Abstract

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to determine the impact of endophyte (Neotyphodium sp.) infection on elemental composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Leaf material from endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E) tall fescue populations in established plots was examined. Leaf-tissue digestates were also tested for metals, by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS). Seven of eleven metals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Zn) were measured by both techniques at concentrations great enough for a reliable comparison. Mg, Zn, and Cd, a toxic metal that can be present in forage, were readily detected by LIBS, even though Cd concentrations in the plants were below levels typically achieved using ICP MS detection. Implications of these results for research on forage analysis and phytoremediation are discussed.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. J. Rodriguez, J. F. White, Jr., A. E. Arnold, and R. S. Redmon, “Fungal endophytes: diversity and functional roles,” New Phytol. 182, 314-330 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. D. P. Malinowski, G. A. Alloush, and D. P. Belesky, “Leaf endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum modifies mineral uptake in tall fescue,” Plant Soil 227, 115-126 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Groppe, T. Steinger, B. Schmid, B. Baur, and T. Boller, “Effect of habitat fragmentation on choke disease (Epichloe bromicola) in the grass Bromus erectus,” J. Ecol. 89, 247-255(2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. S. Redman, K. B. Sheehan, R. G. Stout, R. J. Rodriquez, and J. M. Henson, “Thermotolerance generated by plant/fungal symbiosis,” Science 298, 1581 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. A. Kimmons, K. D. Gwinn, and E. C. Bernard, “Nematode reproduction on endophyteinfected and endophyte-free tall fescue,” Plant disease 74, 757-761 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. D. Gwinn and A. M. Gavin, “Relationship between endophyte infestation level of tall fescue seed lots and Rhizoctonia zeae seedling disease,” Plant disease 76, 911-914 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Saikkonen, M. Helander, S. H. Faeth, F. Schulthess, and D. Wilson, “Endophyte-grassherbivore interactions: the case of Neotyphodium endophytes in Arizona fescue populations,” Oecologia 121, 411-420 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. H. Rahman and S. Saiga, “Endophytic fungi (Neotyphodium coenophialum) affect the growth and mineral uptake, transport and efficiency ratios in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea),” Plant Soil 272, 163-171 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. B. Coley, H. A. Fribroug, M. R. Pelton, and K. D. Gwinn, “Effects of tall fescue infestation on relative abundance of small mammals,” J. Environ. Qual. 24, 472-475 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. P. Malinowski and D. P. Belesky, “Tall fescue aluminum tolerance is affected by Neotyphodium coenophialum endophyte,” J. Plant Nutrition 22, 1335-1349 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Monnet, N. Vaillant, A. Hitmi, A. Coudret, and H. Sallanon, “Endophytic Neotyphodium lolii induced tolerance to Zn stress in Lolium perenne,” Physiol. Plantarum 113, 557-563(2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. E. Zaurov, S. Bonos, J. A. Murphy, M. Richardson, and F. C. Belanger, “Endophyte infection can contribute to aluminum tolerance in fine fescues,” Crop Sci. 41, 1981-1984 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. B. Dennis, V. G. Allen, K. E. Saker, J. P. Fontenot, J. Y. M. Ayad, and C. P. Brown, “Influence of Neotyphodium coenophialum on copper concentration in tall fescue,” J. Anim. Sci. 76, 2687-2693 (1998).
    [PubMed]
  15. M. Z. Martin and M. D. Cheng, “The detection of chromium aerosol using time-resolved laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 1279-1285 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Z. Martin, M. D. Cheng, and R. C. Martin, “Aerosol measurement by laser-induced plasma technique: A review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 31, 409-421 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. P. Malinowski, H. Zuo, D. P. Belesky, and G. A. Alloush, “Evidence for copper binding by extracellular root exudates of tall fescue but not perennial ryegrass infected with Neotyphodium spp. Endophytes,” Plant Soil 276, 1-12 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by X-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. V. Juve, R. Portelli, M. Boueri, M. Baudelet, and J. Yu, “Space-resolved analysis of trace elements in fresh vegetables using ultraviolet nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1047-1053 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Z. Martin, N. Labbe, T. G. Rials, and S. D. Wullschleger, “Analysis of preservative-treated wood by multivariate analysis of LIBS spectra,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1179-1185 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. B. Krasnodebska-Ostrega, H. Emons, and J. Golimowski, “Selective leaching of elements associated with Mn-Fe oxides in forest soil, and comparisons of two sequential extraction methods,” Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 371, 385-390 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. N. G. Yoccoz, “Use, overuse, and misuse of significance testes in evolutionary biology and ecology,” Bull. Ecol. Soc. Am. 72, 106-111 (1991).
  23. D. H. Johnson, “The insignificance of statistical significance testing,” J. Wildlife Manage. 63, 763-772 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. A. Elmi, C. P. West, R. T. Robbins, and T. L. Kirkpatrick, “Endophyte effects on reproduction of a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne marylandi) and osmotic adjustment in tall fescue,” Grass Forage Sci. 55, 166-172 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. S. Humphries, K. D. Gwinn, and A. J. Stewart, “Effects of endophyte status of tall fescue tissues on the earthworm (Eisenia fetida),” Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 20, 1346-1350(2001).
    [PubMed]
  26. D. P. Malinowski and D. P. Belesky, “Adaptations of endophyte-infected cool-season grasses to environmental stresses: mechanisms of drought and mineral stress tolerance,” Crop Sci. 40, 923-940 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  27. W.-B. Lee, J. Wu, Y.-I. Lee, and J. Sneddon, “Recent applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry: a review of material applications,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 39, 27-97 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  28. C. Lopez-Moreno, S. Palanco, and J. J. Laserna, “Remote laser-induced plasma spectrometry for elemental analysis of samples of environmental interest,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 1479-1484 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Kaiser, M. Galiova, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  30. L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of micronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 369-377 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (3)

