Abstract

The ChemCam instrument suite onboard the NASA Mars Science Laboratory rover includes the first laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument for extraterrestrial applications. Here we examine carbonate minerals in a simulated martian environment to better understand the LIBS signature of these materials on Mars. Both chemical composition and rock type are determined using multivariate analysis techniques. Composition is confirmed using scanning electron microscopy. Our results show that ChemCam can recognize and differentiate between different types of carbonate materials on Mars.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. C. Wiens, S. Clegg, S. Bender, N. Lanza, B. Barraclough, R. Perez, S. Maurice, M. D. Dyar, H. Newsom, and the ChemCam Team, “Initial calibration of the ChemCam LIBS instrument for the Mars Science Laboratory,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 23–27 March 2009, paper  1461.
  2. S. Maurice, R. Wiens, L. Parès, S. Bender, N. le Roch, J. Dalmau, M. Berthé, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, M. Saccoccio, and the ChemCam Team, “Characterization of ChemCam (MSL) imaging capability,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 23–27 March 2009, paper  1864.
  3. D. L. Blaney, “The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission,” presented at the Workshop on Martian Sulfates as Recorders of Atmospheric-Fluid-Rock Interactions, Houston, Texas, USA, 22–24 October 2006, paper  7034.
  4. H. E. Newsom, J. J. Hagerty, and R. Goff, “Mixed hydrothermal fluids and the origin of the Martian soil,” J. Geophys. Res.  104, 8717–8728 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. S. Yen, R. V. Morris, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, A. T. Knudson, S. Squyres, D. W. Mittlefehldt, D. W. Ming, R. Arvidson, T. McCoy, M. Schmidt, J. Hurowitz, R. Li, and J. R. Johnson, “Hydrothermal processes at Gusev Crater: An evaluation of Paso Robles class soils,” J. Geophys. Res.  113, E06S10 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell III, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween Jr., R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science  306, 709–1714 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. B. Pollack, J. F. Kasting, S. M. Richardson, and K. Poliakoff, “The case for a wet, warm climate on early Mars,” Icarus  71, 203–224 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. F. P. Fanale, S. Postawko, J. B. Pollack, M. H. Carr, and R. Pepin, “Mars: Epochal climate change and volatile history,” in Mars, H.H., Kieffer, B.M.Jakosky, C.W.Snyder, and M.S.Matthews, eds. (University of Arizona Press, 1992), pp. 686–729.
  9. B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science  322, 1828–1832 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. S. McKay, E. K. Gibson Jr., K. L. Thomas-Keprta, H. Vali, C. S. Romanek, S. J. Clemett, X. D. F. Chillier, C. R. Maechling, and R. N. Zare, “Search for past life on Mars: possible relic biogenic activity in martian meteorite ALH84001,” Science  273, 924–930 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. C. Bridges, D. C. Catling, J. M. Saxton, T. D. Swindle, I. C. Lyon, and M. M. Grady, “Alteration assemblages in martian meteorites: implications for near-surface processes,” Space Sci. Rev.  96, 365–392 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. N. Rao, S. R. Sutton, D. S. McKay, and G. Dreibus, “Clues to Martian brines based on halogens in salts from nakhlites and MER samples,” J. Geophys. Res.  110, E12S06 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. J. McMillan, R. S. Harmon, F. C. De Lucia, and A. M. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of minerals: carbonates and silicates,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B  62, 1528–1536 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Z. A. Arp, D. A. Cremers, R. C. Wiens, D. M. Wayne, B. Sallé, and S. Maurice, “Analysis of water ice and water ice/soil mixtures using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: application to Mars polar exploration,” Appl. Spectrosc.  58, 897–909 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. L. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, K. Benelli, C. Khoo, and R. D. Harris, “Use of the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based Martian geology and exploration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B  60, 237–248(2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Clegg, D. Vaniman, J. Thompson, M. D. Dyar, E. Sklute, H. Newsom, N. Lanza, V. Sautter, J. Dubessy, M. C. Boiron, C. Fabre, J.-L. Lacour, B. Salle, P. Mauchien, D. Blaney, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, G. Manhes, and the ChemCam Team, “Preparation of onboard calibration targets for the ChemCam instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 12–16 March 2007, paper  1180.
  17. R. C. Wiens, S. M. Clegg, S. Bender, N. Lanza, B. Barraclough, R. Perez, O. Forni, S. Maurice, M. D. Dyar, H. Newsom, and the ChemCam Team, “Progress on calibration of the ChemCam LIBS instrument for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 1–5 March 2010, paper  2205.
  18. S. M. Clegg, E. Sklute, M. D. Dyar, J. E. Barefield, and R. C. Wiens, “Multivariate analysis of remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra using partial least squares, principal component analysis, and related techniques,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B  64, 79–88 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. B. Sirven, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, and L. Sarger, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of composite samples: comparison of advanced chemometrics methods,” Anal. Chem.  78, 1462–1469 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. S. Harmon, J. Remus, N. J. McMillan, C. McManus, L. Collins, J. L. Gottfried Jr., F. C. De Lucia, and A. J. Miziolek, “LIBS analysis of geomaterials: geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of materials,” Appl. Geochem.  24, 1125–1141 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009

S. M. Clegg, E. Sklute, M. D. Dyar, J. E. Barefield, and R. C. Wiens, “Multivariate analysis of remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra using partial least squares, principal component analysis, and related techniques,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B  64, 79–88 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Harmon, J. Remus, N. J. McMillan, C. McManus, L. Collins, J. L. Gottfried Jr., F. C. De Lucia, and A. J. Miziolek, “LIBS analysis of geomaterials: geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of materials,” Appl. Geochem.  24, 1125–1141 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. S. Yen, R. V. Morris, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, A. T. Knudson, S. Squyres, D. W. Mittlefehldt, D. W. Ming, R. Arvidson, T. McCoy, M. Schmidt, J. Hurowitz, R. Li, and J. R. Johnson, “Hydrothermal processes at Gusev Crater: An evaluation of Paso Robles class soils,” J. Geophys. Res.  113, E06S10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science  322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

N. J. McMillan, R. S. Harmon, F. C. De Lucia, and A. M. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of minerals: carbonates and silicates,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B  62, 1528–1536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. B. Sirven, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, and L. Sarger, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of composite samples: comparison of advanced chemometrics methods,” Anal. Chem.  78, 1462–1469 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

M. N. Rao, S. R. Sutton, D. S. McKay, and G. Dreibus, “Clues to Martian brines based on halogens in salts from nakhlites and MER samples,” J. Geophys. Res.  110, E12S06 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, K. Benelli, C. Khoo, and R. D. Harris, “Use of the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based Martian geology and exploration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B  60, 237–248(2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Z. A. Arp, D. A. Cremers, R. C. Wiens, D. M. Wayne, B. Sallé, and S. Maurice, “Analysis of water ice and water ice/soil mixtures using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: application to Mars polar exploration,” Appl. Spectrosc.  58, 897–909 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell III, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween Jr., R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science  306, 709–1714 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. C. Bridges, D. C. Catling, J. M. Saxton, T. D. Swindle, I. C. Lyon, and M. M. Grady, “Alteration assemblages in martian meteorites: implications for near-surface processes,” Space Sci. Rev.  96, 365–392 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

H. E. Newsom, J. J. Hagerty, and R. Goff, “Mixed hydrothermal fluids and the origin of the Martian soil,” J. Geophys. Res.  104, 8717–8728 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

D. S. McKay, E. K. Gibson Jr., K. L. Thomas-Keprta, H. Vali, C. S. Romanek, S. J. Clemett, X. D. F. Chillier, C. R. Maechling, and R. N. Zare, “Search for past life on Mars: possible relic biogenic activity in martian meteorite ALH84001,” Science  273, 924–930 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

J. B. Pollack, J. F. Kasting, S. M. Richardson, and K. Poliakoff, “The case for a wet, warm climate on early Mars,” Icarus  71, 203–224 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arp, Z. A.

