoelectric effects of ultraviolet fast response and high sensitivity in LiNbO3 single crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023114(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Xing, K. Zhao, H. B. Lu, X. Wang, G. Z. Liu, K. J. Jin, M. He, C. C. Wang, and G. Z. Yang, “Visible-blind, ultraviolet-sensitive photodetector based on SrTiO3 single crystal,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2526–2528 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhao, K. J. Jin, Y. H. Huang, S. Q. Zhao, H. B. Lu, M. He, Z. H. Chen, Y. L. Zhou, and G. Z. Yang, “Ultraviolet fast-response photoelectric effect in tilted orientation SrTiO3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Z. Yang, H. B. Lu, F. Chen, T. Zhao, and Z. H. Chen, “Laser molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of perovskite oxide thin films,” J. Cryst. Growth 227, 929 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yelboga, T.

T. Tut, T. Yelboga, E. Ulker, and E. Ozbay, “Solar-blind AlGaN-based p-i-n photodetectors with high breakdown voltage and detectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W. J.

A. Soltani, H. A. Barkad, M. Mattalah, B. Benbakhti, J.-C. De Jaeger, Y. M. Chong, Y. S. Zou, W. J. Zhang, S. T. Lee, A. BenMoussa, B. Giordanengo, and J.-F. Hochedez, “193 nm deep-ultraviolet solar-blind cubic boron nitride based photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, K.

J. Xing, K. Zhao, H. B. Lu, X. Wang, G. Z. Liu, K. J. Jin, M. He, C. C. Wang, and G. Z. Yang, “Visible-blind, ultraviolet-sensitive photodetector based on SrTiO3 single crystal,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2526–2528 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhao, K. J. Jin, Y. H. Huang, S. Q. Zhao, H. B. Lu, M. He, Z. H. Chen, Y. L. Zhou, and G. Z. Yang, “Ultraviolet fast-response photoelectric effect in tilted orientation SrTiO3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, S. Q.

K. Zhao, K. J. Jin, Y. H. Huang, S. Q. Zhao, H. B. Lu, M. He, Z. H. Chen, Y. L. Zhou, and G. Z. Yang, “Ultraviolet fast-response photoelectric effect in tilted orientation SrTiO3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, T.

G. Z. Yang, H. B. Lu, F. Chen, T. Zhao, and Z. H. Chen, “Laser molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of perovskite oxide thin films,” J. Cryst. Growth 227, 929 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y. L.

K. Zhao, K. J. Jin, Y. H. Huang, S. Q. Zhao, H. B. Lu, M. He, Z. H. Chen, Y. L. Zhou, and G. Z. Yang, “Ultraviolet fast-response photoelectric effect in tilted orientation SrTiO3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zou, Y. S.

A. Soltani, H. A. Barkad, M. Mattalah, B. Benbakhti, J.-C. De Jaeger, Y. M. Chong, Y. S. Zou, W. J. Zhang, S. T. Lee, A. BenMoussa, B. Giordanengo, and J.-F. Hochedez, “193 nm deep-ultraviolet solar-blind cubic boron nitride based photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

A. Osinsky, S. Gangopadhyay, B. W. Lim, M. Z. Anwar, M. A. Khan, D. V. Kuksenkov, and H. Temkin, “Schottky barrier photodetectors based on AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 742–744 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Tut, T. Yelboga, E. Ulker, and E. Ozbay, “Solar-blind AlGaN-based p-i-n photodetectors with high breakdown voltage and detectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang and T. Egawa, “High quality AlGaN solar-blind Schottky photodiodes fabricated on AIN/sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. A. Garrido, I. Izpura, F. J. Sánchez, M. A. Sánchez-García, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Photoconductor gain mechanisms in GaN ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 870–872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Mikulics, M. Marso, P. Javorka, P. Kordo, and H. Lüth, “Ultrafast metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on low-temperature-grown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211110(2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Soltani, H. A. Barkad, M. Mattalah, B. Benbakhti, J.-C. De Jaeger, Y. M. Chong, Y. S. Zou, W. J. Zhang, S. T. Lee, A. BenMoussa, B. Giordanengo, and J.-F. Hochedez, “193 nm deep-ultraviolet solar-blind cubic boron nitride based photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Balducci, M. Marinelli, E. Milani, M. E. Morgada, A. Tucciarone, and G. Verona-Rinati, “Extreme ultraviolet single-crystal diamond detectors by chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 193509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhao, K. J. Jin, Y. H. Huang, S. Q. Zhao, H. B. Lu, M. He, Z. H. Chen, Y. L. Zhou, and G. Z. Yang, “Ultraviolet fast-response photoelectric effect in tilted orientation SrTiO3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, P. F. Chi, and J. K. Sheu, “Photodetectors formed by an indium tin oxide/zinc oxide/p-type gallium nitride heterojunction with high ultraviolet-to-visible rejection ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 013512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Jahng, A. H. Francis, H. Moon, J. I. Nanos, and M. D. Curtis, “Is indium tin oxide a suitable electrode in organic solar cells? Photovoltaic properties of interfaces in organic p/n junction photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 093504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Palacios, E. Monroy, F. Calle, and F. Omnes, “High-responsivity submicron metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1902–1904 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

M. Razeghi and A. Rogalski, “Semiconductor ultraviolet detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7433–7473 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Guo, J. Xing, K. J. Jin, H. B. Lu, J. Wen, and G. Z. Yang, “Photoelectric effects of ultraviolet fast response and high sensitivity in LiNbO3 single crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023114(2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Sharma, K. Sreenivas, and K. V. Rao, “Analysis of ultraviolet photoconductivity in ZnO films prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3963–3970 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

G. Z. Yang, H. B. Lu, F. Chen, T. Zhao, and Z. H. Chen, “Laser molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of perovskite oxide thin films,” J. Cryst. Growth 227, 929 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

E. J. Guo, J. Xing, H. B. Lu, K. J. Jin, J. Wen, and G. Z. Yang, “Ultraviolet fast-response photoelectric effects in LiTaO3single crystal,” J. Phys. D 43, 015402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Z. Chiou and J. J. Tang, “GaN photodetectors with transparent indium tin oxide electrodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 4146–4149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of ITO/STO/Ag photodetector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical XRD θ 2 θ scan curve of a 200 nm ITO film on STO substrate. The inset shows a RHEED pattern of a 200 nm ITO film after deposition.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Bias dependence of the photocurrent responsivities for the photodetectors with 10 nm thick ITO film and different thicknesses of STO under irradiation of 365 nm light. (b) Photocurrent variation with incident power density with the same three photodetectors and experimental conditions in (a). The inset shows the photocurrent variation with power density for a photodetector with 0.1 mm STO and 10 nm ITO under very weak light.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Bias dependence of the photocurrent responsivities for the photodetectors with 0.1 mm thick STO and different thicknesses of ITO under Hg lamp irradiation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral response of a photodetector with 0.1 mm STO and 10 nm ITO. The inset shows the dark currents varying with the external applied bias.

Metrics