R. J. Rodriguez, J. F. White, Jr., A. E. Arnold, and R. S. Redmon, “Fungal endophytes: diversity and functional roles,” New Phytol. 182, 314-330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kaiser, M. Galiova, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of micronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 369-377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

V. Juve, R. Portelli, M. Boueri, M. Baudelet, and J. Yu, “Space-resolved analysis of trace elements in fresh vegetables using ultraviolet nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1047-1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by X-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

D. P. Malinowski, H. Zuo, D. P. Belesky, and G. A. Alloush, “Evidence for copper binding by extracellular root exudates of tall fescue but not perennial ryegrass infected with Neotyphodium spp. Endophytes,” Plant Soil 276, 1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Rahman and S. Saiga, “Endophytic fungi (Neotyphodium coenophialum) affect the growth and mineral uptake, transport and efficiency ratios in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea),” Plant Soil 272, 163-171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. Martin, N. Labbe, T. G. Rials, and S. D. Wullschleger, “Analysis of preservative-treated wood by multivariate analysis of LIBS spectra,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1179-1185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

W.-B. Lee, J. Wu, Y.-I. Lee, and J. Sneddon, “Recent applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry: a review of material applications,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 39, 27-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Lopez-Moreno, S. Palanco, and J. J. Laserna, “Remote laser-induced plasma spectrometry for elemental analysis of samples of environmental interest,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 1479-1484 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. S. Redman, K. B. Sheehan, R. G. Stout, R. J. Rodriquez, and J. M. Henson, “Thermotolerance generated by plant/fungal symbiosis,” Science 298, 1581 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (5)

K. Groppe, T. Steinger, B. Schmid, B. Baur, and T. Boller, “Effect of habitat fragmentation on choke disease (Epichloe bromicola) in the grass Bromus erectus,” J. Ecol. 89, 247-255(2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Monnet, N. Vaillant, A. Hitmi, A. Coudret, and H. Sallanon, “Endophytic Neotyphodium lolii induced tolerance to Zn stress in Lolium perenne,” Physiol. Plantarum 113, 557-563(2001).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Zaurov, S. Bonos, J. A. Murphy, M. Richardson, and F. C. Belanger, “Endophyte infection can contribute to aluminum tolerance in fine fescues,” Crop Sci. 41, 1981-1984 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Krasnodebska-Ostrega, H. Emons, and J. Golimowski, “Selective leaching of elements associated with Mn-Fe oxides in forest soil, and comparisons of two sequential extraction methods,” Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 371, 385-390 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Humphries, K. D. Gwinn, and A. J. Stewart, “Effects of endophyte status of tall fescue tissues on the earthworm (Eisenia fetida),” Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 20, 1346-1350(2001).
[PubMed]

2000 (4)

D. P. Malinowski and D. P. Belesky, “Adaptations of endophyte-infected cool-season grasses to environmental stresses: mechanisms of drought and mineral stress tolerance,” Crop Sci. 40, 923-940 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Elmi, C. P. West, R. T. Robbins, and T. L. Kirkpatrick, “Endophyte effects on reproduction of a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne marylandi) and osmotic adjustment in tall fescue,” Grass Forage Sci. 55, 166-172 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. Martin and M. D. Cheng, “The detection of chromium aerosol using time-resolved laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 1279-1285 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Malinowski, G. A. Alloush, and D. P. Belesky, “Leaf endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum modifies mineral uptake in tall fescue,” Plant Soil 227, 115-126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

K. Saikkonen, M. Helander, S. H. Faeth, F. Schulthess, and D. Wilson, “Endophyte-grassherbivore interactions: the case of Neotyphodium endophytes in Arizona fescue populations,” Oecologia 121, 411-420 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Malinowski and D. P. Belesky, “Tall fescue aluminum tolerance is affected by Neotyphodium coenophialum endophyte,” J. Plant Nutrition 22, 1335-1349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. Martin, M. D. Cheng, and R. C. Martin, “Aerosol measurement by laser-induced plasma technique: A review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 31, 409-421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Johnson, “The insignificance of statistical significance testing,” J. Wildlife Manage. 63, 763-772 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. B. Dennis, V. G. Allen, K. E. Saker, J. P. Fontenot, J. Y. M. Ayad, and C. P. Brown, “Influence of Neotyphodium coenophialum on copper concentration in tall fescue,” J. Anim. Sci. 76, 2687-2693 (1998).
[PubMed]