Arvidson, R.

A. S. Yen, R. V. Morris, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, A. T. Knudson, S. Squyres, D. W. Mittlefehldt, D. W. Ming, R. Arvidson, T. McCoy, M. Schmidt, J. Hurowitz, R. Li, and J. R. Johnson, “Hydrothermal processes at Gusev Crater: An evaluation of Paso Robles class soils,” J. Geophys. Res.  113, E06S10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arvidson, R. E.

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell III, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween Jr., R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science  306, 709–1714 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barefield, J. E.

S. M. Clegg, E. Sklute, M. D. Dyar, J. E. Barefield, and R. C. Wiens, “Multivariate analysis of remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra using partial least squares, principal component analysis, and related techniques,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B  64, 79–88 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barraclough, B.

R. C. Wiens, S. Clegg, S. Bender, N. Lanza, B. Barraclough, R. Perez, S. Maurice, M. D. Dyar, H. Newsom, and the ChemCam Team, “Initial calibration of the ChemCam LIBS instrument for the Mars Science Laboratory,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 23–27 March 2009, paper  1461.

R. C. Wiens, S. M. Clegg, S. Bender, N. Lanza, B. Barraclough, R. Perez, O. Forni, S. Maurice, M. D. Dyar, H. Newsom, and the ChemCam Team, “Progress on calibration of the ChemCam LIBS instrument for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 1–5 March 2010, paper  2205.

Bell, J. F.

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell III, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween Jr., R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science  306, 709–1714 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bender, S.

R. C. Wiens, S. Clegg, S. Bender, N. Lanza, B. Barraclough, R. Perez, S. Maurice, M. D. Dyar, H. Newsom, and the ChemCam Team, “Initial calibration of the ChemCam LIBS instrument for the Mars Science Laboratory,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 23–27 March 2009, paper  1461.

S. Maurice, R. Wiens, L. Parès, S. Bender, N. le Roch, J. Dalmau, M. Berthé, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, M. Saccoccio, and the ChemCam Team, “Characterization of ChemCam (MSL) imaging capability,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 23–27 March 2009, paper  1864.

R. C. Wiens, S. M. Clegg, S. Bender, N. Lanza, B. Barraclough, R. Perez, O. Forni, S. Maurice, M. D. Dyar, H. Newsom, and the ChemCam Team, “Progress on calibration of the ChemCam LIBS instrument for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 1–5 March 2010, paper  2205.

Benelli, K.

L. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, K. Benelli, C. Khoo, and R. D. Harris, “Use of the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based Martian geology and exploration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B  60, 237–248(2005).
[CrossRef]

Berthé, M.

S. Maurice, R. Wiens, L. Parès, S. Bender, N. le Roch, J. Dalmau, M. Berthé, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, M. Saccoccio, and the ChemCam Team, “Characterization of ChemCam (MSL) imaging capability,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 23–27 March 2009, paper  1864.

Bishop, J. L.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science  322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blaney, D.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Clegg, D. Vaniman, J. Thompson, M. D. Dyar, E. Sklute, H. Newsom, N. Lanza, V. Sautter, J. Dubessy, M. C. Boiron, C. Fabre, J.-L. Lacour, B. Salle, P. Mauchien, D. Blaney, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, G. Manhes, and the ChemCam Team, “Preparation of onboard calibration targets for the ChemCam instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 12–16 March 2007, paper  1180.

Blaney, D. L.

D. L. Blaney, “The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission,” presented at the Workshop on Martian Sulfates as Recorders of Atmospheric-Fluid-Rock Interactions, Houston, Texas, USA, 22–24 October 2006, paper  7034.

Boiron, M. C.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Clegg, D. Vaniman, J. Thompson, M. D. Dyar, E. Sklute, H. Newsom, N. Lanza, V. Sautter, J. Dubessy, M. C. Boiron, C. Fabre, J.-L. Lacour, B. Salle, P. Mauchien, D. Blaney, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, G. Manhes, and the ChemCam Team, “Preparation of onboard calibration targets for the ChemCam instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 12–16 March 2007, paper  1180.

Bousquet, B.

J. B. Sirven, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, and L. Sarger, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of composite samples: comparison of advanced chemometrics methods,” Anal. Chem.  78, 1462–1469 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bridges, J. C.

J. C. Bridges, D. C. Catling, J. M. Saxton, T. D. Swindle, I. C. Lyon, and M. M. Grady, “Alteration assemblages in martian meteorites: implications for near-surface processes,” Space Sci. Rev.  96, 365–392 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bridges, N.

S. Maurice, R. Wiens, L. Parès, S. Bender, N. le Roch, J. Dalmau, M. Berthé, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, M. Saccoccio, and the ChemCam Team, “Characterization of ChemCam (MSL) imaging capability,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 23–27 March 2009, paper  1864.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Clegg, D. Vaniman, J. Thompson, M. D. Dyar, E. Sklute, H. Newsom, N. Lanza, V. Sautter, J. Dubessy, M. C. Boiron, C. Fabre, J.-L. Lacour, B. Salle, P. Mauchien, D. Blaney, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, G. Manhes, and the ChemCam Team, “Preparation of onboard calibration targets for the ChemCam instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 12–16 March 2007, paper  1180.

Brown, A. J.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science  322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calvin, W.

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell III, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween Jr., R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science  306, 709–1714 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Calvin, W. M.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science  322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canioni, L.

J. B. Sirven, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, and L. Sarger, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of composite samples: comparison of advanced chemometrics methods,” Anal. Chem.  78, 1462–1469 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carr, M. H.

F. P. Fanale, S. Postawko, J. B. Pollack, M. H. Carr, and R. Pepin, “Mars: Epochal climate change and volatile history,” in Mars, H.H., Kieffer, B.M.Jakosky, C.W.Snyder, and M.S.Matthews, eds. (University of Arizona Press, 1992), pp. 686–729.

Catling, D. C.

J. C. Bridges, D. C. Catling, J. M. Saxton, T. D. Swindle, I. C. Lyon, and M. M. Grady, “Alteration assemblages in martian meteorites: implications for near-surface processes,” Space Sci. Rev.  96, 365–392 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chillier, X. D. F.