1995 (1)

A. B. Coley, H. A. Fribroug, M. R. Pelton, and K. D. Gwinn, “Effects of tall fescue infestation on relative abundance of small mammals,” J. Environ. Qual. 24, 472-475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K. Clay, “The ecology and evolution of endophtyes,” Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 44, 39-64 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

K. D. Gwinn and A. M. Gavin, “Relationship between endophyte infestation level of tall fescue seed lots and Rhizoctonia zeae seedling disease,” Plant disease 76, 911-914 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

N. G. Yoccoz, “Use, overuse, and misuse of significance testes in evolutionary biology and ecology,” Bull. Ecol. Soc. Am. 72, 106-111 (1991).

1990 (1)

C. A. Kimmons, K. D. Gwinn, and E. C. Bernard, “Nematode reproduction on endophyteinfected and endophyte-free tall fescue,” Plant disease 74, 757-761 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Allen, V. G.

S. B. Dennis, V. G. Allen, K. E. Saker, J. P. Fontenot, J. Y. M. Ayad, and C. P. Brown, “Influence of Neotyphodium coenophialum on copper concentration in tall fescue,” J. Anim. Sci. 76, 2687-2693 (1998).
[PubMed]

Alloush, G. A.

D. P. Malinowski, H. Zuo, D. P. Belesky, and G. A. Alloush, “Evidence for copper binding by extracellular root exudates of tall fescue but not perennial ryegrass infected with Neotyphodium spp. Endophytes,” Plant Soil 276, 1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ayad, J. Y. M.

S. B. Dennis, V. G. Allen, K. E. Saker, J. P. Fontenot, J. Y. M. Ayad, and C. P. Brown, “Influence of Neotyphodium coenophialum on copper concentration in tall fescue,” J. Anim. Sci. 76, 2687-2693 (1998).
[PubMed]

Baudelet, M.

V. Juve, R. Portelli, M. Boueri, M. Baudelet, and J. Yu, “Space-resolved analysis of trace elements in fresh vegetables using ultraviolet nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1047-1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Belanger, F. C.

D. E. Zaurov, S. Bonos, J. A. Murphy, M. Richardson, and F. C. Belanger, “Endophyte infection can contribute to aluminum tolerance in fine fescues,” Crop Sci. 41, 1981-1984 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boueri, M.

V. Juve, R. Portelli, M. Boueri, M. Baudelet, and J. Yu, “Space-resolved analysis of trace elements in fresh vegetables using ultraviolet nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1047-1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faeth, S. H.

K. Saikkonen, M. Helander, S. H. Faeth, F. Schulthess, and D. Wilson, “Endophyte-grassherbivore interactions: the case of Neotyphodium endophytes in Arizona fescue populations,” Oecologia 121, 411-420 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Golimowski, J.

B. Krasnodebska-Ostrega, H. Emons, and J. Golimowski, “Selective leaching of elements associated with Mn-Fe oxides in forest soil, and comparisons of two sequential extraction methods,” Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 371, 385-390 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helander, M.

K. Saikkonen, M. Helander, S. H. Faeth, F. Schulthess, and D. Wilson, “Endophyte-grassherbivore interactions: the case of Neotyphodium endophytes in Arizona fescue populations,” Oecologia 121, 411-420 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hrdlicka, A.

J. Kaiser, M. Galiova, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Humphries, S. S.

S. S. Humphries, K. D. Gwinn, and A. J. Stewart, “Effects of endophyte status of tall fescue tissues on the earthworm (Eisenia fetida),” Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 20, 1346-1350(2001).
[PubMed]

Lee, W.-B.

W.-B. Lee, J. Wu, Y.-I. Lee, and J. Sneddon, “Recent applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry: a review of material applications,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 39, 27-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mancini, L.

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by X-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. C.

M. Z. Martin, M. D. Cheng, and R. C. Martin, “Aerosol measurement by laser-induced plasma technique: A review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 31, 409-421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pikuz, T.

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by X-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Samad, R. E.

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of micronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 369-377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Samek, O.

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by X-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Samek, O.

J. Kaiser, M. Galiova, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stejskal, K.

J. Kaiser, M. Galiova, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, A. J.

S. S. Humphries, K. D. Gwinn, and A. J. Stewart, “Effects of endophyte status of tall fescue tissues on the earthworm (Eisenia fetida),” Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 20, 1346-1350(2001).
[PubMed]

Tromba, G.

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by X-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vieira, , N. D.

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of micronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 369-377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

West, C. P.

A. A. Elmi, C. P. West, R. T. Robbins, and T. L. Kirkpatrick, “Endophyte effects on reproduction of a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne marylandi) and osmotic adjustment in tall fescue,” Grass Forage Sci. 55, 166-172 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wullschleger, S. D.

M. Z. Martin, N. Labbe, T. G. Rials, and S. D. Wullschleger, “Analysis of preservative-treated wood by multivariate analysis of LIBS spectra,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1179-1185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoccoz, N. G.

N. G. Yoccoz, “Use, overuse, and misuse of significance testes in evolutionary biology and ecology,” Bull. Ecol. Soc. Am. 72, 106-111 (1991).

Yu, J.

V. Juve, R. Portelli, M. Boueri, M. Baudelet, and J. Yu, “Space-resolved analysis of trace elements in fresh vegetables using ultraviolet nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1047-1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adam, V.

J. Kaiser, M. Galiova, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alloush, G. A.

D. P. Malinowski, G. A. Alloush, and D. P. Belesky, “Leaf endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum modifies mineral uptake in tall fescue,” Plant Soil 227, 115-126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, A. E.

R. J. Rodriguez, J. F. White, Jr., A. E. Arnold, and R. S. Redmon, “Fungal endophytes: diversity and functional roles,” New Phytol. 182, 314-330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baur, B.

K. Groppe, T. Steinger, B. Schmid, B. Baur, and T. Boller, “Effect of habitat fragmentation on choke disease (Epichloe bromicola) in the grass Bromus erectus,” J. Ecol. 89, 247-255(2001).
[CrossRef]

Belesky, D. P.

D. P. Malinowski, G. A. Alloush, and D. P. Belesky, “Leaf endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum modifies mineral uptake in tall fescue,” Plant Soil 227, 115-126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Belesky, D. P.

D. P. Malinowski, H. Zuo, D. P. Belesky, and G. A. Alloush, “Evidence for copper binding by extracellular root exudates of tall fescue but not perennial ryegrass infected with Neotyphodium spp. Endophytes,” Plant Soil 276, 1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Malinowski and D. P. Belesky, “Adaptations of endophyte-infected cool-season grasses to environmental stresses: mechanisms of drought and mineral stress tolerance,” Crop Sci. 40, 923-940 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Malinowski and D. P. Belesky, “Tall fescue aluminum tolerance is affected by Neotyphodium coenophialum endophyte,” J. Plant Nutrition 22, 1335-1349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bernard, E. C.

C. A. Kimmons, K. D. Gwinn, and E. C. Bernard, “Nematode reproduction on endophyteinfected and endophyte-free tall fescue,” Plant disease 74, 757-761 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Boller, T.

K. Groppe, T. Steinger, B. Schmid, B. Baur, and T. Boller, “Effect of habitat fragmentation on choke disease (Epichloe bromicola) in the grass Bromus erectus,” J. Ecol. 89, 247-255(2001).
[CrossRef]

Bonos, S.

D. E. Zaurov, S. Bonos, J. A. Murphy, M. Richardson, and F. C. Belanger, “Endophyte infection can contribute to aluminum tolerance in fine fescues,” Crop Sci. 41, 1981-1984 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. P.

S. B. Dennis, V. G. Allen, K. E. Saker, J. P. Fontenot, J. Y. M. Ayad, and C. P. Brown, “Influence of Neotyphodium coenophialum on copper concentration in tall fescue,” J. Anim. Sci. 76, 2687-2693 (1998).
[PubMed]

Cervenka, R.

J. Kaiser, M. Galiova, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, M. D.

M. Z. Martin, M. D. Cheng, and R. C. Martin, “Aerosol measurement by laser-induced plasma technique: A review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 31, 409-421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, M. D.

Cinque, G.

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by X-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
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Clay, K.

K. Clay, “The ecology and evolution of endophtyes,” Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 44, 39-64 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Coley, A. B.

A. B. Coley, H. A. Fribroug, M. R. Pelton, and K. D. Gwinn, “Effects of tall fescue infestation on relative abundance of small mammals,” J. Environ. Qual. 24, 472-475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Coudret, A.

F. Monnet, N. Vaillant, A. Hitmi, A. Coudret, and H. Sallanon, “Endophytic Neotyphodium lolii induced tolerance to Zn stress in Lolium perenne,” Physiol. Plantarum 113, 557-563(2001).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, S. B.

S. B. Dennis, V. G. Allen, K. E. Saker, J. P. Fontenot, J. Y. M. Ayad, and C. P. Brown, “Influence of Neotyphodium coenophialum on copper concentration in tall fescue,” J. Anim. Sci. 76, 2687-2693 (1998).
[PubMed]

Elmi, A. A.

A. A. Elmi, C. P. West, R. T. Robbins, and T. L. Kirkpatrick, “Endophyte effects on reproduction of a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne marylandi) and osmotic adjustment in tall fescue,” Grass Forage Sci. 55, 166-172 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Emons, H.

B. Krasnodebska-Ostrega, H. Emons, and J. Golimowski, “Selective leaching of elements associated with Mn-Fe oxides in forest soil, and comparisons of two sequential extraction methods,” Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 371, 385-390 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faenov, A.

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by X-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Flora, F.

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by X-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fontenot, J. P.