D. S. McKay, E. K. Gibson Jr., K. L. Thomas-Keprta, H. Vali, C. S. Romanek, S. J. Clemett, X. D. F. Chillier, C. R. Maechling, and R. N. Zare, “Search for past life on Mars: possible relic biogenic activity in martian meteorite ALH84001,” Science  273, 924–930 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christensen, P. R.

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell III, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween Jr., R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science  306, 709–1714 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clark, B. C.

A. S. Yen, R. V. Morris, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, A. T. Knudson, S. Squyres, D. W. Mittlefehldt, D. W. Ming, R. Arvidson, T. McCoy, M. Schmidt, J. Hurowitz, R. Li, and J. R. Johnson, “Hydrothermal processes at Gusev Crater: An evaluation of Paso Robles class soils,” J. Geophys. Res.  113, E06S10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell III, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween Jr., R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science  306, 709–1714 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clark, R. N.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science  322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clegg, S.

R. C. Wiens, S. Clegg, S. Bender, N. Lanza, B. Barraclough, R. Perez, S. Maurice, M. D. Dyar, H. Newsom, and the ChemCam Team, “Initial calibration of the ChemCam LIBS instrument for the Mars Science Laboratory,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 23–27 March 2009, paper  1461.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Clegg, D. Vaniman, J. Thompson, M. D. Dyar, E. Sklute, H. Newsom, N. Lanza, V. Sautter, J. Dubessy, M. C. Boiron, C. Fabre, J.-L. Lacour, B. Salle, P. Mauchien, D. Blaney, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, G. Manhes, and the ChemCam Team, “Preparation of onboard calibration targets for the ChemCam instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 12–16 March 2007, paper  1180.

Clegg, S. M.

S. M. Clegg, E. Sklute, M. D. Dyar, J. E. Barefield, and R. C. Wiens, “Multivariate analysis of remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra using partial least squares, principal component analysis, and related techniques,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B  64, 79–88 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Wiens, S. M. Clegg, S. Bender, N. Lanza, B. Barraclough, R. Perez, O. Forni, S. Maurice, M. D. Dyar, H. Newsom, and the ChemCam Team, “Progress on calibration of the ChemCam LIBS instrument for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 1–5 March 2010, paper  2205.

Clemett, S. J.

D. S. McKay, E. K. Gibson Jr., K. L. Thomas-Keprta, H. Vali, C. S. Romanek, S. J. Clemett, X. D. F. Chillier, C. R. Maechling, and R. N. Zare, “Search for past life on Mars: possible relic biogenic activity in martian meteorite ALH84001,” Science  273, 924–930 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collins, L.

R. S. Harmon, J. Remus, N. J. McMillan, C. McManus, L. Collins, J. L. Gottfried Jr., F. C. De Lucia, and A. J. Miziolek, “LIBS analysis of geomaterials: geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of materials,” Appl. Geochem.  24, 1125–1141 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cremers, D. A.

L. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, K. Benelli, C. Khoo, and R. D. Harris, “Use of the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based Martian geology and exploration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B  60, 237–248(2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. A. Arp, D. A. Cremers, R. C. Wiens, D. M. Wayne, B. Sallé, and S. Maurice, “Analysis of water ice and water ice/soil mixtures using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: application to Mars polar exploration,” Appl. Spectrosc.  58, 897–909 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crisp, J. A.

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell III, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween Jr., R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science  306, 709–1714 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dalmau, J.

S. Maurice, R. Wiens, L. Parès, S. Bender, N. le Roch, J. Dalmau, M. Berthé, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, M. Saccoccio, and the ChemCam Team, “Characterization of ChemCam (MSL) imaging capability,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 23–27 March 2009, paper  1864.

De Lucia, F. C.

R. S. Harmon, J. Remus, N. J. McMillan, C. McManus, L. Collins, J. L. Gottfried Jr., F. C. De Lucia, and A. J. Miziolek, “LIBS analysis of geomaterials: geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of materials,” Appl. Geochem.  24, 1125–1141 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. J. McMillan, R. S. Harmon, F. C. De Lucia, and A. M. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of minerals: carbonates and silicates,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B  62, 1528–1536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Des Marais, D. J.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science  322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dreibus, G.

M. N. Rao, S. R. Sutton, D. S. McKay, and G. Dreibus, “Clues to Martian brines based on halogens in salts from nakhlites and MER samples,” J. Geophys. Res.  110, E12S06 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dubessy, J.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Clegg, D. Vaniman, J. Thompson, M. D. Dyar, E. Sklute, H. Newsom, N. Lanza, V. Sautter, J. Dubessy, M. C. Boiron, C. Fabre, J.-L. Lacour, B. Salle, P. Mauchien, D. Blaney, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, G. Manhes, and the ChemCam Team, “Preparation of onboard calibration targets for the ChemCam instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 12–16 March 2007, paper  1180.

Dyar, M. D.

S. M. Clegg, E. Sklute, M. D. Dyar, J. E. Barefield, and R. C. Wiens, “Multivariate analysis of remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra using partial least squares, principal component analysis, and related techniques,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B  64, 79–88 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Wiens, S. Clegg, S. Bender, N. Lanza, B. Barraclough, R. Perez, S. Maurice, M. D. Dyar, H. Newsom, and the ChemCam Team, “Initial calibration of the ChemCam LIBS instrument for the Mars Science Laboratory,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 23–27 March 2009, paper  1461.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Clegg, D. Vaniman, J. Thompson, M. D. Dyar, E. Sklute, H. Newsom, N. Lanza, V. Sautter, J. Dubessy, M. C. Boiron, C. Fabre, J.-L. Lacour, B. Salle, P. Mauchien, D. Blaney, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, G. Manhes, and the ChemCam Team, “Preparation of onboard calibration targets for the ChemCam instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 12–16 March 2007, paper  1180.

R. C. Wiens, S. M. Clegg, S. Bender, N. Lanza, B. Barraclough, R. Perez, O. Forni, S. Maurice, M. D. Dyar, H. Newsom, and the ChemCam Team, “Progress on calibration of the ChemCam LIBS instrument for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 1–5 March 2010, paper  2205.

Ehlmann, B. L.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science  322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabre, C.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Clegg, D. Vaniman, J. Thompson, M. D. Dyar, E. Sklute, H. Newsom, N. Lanza, V. Sautter, J. Dubessy, M. C. Boiron, C. Fabre, J.-L. Lacour, B. Salle, P. Mauchien, D. Blaney, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, G. Manhes, and the ChemCam Team, “Preparation of onboard calibration targets for the ChemCam instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 12–16 March 2007, paper  1180.

Fanale, F. P.

F. P. Fanale, S. Postawko, J. B. Pollack, M. H. Carr, and R. Pepin, “Mars: Epochal climate change and volatile history,” in Mars, H.H., Kieffer, B.M.Jakosky, C.W.Snyder, and M.S.Matthews, eds. (University of Arizona Press, 1992), pp. 686–729.

Farrand, W. H.

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell III, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween Jr., R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science  306, 709–1714 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Forni, O.

R. C. Wiens, S. M. Clegg, S. Bender, N. Lanza, B. Barraclough, R. Perez, O. Forni, S. Maurice, M. D. Dyar, H. Newsom, and the ChemCam Team, “Progress on calibration of the ChemCam LIBS instrument for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 1–5 March 2010, paper  2205.

Gellert, R.

A. S. Yen, R. V. Morris, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, A. T. Knudson, S. Squyres, D. W. Mittlefehldt, D. W. Ming, R. Arvidson, T. McCoy, M. Schmidt, J. Hurowitz, R. Li, and J. R. Johnson, “Hydrothermal processes at Gusev Crater: An evaluation of Paso Robles class soils,” J. Geophys. Res.  113, E06S10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, E. K.

D. S. McKay, E. K. Gibson Jr., K. L. Thomas-Keprta, H. Vali, C. S. Romanek, S. J. Clemett, X. D. F. Chillier, C. R. Maechling, and R. N. Zare, “Search for past life on Mars: possible relic biogenic activity in martian meteorite ALH84001,” Science  273, 924–930 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goff, R.

H. E. Newsom, J. J. Hagerty, and R. Goff, “Mixed hydrothermal fluids and the origin of the Martian soil,” J. Geophys. Res.  104, 8717–8728 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gottfried, J. L.

R. S. Harmon, J. Remus, N. J. McMillan, C. McManus, L. Collins, J. L. Gottfried Jr., F. C. De Lucia, and A. J. Miziolek, “LIBS analysis of geomaterials: geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of materials,” Appl. Geochem.  24, 1125–1141 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grady, M. M.

J. C. Bridges, D. C. Catling, J. M. Saxton, T. D. Swindle, I. C. Lyon, and M. M. Grady, “Alteration assemblages in martian meteorites: implications for near-surface processes,” Space Sci. Rev.  96, 365–392 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grotzinger, J. P.

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell III, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween Jr., R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science  306, 709–1714 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hagerty, J. J.

H. E. Newsom, J. J. Hagerty, and R. Goff, “Mixed hydrothermal fluids and the origin of the Martian soil,” J. Geophys. Res.  104, 8717–8728 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harmon, R. S.

R. S. Harmon, J. Remus, N. J. McMillan, C. McManus, L. Collins, J. L. Gottfried Jr., F. C. De Lucia, and A. J. Miziolek, “LIBS analysis of geomaterials: geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of materials,” Appl. Geochem.  24, 1125–1141 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. J. McMillan, R. S. Harmon, F. C. De Lucia, and A. M. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of minerals: carbonates and silicates,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B  62, 1528–1536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harris, R. D.

L. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, K. Benelli, C. Khoo, and R. D. Harris, “Use of the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based Martian geology and exploration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B  60, 237–248(2005).
[CrossRef]

Herkenhoff, K.

S. Maurice, R. Wiens, L. Parès, S. Bender, N. le Roch, J. Dalmau, M. Berthé, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, M. Saccoccio, and the ChemCam Team, “Characterization of ChemCam (MSL) imaging capability,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 23–27 March 2009, paper  1864.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Clegg, D. Vaniman, J. Thompson, M. D. Dyar, E. Sklute, H. Newsom, N. Lanza, V. Sautter, J. Dubessy, M. C. Boiron, C. Fabre, J.-L. Lacour, B. Salle, P. Mauchien, D. Blaney, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, G. Manhes, and the ChemCam Team, “Preparation of onboard calibration targets for the ChemCam instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 12–16 March 2007, paper  1180.

Herkenhoff, K. E.

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell III, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween Jr., R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science  306, 709–1714 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hurowitz, J.

A. S. Yen, R. V. Morris, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, A. T. Knudson, S. Squyres, D. W. Mittlefehldt, D. W. Ming, R. Arvidson, T. McCoy, M. Schmidt, J. Hurowitz, R. Li, and J. R. Johnson, “Hydrothermal processes at Gusev Crater: An evaluation of Paso Robles class soils,” J. Geophys. Res.  113, E06S10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J. R.

A. S. Yen, R. V. Morris, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, A. T. Knudson, S. Squyres, D. W. Mittlefehldt, D. W. Ming, R. Arvidson, T. McCoy, M. Schmidt, J. Hurowitz, R. Li, and J. R. Johnson, “Hydrothermal processes at Gusev Crater: An evaluation of Paso Robles class soils,” J. Geophys. Res.  113, E06S10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell III, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween Jr., R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science  306, 709–1714 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kasting, J. F.

J. B. Pollack, J. F. Kasting, S. M. Richardson, and K. Poliakoff, “The case for a wet, warm climate on early Mars,” Icarus  71, 203–224 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khoo, C.

L. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, K. Benelli, C. Khoo, and R. D. Harris, “Use of the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based Martian geology and exploration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B  60, 237–248(2005).
[CrossRef]

Klingelhöfer, G.

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell III, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween Jr., R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science  306, 709–1714 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, A. H.

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell III, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween Jr., R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science  306, 709–1714 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knudson, A. T.

A. S. Yen, R. V. Morris, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, A. T. Knudson, S. Squyres, D. W. Mittlefehldt, D. W. Ming, R. Arvidson, T. McCoy, M. Schmidt, J. Hurowitz, R. Li, and J. R. Johnson, “Hydrothermal processes at Gusev Crater: An evaluation of Paso Robles class soils,” J. Geophys. Res.  113, E06S10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lacour, J.-L.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Clegg, D. Vaniman, J. Thompson, M. D. Dyar, E. Sklute, H. Newsom, N. Lanza, V. Sautter, J. Dubessy, M. C. Boiron, C. Fabre, J.-L. Lacour, B. Salle, P. Mauchien, D. Blaney, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, G. Manhes, and the ChemCam Team, “Preparation of onboard calibration targets for the ChemCam instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 12–16 March 2007, paper  1180.

Langevin, Y.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Clegg, D. Vaniman, J. Thompson, M. D. Dyar, E. Sklute, H. Newsom, N. Lanza, V. Sautter, J. Dubessy, M. C. Boiron, C. Fabre, J.-L. Lacour, B. Salle, P. Mauchien, D. Blaney, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, G. Manhes, and the ChemCam Team, “Preparation of onboard calibration targets for the ChemCam instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 12–16 March 2007, paper  1180.

S. Maurice, R. Wiens, L. Parès, S. Bender, N. le Roch, J. Dalmau, M. Berthé, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, M. Saccoccio, and the ChemCam Team, “Characterization of ChemCam (MSL) imaging capability,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 23–27 March 2009, paper  1864.

Lanza, N.

R. C. Wiens, S. M. Clegg, S. Bender, N. Lanza, B. Barraclough, R. Perez, O. Forni, S. Maurice, M. D. Dyar, H. Newsom, and the ChemCam Team, “Progress on calibration of the ChemCam LIBS instrument for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 1–5 March 2010, paper  2205.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Clegg, D. Vaniman, J. Thompson, M. D. Dyar, E. Sklute, H. Newsom, N. Lanza, V. Sautter, J. Dubessy, M. C. Boiron, C. Fabre, J.-L. Lacour, B. Salle, P. Mauchien, D. Blaney, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, G. Manhes, and the ChemCam Team, “Preparation of onboard calibration targets for the ChemCam instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 12–16 March 2007, paper  1180.