S. B. Dennis, V. G. Allen, K. E. Saker, J. P. Fontenot, J. Y. M. Ayad, and C. P. Brown, “Influence of Neotyphodium coenophialum on copper concentration in tall fescue,” J. Anim. Sci. 76, 2687-2693 (1998).
[PubMed]

Fribroug, H. A.

A. B. Coley, H. A. Fribroug, M. R. Pelton, and K. D. Gwinn, “Effects of tall fescue infestation on relative abundance of small mammals,” J. Environ. Qual. 24, 472-475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Galiova, M.

J. Kaiser, M. Galiova, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gavin, A. M.

K. D. Gwinn and A. M. Gavin, “Relationship between endophyte infestation level of tall fescue seed lots and Rhizoctonia zeae seedling disease,” Plant disease 76, 911-914 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Groppe, K.

K. Groppe, T. Steinger, B. Schmid, B. Baur, and T. Boller, “Effect of habitat fragmentation on choke disease (Epichloe bromicola) in the grass Bromus erectus,” J. Ecol. 89, 247-255(2001).
[CrossRef]

Gwinn, K. D.

S. S. Humphries, K. D. Gwinn, and A. J. Stewart, “Effects of endophyte status of tall fescue tissues on the earthworm (Eisenia fetida),” Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 20, 1346-1350(2001).
[PubMed]

A. B. Coley, H. A. Fribroug, M. R. Pelton, and K. D. Gwinn, “Effects of tall fescue infestation on relative abundance of small mammals,” J. Environ. Qual. 24, 472-475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gwinn, K. D.

K. D. Gwinn and A. M. Gavin, “Relationship between endophyte infestation level of tall fescue seed lots and Rhizoctonia zeae seedling disease,” Plant disease 76, 911-914 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Kimmons, K. D. Gwinn, and E. C. Bernard, “Nematode reproduction on endophyteinfected and endophyte-free tall fescue,” Plant disease 74, 757-761 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Henson, J. M.

R. S. Redman, K. B. Sheehan, R. G. Stout, R. J. Rodriquez, and J. M. Henson, “Thermotolerance generated by plant/fungal symbiosis,” Science 298, 1581 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitmi, A.

F. Monnet, N. Vaillant, A. Hitmi, A. Coudret, and H. Sallanon, “Endophytic Neotyphodium lolii induced tolerance to Zn stress in Lolium perenne,” Physiol. Plantarum 113, 557-563(2001).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. H.

D. H. Johnson, “The insignificance of statistical significance testing,” J. Wildlife Manage. 63, 763-772 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Juve, V.

V. Juve, R. Portelli, M. Boueri, M. Baudelet, and J. Yu, “Space-resolved analysis of trace elements in fresh vegetables using ultraviolet nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1047-1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, J.

J. Kaiser, M. Galiova, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by X-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kanicky, V.

J. Kaiser, M. Galiova, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kimmons, C. A.

C. A. Kimmons, K. D. Gwinn, and E. C. Bernard, “Nematode reproduction on endophyteinfected and endophyte-free tall fescue,” Plant disease 74, 757-761 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, T. L.

A. A. Elmi, C. P. West, R. T. Robbins, and T. L. Kirkpatrick, “Endophyte effects on reproduction of a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne marylandi) and osmotic adjustment in tall fescue,” Grass Forage Sci. 55, 166-172 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kizek, R.

J. Kaiser, M. Galiova, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krasnodebska-Ostrega, B.

B. Krasnodebska-Ostrega, H. Emons, and J. Golimowski, “Selective leaching of elements associated with Mn-Fe oxides in forest soil, and comparisons of two sequential extraction methods,” Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 371, 385-390 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krug, F. J.

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of micronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 369-377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Labbe, N.

M. Z. Martin, N. Labbe, T. G. Rials, and S. D. Wullschleger, “Analysis of preservative-treated wood by multivariate analysis of LIBS spectra,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1179-1185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lai, A.

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by X-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laserna, J. J.

C. Lopez-Moreno, S. Palanco, and J. J. Laserna, “Remote laser-induced plasma spectrometry for elemental analysis of samples of environmental interest,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 1479-1484 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-I.

W.-B. Lee, J. Wu, Y.-I. Lee, and J. Sneddon, “Recent applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry: a review of material applications,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 39, 27-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liska, M.

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by X-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liska, M.

J. Kaiser, M. Galiova, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Moreno, C.

C. Lopez-Moreno, S. Palanco, and J. J. Laserna, “Remote laser-induced plasma spectrometry for elemental analysis of samples of environmental interest,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 1479-1484 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Malina, R.

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by X-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Malinowski, D. P.

D. P. Malinowski, H. Zuo, D. P. Belesky, and G. A. Alloush, “Evidence for copper binding by extracellular root exudates of tall fescue but not perennial ryegrass infected with Neotyphodium spp. Endophytes,” Plant Soil 276, 1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Malinowski, G. A. Alloush, and D. P. Belesky, “Leaf endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum modifies mineral uptake in tall fescue,” Plant Soil 227, 115-126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Malinowski and D. P. Belesky, “Adaptations of endophyte-infected cool-season grasses to environmental stresses: mechanisms of drought and mineral stress tolerance,” Crop Sci. 40, 923-940 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Malinowski and D. P. Belesky, “Tall fescue aluminum tolerance is affected by Neotyphodium coenophialum endophyte,” J. Plant Nutrition 22, 1335-1349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martin, M. Z.