R. C. Wiens, S. Clegg, S. Bender, N. Lanza, B. Barraclough, R. Perez, S. Maurice, M. D. Dyar, H. Newsom, and the ChemCam Team, “Initial calibration of the ChemCam LIBS instrument for the Mars Science Laboratory,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 23–27 March 2009, paper  1461.

le Roch, N.

S. Maurice, R. Wiens, L. Parès, S. Bender, N. le Roch, J. Dalmau, M. Berthé, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, M. Saccoccio, and the ChemCam Team, “Characterization of ChemCam (MSL) imaging capability,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 23–27 March 2009, paper  1864.

Li, R.

A. S. Yen, R. V. Morris, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, A. T. Knudson, S. Squyres, D. W. Mittlefehldt, D. W. Ming, R. Arvidson, T. McCoy, M. Schmidt, J. Hurowitz, R. Li, and J. R. Johnson, “Hydrothermal processes at Gusev Crater: An evaluation of Paso Robles class soils,” J. Geophys. Res.  113, E06S10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lyon, I. C.

J. C. Bridges, D. C. Catling, J. M. Saxton, T. D. Swindle, I. C. Lyon, and M. M. Grady, “Alteration assemblages in martian meteorites: implications for near-surface processes,” Space Sci. Rev.  96, 365–392 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maechling, C. R.

D. S. McKay, E. K. Gibson Jr., K. L. Thomas-Keprta, H. Vali, C. S. Romanek, S. J. Clemett, X. D. F. Chillier, C. R. Maechling, and R. N. Zare, “Search for past life on Mars: possible relic biogenic activity in martian meteorite ALH84001,” Science  273, 924–930 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manhes, G.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Clegg, D. Vaniman, J. Thompson, M. D. Dyar, E. Sklute, H. Newsom, N. Lanza, V. Sautter, J. Dubessy, M. C. Boiron, C. Fabre, J.-L. Lacour, B. Salle, P. Mauchien, D. Blaney, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, G. Manhes, and the ChemCam Team, “Preparation of onboard calibration targets for the ChemCam instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 12–16 March 2007, paper  1180.

Mauchien, P.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Clegg, D. Vaniman, J. Thompson, M. D. Dyar, E. Sklute, H. Newsom, N. Lanza, V. Sautter, J. Dubessy, M. C. Boiron, C. Fabre, J.-L. Lacour, B. Salle, P. Mauchien, D. Blaney, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, G. Manhes, and the ChemCam Team, “Preparation of onboard calibration targets for the ChemCam instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 12–16 March 2007, paper  1180.

Maurice, S.

Z. A. Arp, D. A. Cremers, R. C. Wiens, D. M. Wayne, B. Sallé, and S. Maurice, “Analysis of water ice and water ice/soil mixtures using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: application to Mars polar exploration,” Appl. Spectrosc.  58, 897–909 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Clegg, D. Vaniman, J. Thompson, M. D. Dyar, E. Sklute, H. Newsom, N. Lanza, V. Sautter, J. Dubessy, M. C. Boiron, C. Fabre, J.-L. Lacour, B. Salle, P. Mauchien, D. Blaney, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, G. Manhes, and the ChemCam Team, “Preparation of onboard calibration targets for the ChemCam instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 12–16 March 2007, paper  1180.

R. C. Wiens, S. Clegg, S. Bender, N. Lanza, B. Barraclough, R. Perez, S. Maurice, M. D. Dyar, H. Newsom, and the ChemCam Team, “Initial calibration of the ChemCam LIBS instrument for the Mars Science Laboratory,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 23–27 March 2009, paper  1461.

S. Maurice, R. Wiens, L. Parès, S. Bender, N. le Roch, J. Dalmau, M. Berthé, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, M. Saccoccio, and the ChemCam Team, “Characterization of ChemCam (MSL) imaging capability,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 23–27 March 2009, paper  1864.

R. C. Wiens, S. M. Clegg, S. Bender, N. Lanza, B. Barraclough, R. Perez, O. Forni, S. Maurice, M. D. Dyar, H. Newsom, and the ChemCam Team, “Progress on calibration of the ChemCam LIBS instrument for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 1–5 March 2010, paper  2205.

McCoy, T.

A. S. Yen, R. V. Morris, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, A. T. Knudson, S. Squyres, D. W. Mittlefehldt, D. W. Ming, R. Arvidson, T. McCoy, M. Schmidt, J. Hurowitz, R. Li, and J. R. Johnson, “Hydrothermal processes at Gusev Crater: An evaluation of Paso Robles class soils,” J. Geophys. Res.  113, E06S10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McKay, D. S.

M. N. Rao, S. R. Sutton, D. S. McKay, and G. Dreibus, “Clues to Martian brines based on halogens in salts from nakhlites and MER samples,” J. Geophys. Res.  110, E12S06 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. S. McKay, E. K. Gibson Jr., K. L. Thomas-Keprta, H. Vali, C. S. Romanek, S. J. Clemett, X. D. F. Chillier, C. R. Maechling, and R. N. Zare, “Search for past life on Mars: possible relic biogenic activity in martian meteorite ALH84001,” Science  273, 924–930 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLennan, S. M.

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell III, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween Jr., R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science  306, 709–1714 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McManus, C.

R. S. Harmon, J. Remus, N. J. McMillan, C. McManus, L. Collins, J. L. Gottfried Jr., F. C. De Lucia, and A. J. Miziolek, “LIBS analysis of geomaterials: geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of materials,” Appl. Geochem.  24, 1125–1141 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McMillan, N. J.

R. S. Harmon, J. Remus, N. J. McMillan, C. McManus, L. Collins, J. L. Gottfried Jr., F. C. De Lucia, and A. J. Miziolek, “LIBS analysis of geomaterials: geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of materials,” Appl. Geochem.  24, 1125–1141 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. J. McMillan, R. S. Harmon, F. C. De Lucia, and A. M. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of minerals: carbonates and silicates,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B  62, 1528–1536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McSween, H. Y.

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell III, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween Jr., R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science  306, 709–1714 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Milliken, R. E.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science  322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ming, D. W.

A. S. Yen, R. V. Morris, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, A. T. Knudson, S. Squyres, D. W. Mittlefehldt, D. W. Ming, R. Arvidson, T. McCoy, M. Schmidt, J. Hurowitz, R. Li, and J. R. Johnson, “Hydrothermal processes at Gusev Crater: An evaluation of Paso Robles class soils,” J. Geophys. Res.  113, E06S10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mittlefehldt, D. W.

A. S. Yen, R. V. Morris, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, A. T. Knudson, S. Squyres, D. W. Mittlefehldt, D. W. Ming, R. Arvidson, T. McCoy, M. Schmidt, J. Hurowitz, R. Li, and J. R. Johnson, “Hydrothermal processes at Gusev Crater: An evaluation of Paso Robles class soils,” J. Geophys. Res.  113, E06S10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miziolek, A. J.

R. S. Harmon, J. Remus, N. J. McMillan, C. McManus, L. Collins, J. L. Gottfried Jr., F. C. De Lucia, and A. J. Miziolek, “LIBS analysis of geomaterials: geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of materials,” Appl. Geochem.  24, 1125–1141 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miziolek, A. M.

N. J. McMillan, R. S. Harmon, F. C. De Lucia, and A. M. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of minerals: carbonates and silicates,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B  62, 1528–1536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morris, R. V.

A. S. Yen, R. V. Morris, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, A. T. Knudson, S. Squyres, D. W. Mittlefehldt, D. W. Ming, R. Arvidson, T. McCoy, M. Schmidt, J. Hurowitz, R. Li, and J. R. Johnson, “Hydrothermal processes at Gusev Crater: An evaluation of Paso Robles class soils,” J. Geophys. Res.  113, E06S10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell III, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween Jr., R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science  306, 709–1714 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Murchie, S. L.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science  322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mustard, J. F.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science  322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newsom, H.

R. C. Wiens, S. Clegg, S. Bender, N. Lanza, B. Barraclough, R. Perez, S. Maurice, M. D. Dyar, H. Newsom, and the ChemCam Team, “Initial calibration of the ChemCam LIBS instrument for the Mars Science Laboratory,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 23–27 March 2009, paper  1461.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Clegg, D. Vaniman, J. Thompson, M. D. Dyar, E. Sklute, H. Newsom, N. Lanza, V. Sautter, J. Dubessy, M. C. Boiron, C. Fabre, J.-L. Lacour, B. Salle, P. Mauchien, D. Blaney, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, G. Manhes, and the ChemCam Team, “Preparation of onboard calibration targets for the ChemCam instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 12–16 March 2007, paper  1180.

R. C. Wiens, S. M. Clegg, S. Bender, N. Lanza, B. Barraclough, R. Perez, O. Forni, S. Maurice, M. D. Dyar, H. Newsom, and the ChemCam Team, “Progress on calibration of the ChemCam LIBS instrument for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 1–5 March 2010, paper  2205.

Newsom, H. E.

H. E. Newsom, J. J. Hagerty, and R. Goff, “Mixed hydrothermal fluids and the origin of the Martian soil,” J. Geophys. Res.  104, 8717–8728 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Parès, L.

S. Maurice, R. Wiens, L. Parès, S. Bender, N. le Roch, J. Dalmau, M. Berthé, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, M. Saccoccio, and the ChemCam Team, “Characterization of ChemCam (MSL) imaging capability,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 23–27 March 2009, paper  1864.

Pepin, R.

F. P. Fanale, S. Postawko, J. B. Pollack, M. H. Carr, and R. Pepin, “Mars: Epochal climate change and volatile history,” in Mars, H.H., Kieffer, B.M.Jakosky, C.W.Snyder, and M.S.Matthews, eds. (University of Arizona Press, 1992), pp. 686–729.

Perez, R.

R. C. Wiens, S. M. Clegg, S. Bender, N. Lanza, B. Barraclough, R. Perez, O. Forni, S. Maurice, M. D. Dyar, H. Newsom, and the ChemCam Team, “Progress on calibration of the ChemCam LIBS instrument for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 1–5 March 2010, paper  2205.

R. C. Wiens, S. Clegg, S. Bender, N. Lanza, B. Barraclough, R. Perez, S. Maurice, M. D. Dyar, H. Newsom, and the ChemCam Team, “Initial calibration of the ChemCam LIBS instrument for the Mars Science Laboratory,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 23–27 March 2009, paper  1461.

Poliakoff, K.

J. B. Pollack, J. F. Kasting, S. M. Richardson, and K. Poliakoff, “The case for a wet, warm climate on early Mars,” Icarus  71, 203–224 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollack, J. B.

J. B. Pollack, J. F. Kasting, S. M. Richardson, and K. Poliakoff, “The case for a wet, warm climate on early Mars,” Icarus  71, 203–224 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. P. Fanale, S. Postawko, J. B. Pollack, M. H. Carr, and R. Pepin, “Mars: Epochal climate change and volatile history,” in Mars, H.H., Kieffer, B.M.Jakosky, C.W.Snyder, and M.S.Matthews, eds. (University of Arizona Press, 1992), pp. 686–729.

Postawko, S.

F. P. Fanale, S. Postawko, J. B. Pollack, M. H. Carr, and R. Pepin, “Mars: Epochal climate change and volatile history,” in Mars, H.H., Kieffer, B.M.Jakosky, C.W.Snyder, and M.S.Matthews, eds. (University of Arizona Press, 1992), pp. 686–729.

Poulet, F.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science  322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radziemski, L.

L. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, K. Benelli, C. Khoo, and R. D. Harris, “Use of the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based Martian geology and exploration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B  60, 237–248(2005).
[CrossRef]

Rao, M. N.

M. N. Rao, S. R. Sutton, D. S. McKay, and G. Dreibus, “Clues to Martian brines based on halogens in salts from nakhlites and MER samples,” J. Geophys. Res.  110, E12S06 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Remus, J.

R. S. Harmon, J. Remus, N. J. McMillan, C. McManus, L. Collins, J. L. Gottfried Jr., F. C. De Lucia, and A. J. Miziolek, “LIBS analysis of geomaterials: geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of materials,” Appl. Geochem.  24, 1125–1141 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rice, J. W.

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell III, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween Jr., R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science  306, 709–1714 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, S. M.

J. B. Pollack, J. F. Kasting, S. M. Richardson, and K. Poliakoff, “The case for a wet, warm climate on early Mars,” Icarus  71, 203–224 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rieder, R.

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell III, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween Jr., R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science  306, 709–1714 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roach, L. H.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science  322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romanek, C. S.

D. S. McKay, E. K. Gibson Jr., K. L. Thomas-Keprta, H. Vali, C. S. Romanek, S. J. Clemett, X. D. F. Chillier, C. R. Maechling, and R. N. Zare, “Search for past life on Mars: possible relic biogenic activity in martian meteorite ALH84001,” Science  273, 924–930 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roush, T. L.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science  322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saccoccio, M.

S. Maurice, R. Wiens, L. Parès, S. Bender, N. le Roch, J. Dalmau, M. Berthé, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, M. Saccoccio, and the ChemCam Team, “Characterization of ChemCam (MSL) imaging capability,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 23–27 March 2009, paper  1864.

Salle, B.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Clegg, D. Vaniman, J. Thompson, M. D. Dyar, E. Sklute, H. Newsom, N. Lanza, V. Sautter, J. Dubessy, M. C. Boiron, C. Fabre, J.-L. Lacour, B. Salle, P. Mauchien, D. Blaney, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, G. Manhes, and the ChemCam Team, “Preparation of onboard calibration targets for the ChemCam instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 12–16 March 2007, paper  1180.