M. Z. Martin, N. Labbe, T. G. Rials, and S. D. Wullschleger, “Analysis of preservative-treated wood by multivariate analysis of LIBS spectra,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1179-1185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. Martin and M. D. Cheng, “The detection of chromium aerosol using time-resolved laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 1279-1285 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. Martin, M. D. Cheng, and R. C. Martin, “Aerosol measurement by laser-induced plasma technique: A review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 31, 409-421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Monnet, F.

F. Monnet, N. Vaillant, A. Hitmi, A. Coudret, and H. Sallanon, “Endophytic Neotyphodium lolii induced tolerance to Zn stress in Lolium perenne,” Physiol. Plantarum 113, 557-563(2001).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, J. A.

D. E. Zaurov, S. Bonos, J. A. Murphy, M. Richardson, and F. C. Belanger, “Endophyte infection can contribute to aluminum tolerance in fine fescues,” Crop Sci. 41, 1981-1984 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, J.

J. Kaiser, M. Galiova, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, K.

J. Kaiser, M. Galiova, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nunes, L. C.

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of micronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 369-377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Palanco, S.

C. Lopez-Moreno, S. Palanco, and J. J. Laserna, “Remote laser-induced plasma spectrometry for elemental analysis of samples of environmental interest,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 1479-1484 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pelton, M. R.

A. B. Coley, H. A. Fribroug, M. R. Pelton, and K. D. Gwinn, “Effects of tall fescue infestation on relative abundance of small mammals,” J. Environ. Qual. 24, 472-475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Poma, A.

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by X-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Portelli, R.

V. Juve, R. Portelli, M. Boueri, M. Baudelet, and J. Yu, “Space-resolved analysis of trace elements in fresh vegetables using ultraviolet nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1047-1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, M. H.

M. H. Rahman and S. Saiga, “Endophytic fungi (Neotyphodium coenophialum) affect the growth and mineral uptake, transport and efficiency ratios in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea),” Plant Soil 272, 163-171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reale, L.

J. Kaiser, M. Galiova, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by X-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Redman, R. S.

R. S. Redman, K. B. Sheehan, R. G. Stout, R. J. Rodriquez, and J. M. Henson, “Thermotolerance generated by plant/fungal symbiosis,” Science 298, 1581 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Redmon, R. S.

R. J. Rodriguez, J. F. White, Jr., A. E. Arnold, and R. S. Redmon, “Fungal endophytes: diversity and functional roles,” New Phytol. 182, 314-330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rials, T. G.

M. Z. Martin, N. Labbe, T. G. Rials, and S. D. Wullschleger, “Analysis of preservative-treated wood by multivariate analysis of LIBS spectra,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1179-1185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M.

D. E. Zaurov, S. Bonos, J. A. Murphy, M. Richardson, and F. C. Belanger, “Endophyte infection can contribute to aluminum tolerance in fine fescues,” Crop Sci. 41, 1981-1984 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ritucci, A.

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by X-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, R. T.

A. A. Elmi, C. P. West, R. T. Robbins, and T. L. Kirkpatrick, “Endophyte effects on reproduction of a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne marylandi) and osmotic adjustment in tall fescue,” Grass Forage Sci. 55, 166-172 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, R. J.

R. J. Rodriguez, J. F. White, Jr., A. E. Arnold, and R. S. Redmon, “Fungal endophytes: diversity and functional roles,” New Phytol. 182, 314-330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriquez, R. J.

R. S. Redman, K. B. Sheehan, R. G. Stout, R. J. Rodriquez, and J. M. Henson, “Thermotolerance generated by plant/fungal symbiosis,” Science 298, 1581 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rufini, I. A.

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of micronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 369-377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Saiga, S.

M. H. Rahman and S. Saiga, “Endophytic fungi (Neotyphodium coenophialum) affect the growth and mineral uptake, transport and efficiency ratios in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea),” Plant Soil 272, 163-171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saikkonen, K.

K. Saikkonen, M. Helander, S. H. Faeth, F. Schulthess, and D. Wilson, “Endophyte-grassherbivore interactions: the case of Neotyphodium endophytes in Arizona fescue populations,” Oecologia 121, 411-420 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saker, K. E.

S. B. Dennis, V. G. Allen, K. E. Saker, J. P. Fontenot, J. Y. M. Ayad, and C. P. Brown, “Influence of Neotyphodium coenophialum on copper concentration in tall fescue,” J. Anim. Sci. 76, 2687-2693 (1998).
[PubMed]

Sallanon, H.