Sallé, B.

Sarger, L.

J. B. Sirven, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, and L. Sarger, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of composite samples: comparison of advanced chemometrics methods,” Anal. Chem.  78, 1462–1469 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sautter, V.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Clegg, D. Vaniman, J. Thompson, M. D. Dyar, E. Sklute, H. Newsom, N. Lanza, V. Sautter, J. Dubessy, M. C. Boiron, C. Fabre, J.-L. Lacour, B. Salle, P. Mauchien, D. Blaney, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, G. Manhes, and the ChemCam Team, “Preparation of onboard calibration targets for the ChemCam instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 12–16 March 2007, paper  1180.

Saxton, J. M.

J. C. Bridges, D. C. Catling, J. M. Saxton, T. D. Swindle, I. C. Lyon, and M. M. Grady, “Alteration assemblages in martian meteorites: implications for near-surface processes,” Space Sci. Rev.  96, 365–392 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M.

A. S. Yen, R. V. Morris, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, A. T. Knudson, S. Squyres, D. W. Mittlefehldt, D. W. Ming, R. Arvidson, T. McCoy, M. Schmidt, J. Hurowitz, R. Li, and J. R. Johnson, “Hydrothermal processes at Gusev Crater: An evaluation of Paso Robles class soils,” J. Geophys. Res.  113, E06S10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sirven, J. B.

J. B. Sirven, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, and L. Sarger, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of composite samples: comparison of advanced chemometrics methods,” Anal. Chem.  78, 1462–1469 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sklute, E.

S. M. Clegg, E. Sklute, M. D. Dyar, J. E. Barefield, and R. C. Wiens, “Multivariate analysis of remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra using partial least squares, principal component analysis, and related techniques,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B  64, 79–88 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Clegg, D. Vaniman, J. Thompson, M. D. Dyar, E. Sklute, H. Newsom, N. Lanza, V. Sautter, J. Dubessy, M. C. Boiron, C. Fabre, J.-L. Lacour, B. Salle, P. Mauchien, D. Blaney, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, G. Manhes, and the ChemCam Team, “Preparation of onboard calibration targets for the ChemCam instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 12–16 March 2007, paper  1180.

Soderblom, L. A.

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell III, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween Jr., R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science  306, 709–1714 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Squyres, S.

A. S. Yen, R. V. Morris, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, A. T. Knudson, S. Squyres, D. W. Mittlefehldt, D. W. Ming, R. Arvidson, T. McCoy, M. Schmidt, J. Hurowitz, R. Li, and J. R. Johnson, “Hydrothermal processes at Gusev Crater: An evaluation of Paso Robles class soils,” J. Geophys. Res.  113, E06S10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Squyres, S. W.

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell III, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween Jr., R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science  306, 709–1714 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sutton, S. R.

M. N. Rao, S. R. Sutton, D. S. McKay, and G. Dreibus, “Clues to Martian brines based on halogens in salts from nakhlites and MER samples,” J. Geophys. Res.  110, E12S06 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Swayze, G. A.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science  322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swindle, T. D.

J. C. Bridges, D. C. Catling, J. M. Saxton, T. D. Swindle, I. C. Lyon, and M. M. Grady, “Alteration assemblages in martian meteorites: implications for near-surface processes,” Space Sci. Rev.  96, 365–392 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thomas-Keprta, K. L.

D. S. McKay, E. K. Gibson Jr., K. L. Thomas-Keprta, H. Vali, C. S. Romanek, S. J. Clemett, X. D. F. Chillier, C. R. Maechling, and R. N. Zare, “Search for past life on Mars: possible relic biogenic activity in martian meteorite ALH84001,” Science  273, 924–930 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, J.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Clegg, D. Vaniman, J. Thompson, M. D. Dyar, E. Sklute, H. Newsom, N. Lanza, V. Sautter, J. Dubessy, M. C. Boiron, C. Fabre, J.-L. Lacour, B. Salle, P. Mauchien, D. Blaney, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, G. Manhes, and the ChemCam Team, “Preparation of onboard calibration targets for the ChemCam instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 12–16 March 2007, paper  1180.

Vali, H.

D. S. McKay, E. K. Gibson Jr., K. L. Thomas-Keprta, H. Vali, C. S. Romanek, S. J. Clemett, X. D. F. Chillier, C. R. Maechling, and R. N. Zare, “Search for past life on Mars: possible relic biogenic activity in martian meteorite ALH84001,” Science  273, 924–930 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaniman, D.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Clegg, D. Vaniman, J. Thompson, M. D. Dyar, E. Sklute, H. Newsom, N. Lanza, V. Sautter, J. Dubessy, M. C. Boiron, C. Fabre, J.-L. Lacour, B. Salle, P. Mauchien, D. Blaney, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, G. Manhes, and the ChemCam Team, “Preparation of onboard calibration targets for the ChemCam instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 12–16 March 2007, paper  1180.

Wayne, D. M.

Wiens, R.

S. Maurice, R. Wiens, L. Parès, S. Bender, N. le Roch, J. Dalmau, M. Berthé, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, M. Saccoccio, and the ChemCam Team, “Characterization of ChemCam (MSL) imaging capability,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 23–27 March 2009, paper  1864.

Wiens, R. C.

S. M. Clegg, E. Sklute, M. D. Dyar, J. E. Barefield, and R. C. Wiens, “Multivariate analysis of remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra using partial least squares, principal component analysis, and related techniques,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B  64, 79–88 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. A. Arp, D. A. Cremers, R. C. Wiens, D. M. Wayne, B. Sallé, and S. Maurice, “Analysis of water ice and water ice/soil mixtures using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: application to Mars polar exploration,” Appl. Spectrosc.  58, 897–909 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Clegg, D. Vaniman, J. Thompson, M. D. Dyar, E. Sklute, H. Newsom, N. Lanza, V. Sautter, J. Dubessy, M. C. Boiron, C. Fabre, J.-L. Lacour, B. Salle, P. Mauchien, D. Blaney, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, G. Manhes, and the ChemCam Team, “Preparation of onboard calibration targets for the ChemCam instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 12–16 March 2007, paper  1180.

R. C. Wiens, S. Clegg, S. Bender, N. Lanza, B. Barraclough, R. Perez, S. Maurice, M. D. Dyar, H. Newsom, and the ChemCam Team, “Initial calibration of the ChemCam LIBS instrument for the Mars Science Laboratory,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 23–27 March 2009, paper  1461.

R. C. Wiens, S. M. Clegg, S. Bender, N. Lanza, B. Barraclough, R. Perez, O. Forni, S. Maurice, M. D. Dyar, H. Newsom, and the ChemCam Team, “Progress on calibration of the ChemCam LIBS instrument for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 1–5 March 2010, paper  2205.

Wray, J. J.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science  322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yen, A. S.

A. S. Yen, R. V. Morris, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, A. T. Knudson, S. Squyres, D. W. Mittlefehldt, D. W. Ming, R. Arvidson, T. McCoy, M. Schmidt, J. Hurowitz, R. Li, and J. R. Johnson, “Hydrothermal processes at Gusev Crater: An evaluation of Paso Robles class soils,” J. Geophys. Res.  113, E06S10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zare, R. N.