F. Monnet, N. Vaillant, A. Hitmi, A. Coudret, and H. Sallanon, “Endophytic Neotyphodium lolii induced tolerance to Zn stress in Lolium perenne,” Physiol. Plantarum 113, 557-563(2001).
[CrossRef]

Santos, , D.

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of micronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 369-377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, B.

K. Groppe, T. Steinger, B. Schmid, B. Baur, and T. Boller, “Effect of habitat fragmentation on choke disease (Epichloe bromicola) in the grass Bromus erectus,” J. Ecol. 89, 247-255(2001).
[CrossRef]

Schulthess, F.

K. Saikkonen, M. Helander, S. H. Faeth, F. Schulthess, and D. Wilson, “Endophyte-grassherbivore interactions: the case of Neotyphodium endophytes in Arizona fescue populations,” Oecologia 121, 411-420 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sheehan, K. B.

R. S. Redman, K. B. Sheehan, R. G. Stout, R. J. Rodriquez, and J. M. Henson, “Thermotolerance generated by plant/fungal symbiosis,” Science 298, 1581 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sneddon, J.

W.-B. Lee, J. Wu, Y.-I. Lee, and J. Sneddon, “Recent applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry: a review of material applications,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 39, 27-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Steinger, T.

K. Groppe, T. Steinger, B. Schmid, B. Baur, and T. Boller, “Effect of habitat fragmentation on choke disease (Epichloe bromicola) in the grass Bromus erectus,” J. Ecol. 89, 247-255(2001).
[CrossRef]

Stout, R. G.

R. S. Redman, K. B. Sheehan, R. G. Stout, R. J. Rodriquez, and J. M. Henson, “Thermotolerance generated by plant/fungal symbiosis,” Science 298, 1581 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trevizan, L. C.

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of micronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 369-377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tucci, A.

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by X-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vaillant, N.

F. Monnet, N. Vaillant, A. Hitmi, A. Coudret, and H. Sallanon, “Endophytic Neotyphodium lolii induced tolerance to Zn stress in Lolium perenne,” Physiol. Plantarum 113, 557-563(2001).
[CrossRef]

White, J. F.

R. J. Rodriguez, J. F. White, Jr., A. E. Arnold, and R. S. Redmon, “Fungal endophytes: diversity and functional roles,” New Phytol. 182, 314-330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, D.

K. Saikkonen, M. Helander, S. H. Faeth, F. Schulthess, and D. Wilson, “Endophyte-grassherbivore interactions: the case of Neotyphodium endophytes in Arizona fescue populations,” Oecologia 121, 411-420 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

W.-B. Lee, J. Wu, Y.-I. Lee, and J. Sneddon, “Recent applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry: a review of material applications,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 39, 27-97 (2004).
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J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by X-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
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D. E. Zaurov, S. Bonos, J. A. Murphy, M. Richardson, and F. C. Belanger, “Endophyte infection can contribute to aluminum tolerance in fine fescues,” Crop Sci. 41, 1981-1984 (2001).
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Zuo, H.

D. P. Malinowski, H. Zuo, D. P. Belesky, and G. A. Alloush, “Evidence for copper binding by extracellular root exudates of tall fescue but not perennial ryegrass infected with Neotyphodium spp. Endophytes,” Plant Soil 276, 1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Crop Sci. (1)

D. E. Zaurov, S. Bonos, J. A. Murphy, M. Richardson, and F. C. Belanger, “Endophyte infection can contribute to aluminum tolerance in fine fescues,” Crop Sci. 41, 1981-1984 (2001).
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J. Environ. Qual. (1)

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J. Plant Nutrition (1)

D. P. Malinowski and D. P. Belesky, “Tall fescue aluminum tolerance is affected by Neotyphodium coenophialum endophyte,” J. Plant Nutrition 22, 1335-1349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aerosol Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Z. Martin, M. D. Cheng, and R. C. Martin, “Aerosol measurement by laser-induced plasma technique: A review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 31, 409-421 (1999).
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Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. (1)

K. Clay, “The ecology and evolution of endophtyes,” Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 44, 39-64 (1993).
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Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (1)

W.-B. Lee, J. Wu, Y.-I. Lee, and J. Sneddon, “Recent applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry: a review of material applications,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 39, 27-97 (2004).
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Bull. Ecol. Soc. Am. (1)

N. G. Yoccoz, “Use, overuse, and misuse of significance testes in evolutionary biology and ecology,” Bull. Ecol. Soc. Am. 72, 106-111 (1991).