D. S. McKay, E. K. Gibson Jr., K. L. Thomas-Keprta, H. Vali, C. S. Romanek, S. J. Clemett, X. D. F. Chillier, C. R. Maechling, and R. N. Zare, “Search for past life on Mars: possible relic biogenic activity in martian meteorite ALH84001,” Science  273, 924–930 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

J. B. Sirven, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, and L. Sarger, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of composite samples: comparison of advanced chemometrics methods,” Anal. Chem.  78, 1462–1469 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Geochem.

R. S. Harmon, J. Remus, N. J. McMillan, C. McManus, L. Collins, J. L. Gottfried Jr., F. C. De Lucia, and A. J. Miziolek, “LIBS analysis of geomaterials: geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of materials,” Appl. Geochem.  24, 1125–1141 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

Icarus

J. B. Pollack, J. F. Kasting, S. M. Richardson, and K. Poliakoff, “The case for a wet, warm climate on early Mars,” Icarus  71, 203–224 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Geophys. Res.

H. E. Newsom, J. J. Hagerty, and R. Goff, “Mixed hydrothermal fluids and the origin of the Martian soil,” J. Geophys. Res.  104, 8717–8728 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Yen, R. V. Morris, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, A. T. Knudson, S. Squyres, D. W. Mittlefehldt, D. W. Ming, R. Arvidson, T. McCoy, M. Schmidt, J. Hurowitz, R. Li, and J. R. Johnson, “Hydrothermal processes at Gusev Crater: An evaluation of Paso Robles class soils,” J. Geophys. Res.  113, E06S10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Rao, S. R. Sutton, D. S. McKay, and G. Dreibus, “Clues to Martian brines based on halogens in salts from nakhlites and MER samples,” J. Geophys. Res.  110, E12S06 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell III, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween Jr., R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science  306, 709–1714 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science  322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. McKay, E. K. Gibson Jr., K. L. Thomas-Keprta, H. Vali, C. S. Romanek, S. J. Clemett, X. D. F. Chillier, C. R. Maechling, and R. N. Zare, “Search for past life on Mars: possible relic biogenic activity in martian meteorite ALH84001,” Science  273, 924–930 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Space Sci. Rev.

J. C. Bridges, D. C. Catling, J. M. Saxton, T. D. Swindle, I. C. Lyon, and M. M. Grady, “Alteration assemblages in martian meteorites: implications for near-surface processes,” Space Sci. Rev.  96, 365–392 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta Part B

N. J. McMillan, R. S. Harmon, F. C. De Lucia, and A. M. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of minerals: carbonates and silicates,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B  62, 1528–1536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, K. Benelli, C. Khoo, and R. D. Harris, “Use of the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based Martian geology and exploration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B  60, 237–248(2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Clegg, E. Sklute, M. D. Dyar, J. E. Barefield, and R. C. Wiens, “Multivariate analysis of remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra using partial least squares, principal component analysis, and related techniques,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B  64, 79–88 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Clegg, D. Vaniman, J. Thompson, M. D. Dyar, E. Sklute, H. Newsom, N. Lanza, V. Sautter, J. Dubessy, M. C. Boiron, C. Fabre, J.-L. Lacour, B. Salle, P. Mauchien, D. Blaney, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, G. Manhes, and the ChemCam Team, “Preparation of onboard calibration targets for the ChemCam instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 12–16 March 2007, paper  1180.

R. C. Wiens, S. M. Clegg, S. Bender, N. Lanza, B. Barraclough, R. Perez, O. Forni, S. Maurice, M. D. Dyar, H. Newsom, and the ChemCam Team, “Progress on calibration of the ChemCam LIBS instrument for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 1–5 March 2010, paper  2205.

F. P. Fanale, S. Postawko, J. B. Pollack, M. H. Carr, and R. Pepin, “Mars: Epochal climate change and volatile history,” in Mars, H.H., Kieffer, B.M.Jakosky, C.W.Snyder, and M.S.Matthews, eds. (University of Arizona Press, 1992), pp. 686–729.

R. C. Wiens, S. Clegg, S. Bender, N. Lanza, B. Barraclough, R. Perez, S. Maurice, M. D. Dyar, H. Newsom, and the ChemCam Team, “Initial calibration of the ChemCam LIBS instrument for the Mars Science Laboratory,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 23–27 March 2009, paper  1461.

S. Maurice, R. Wiens, L. Parès, S. Bender, N. le Roch, J. Dalmau, M. Berthé, Y. Langevin, K. Herkenhoff, N. Bridges, M. Saccoccio, and the ChemCam Team, “Characterization of ChemCam (MSL) imaging capability,” presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 23–27 March 2009, paper  1864.

D. L. Blaney, “The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission,” presented at the Workshop on Martian Sulfates as Recorders of Atmospheric-Fluid-Rock Interactions, Houston, Texas, USA, 22–24 October 2006, paper  7034.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principal component analysis (PCA) plot of PC1 (47%) versus PC2 (26%) scores for carbonate samples (closed symbols, below line in legend) and geological reference material standards (open symbols). Rock types generally plot together, as seen in labeled circles. For the Ca- and Mg-rich carbonate materials calcite, limestone, and dolomite, there is a range of compositions; since PC1 and PC2 are primarily influenced by Ca, Mg, and Fe, these carbonate materials form groups that overlap somewhat. Note that the limestone standards used are somewhat dolomitic and have significant Mg content.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

X-loadings for PC1 (47%) and PC2 (26%) by wavelength. The most influential peaks in PC1 belong to Ca ( + ) and Mg ( ) ; the most influential peaks in PC2 belong to Mg ( + ) and Fe ( ) . As a result, materials in the associated PC1 versus PC2 scores plot (Fig. 1) are primarily distributed based on their relative Ca, Mg, and Fe contents. Interestingly, the O peak at 777.4 nm appears to have some influence in PC2 as well, pointing to the fact that, as materials gain additional elements (e.g., complex materials such as basalt), the relative O content decreases.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Representative LIBS spectra of the four types of carbonate samples: dolomite ( Ca Mg ( CO 3 ) 2 ), calcite ( Ca CO 3 ), rhodochrosite ( Mn CO 3 ), and siderite ( Fe CO 3 ).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the spectra of the limestone standard GBW07108 and the white calcite sample. Limestone is a rock that is primarily composed of the mineral calcite. Note that the spectra are quite similar, with the same major and minor peaks. However, the limestone spectrum contains peaks that the calcite does not, most notably at 634 and 288 nm , which correspond to Si. Natural samples such as these often have somewhat variable compositions, and so care must be taken to note how trace element composition affects the spectra, and to obtain appropriate standards accordingly.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mineral and Rock Samples and Standards Used in this Study a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Compositional Results for Carbonate Samples from SEM Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and LIBS Partial Least Squares (PLS) Modeling (Dolomites and Calcites Only) a

Metrics