Crop Sci. (1)

D. P. Malinowski and D. P. Belesky, “Adaptations of endophyte-infected cool-season grasses to environmental stresses: mechanisms of drought and mineral stress tolerance,” Crop Sci. 40, 923-940 (2000).
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Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (1)

S. S. Humphries, K. D. Gwinn, and A. J. Stewart, “Effects of endophyte status of tall fescue tissues on the earthworm (Eisenia fetida),” Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 20, 1346-1350(2001).
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Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. (1)

B. Krasnodebska-Ostrega, H. Emons, and J. Golimowski, “Selective leaching of elements associated with Mn-Fe oxides in forest soil, and comparisons of two sequential extraction methods,” Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 371, 385-390 (2001).
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Grass Forage Sci. (1)

A. A. Elmi, C. P. West, R. T. Robbins, and T. L. Kirkpatrick, “Endophyte effects on reproduction of a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne marylandi) and osmotic adjustment in tall fescue,” Grass Forage Sci. 55, 166-172 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Anal. At. Spectrom. (1)

C. Lopez-Moreno, S. Palanco, and J. J. Laserna, “Remote laser-induced plasma spectrometry for elemental analysis of samples of environmental interest,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 1479-1484 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Anim. Sci. (1)

S. B. Dennis, V. G. Allen, K. E. Saker, J. P. Fontenot, J. Y. M. Ayad, and C. P. Brown, “Influence of Neotyphodium coenophialum on copper concentration in tall fescue,” J. Anim. Sci. 76, 2687-2693 (1998).
[PubMed]

J. Ecol. (1)

K. Groppe, T. Steinger, B. Schmid, B. Baur, and T. Boller, “Effect of habitat fragmentation on choke disease (Epichloe bromicola) in the grass Bromus erectus,” J. Ecol. 89, 247-255(2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Wildlife Manage. (1)

D. H. Johnson, “The insignificance of statistical significance testing,” J. Wildlife Manage. 63, 763-772 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Microsc. Res. Tech. (1)

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by X-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
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New Phytol. (1)

R. J. Rodriguez, J. F. White, Jr., A. E. Arnold, and R. S. Redmon, “Fungal endophytes: diversity and functional roles,” New Phytol. 182, 314-330 (2009).
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Oecologia (1)

K. Saikkonen, M. Helander, S. H. Faeth, F. Schulthess, and D. Wilson, “Endophyte-grassherbivore interactions: the case of Neotyphodium endophytes in Arizona fescue populations,” Oecologia 121, 411-420 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Physiol. Plantarum (1)

F. Monnet, N. Vaillant, A. Hitmi, A. Coudret, and H. Sallanon, “Endophytic Neotyphodium lolii induced tolerance to Zn stress in Lolium perenne,” Physiol. Plantarum 113, 557-563(2001).
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K. D. Gwinn and A. M. Gavin, “Relationship between endophyte infestation level of tall fescue seed lots and Rhizoctonia zeae seedling disease,” Plant disease 76, 911-914 (1992).
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Plant Soil (3)

M. H. Rahman and S. Saiga, “Endophytic fungi (Neotyphodium coenophialum) affect the growth and mineral uptake, transport and efficiency ratios in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea),” Plant Soil 272, 163-171 (2005).
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D. P. Malinowski, G. A. Alloush, and D. P. Belesky, “Leaf endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum modifies mineral uptake in tall fescue,” Plant Soil 227, 115-126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Malinowski, H. Zuo, D. P. Belesky, and G. A. Alloush, “Evidence for copper binding by extracellular root exudates of tall fescue but not perennial ryegrass infected with Neotyphodium spp. Endophytes,” Plant Soil 276, 1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

R. S. Redman, K. B. Sheehan, R. G. Stout, R. J. Rodriquez, and J. M. Henson, “Thermotolerance generated by plant/fungal symbiosis,” Science 298, 1581 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spectrochim. Acta Part B (4)

V. Juve, R. Portelli, M. Boueri, M. Baudelet, and J. Yu, “Space-resolved analysis of trace elements in fresh vegetables using ultraviolet nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1047-1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. Martin, N. Labbe, T. G. Rials, and S. D. Wullschleger, “Analysis of preservative-treated wood by multivariate analysis of LIBS spectra,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1179-1185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Kaiser, M. Galiova, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of micronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 369-377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configuration of LIBS. Spectral emissions from ionized, neutral, and molecular species occur sequentially after the plasma forms.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Concentration of various metals (or ratios of metals) present in aboveground tissue of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Samples were harvested from plots (see Table 1 for site information, milled, acid-digested (EPA method 3050B), centrifuged, neutralized, and diluted (to reduce interference by nitrate) before being analyzed. Analysis was by ICP MS. (A) Metals with concentrations less than 50 mg / kg in all pastures and not different among pastures. (B) Metals with concentrations different among pastures. Note that values for Ca and Mg are tenfold greater than the numerical value in the figure: *, significant plot-to-plot differences detected by ANOVA; Ca ( p = 0.029 ); Fe ( p = 0.046 ); Mg ( p = 0.043 ); and Mn ( p < 0.0001 ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

LIBS emission spectrum for dried, milled tall fescue leaf samples collected from plot 3 (see Table 1 for site information). Peak-to-height data (Y axis) are arbitrary units. Zn, Cd, and Mg are clearly detectable.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

LIBS responses to increasing amounts of Cd added to milled samples of tall fescue leaves. The correlation coefficient for the relationship is 0.994.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Charaterization of Tall Fescue Seed Production Plots Used in These Studies

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of Certified Values (NIST) and Measured Values for SRM 1515 (Apple Leaves) a

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