Abstract

This paper has two purposes. The first one underlines that qualitative and quantitative studies of surface states lead to relevant information for analyzing works of art, with lots of potential for art history, restorers, and curators. The discrimination between different artistic techniques and the influence of a varnish on the leveling of paint surfaces are presented. The second purpose is the comparison between different nondestructive optical topographic methods, i.e., goniophotometry, optical coherence topography, and confocal microscopy, according to their accuracy, their discriminatory ability, their practicability inside a museum, and the size limits of the studied objects.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Simonot and M. Elias, “Color change due to surface state modification,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 45-49 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. European Project 022453--Sixth Framework Programme Priority 8.1.B.3.6. “Fingartprint,” http://www.technologyreview.com/Infotech/18241/?a=f.
  3. W. Wei, P. Boher, M. Elias, J. Frohn, K. Martinez, and S. Sotiropoulou, “A new non-contact fingerprinting method for the identification and protection of objects of art and cultural heritage against theft and illegal trafficking,” in Proceedings of the 7th European Conference “SAUVEUR”--Safeguarded Cultural Heritage--Understanding & Viability for the Enlarged Europe, M.Drdacky and M.Chapuis, eds. (European Community, 2006), pp. 103-111, http://www.arcchip.cz/ec-conference/proc.php.
    [PubMed]
  4. P. Targowski, R. Ostrowski, J. Marczak, M. Sylwestrzak, and E. A. Kwiatkowska, “Picosecond laser ablation system with process control by optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 7391, 73910G (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Wei, S. Stangier, and A. De Tagle, “In situ characterisation of the surface of paintings before and after cleaning using white light confocal profilometry,” in Proceedings of Art '05, 8th International Conference on Non-destructive Investigations and Microanalysis for the Diagnostics and Conservation of the Cultural and Environmental Heritage, Lecce, Italy, 15-19 May 2005.
  6. P. Ravines, C. M. Wichern, and J. Chen, “Optical and surface metrology to study cultural heritage: confocal topometry applied to the surface study of photographic images,” in Proceedings of Art '08, 9th International Conference on Non-Destructive Testing of Art, Jerusalem, 25-30 May 2008.
  7. D. C. Adler, J. Stenger, I. Gorczynska, H. Lie, T. Hensick, R. Spronk, S. Wolohojian, N. Khandekar, J. Y. Jiang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Comparison of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and high resolution photography for art conservation studies,” Opt. Express 15, 15972 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. I. Grynszpan, J. L. Pastol, S. Lesko, E. Paris, and C. Raepsaet, “Surface topology investigation for ancient coinage assessment using optical interferometry,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 273-276 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. J. Stemp and M. Stemp, “Documenting stages of polish development on experimental Stone tools: surface characterization by fractal geometry using UBM laser profilometry,” J. Archaeol. Sci. 30, 287-296 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Elias and M. Menu, “Experimental characterization of a random metallic rough surface by spectrophotometric measurements in the visible range,” Opt. Commun. 180, 191-198(2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Beckmann and A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces, ed. (Pergamon, 1963).
  12. G. Latour, J. P. Echard, B. Soulier, I. Emond, S. Vaiedelich, and M. Elias, “Structural and optical properties of wood and wood finishes using optical coherence tomography: application to an 18th century Italian violin,” Appl. Opt. 48, 6485-6491 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Latour, J. Moreau, M. Elias, and J. M. Frigerio, “Optical coherence tomography: non-destructive imaging and spectral information of pigments,” Proc. SPIE 6618, 661806 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. www.nanofocus-us.com/index.php?id=16.
  15. R. De La Rie, M. Elias, and J. Delanay, “The role of varnishes in modifying light reflection from rough surfaces--a study of changes in light scattering caused by variations in varnish topography and development of a drying model,” Stud. Conserv. 53, 170-186 (2009).
  16. L. Tintori, “Golden tin in Sienese murals of early trecento,” Burlington Mag. 74(2), 94-96 (1982).
  17. Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, J.Bostock, H.T.Riley, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 1855), Book 35, Chap. 1.
  18. M. Théophile, An Essay Upon Diverse Arts (c. 1125) translation, J.G.Hawthorne and C.C. S.Smith, eds. (Dover, 1979).
  19. C. Magnain, M. Elias, and J. M. Frigerio, “Influence of the artistic techniques on the visual appearance of complexions in art,” Proc. SPIE 7391, 739108 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Elias, R. De La Rie, J. Delanay, and E. Charron, “Leveling of varnishes over rough substrates,” Opt. Commun. 266, 586-591 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (4)

R. De La Rie, M. Elias, and J. Delanay, “The role of varnishes in modifying light reflection from rough surfaces--a study of changes in light scattering caused by variations in varnish topography and development of a drying model,” Stud. Conserv. 53, 170-186 (2009).

C. Magnain, M. Elias, and J. M. Frigerio, “Influence of the artistic techniques on the visual appearance of complexions in art,” Proc. SPIE 7391, 739108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Targowski, R. Ostrowski, J. Marczak, M. Sylwestrzak, and E. A. Kwiatkowska, “Picosecond laser ablation system with process control by optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 7391, 73910G (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Latour, J. P. Echard, B. Soulier, I. Emond, S. Vaiedelich, and M. Elias, “Structural and optical properties of wood and wood finishes using optical coherence tomography: application to an 18th century Italian violin,” Appl. Opt. 48, 6485-6491 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

M. Elias, R. De La Rie, J. Delanay, and E. Charron, “Leveling of varnishes over rough substrates,” Opt. Commun. 266, 586-591 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. I. Grynszpan, J. L. Pastol, S. Lesko, E. Paris, and C. Raepsaet, “Surface topology investigation for ancient coinage assessment using optical interferometry,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 273-276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

W. J. Stemp and M. Stemp, “Documenting stages of polish development on experimental Stone tools: surface characterization by fractal geometry using UBM laser profilometry,” J. Archaeol. Sci. 30, 287-296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Simonot and M. Elias, “Color change due to surface state modification,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 45-49 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Elias and M. Menu, “Experimental characterization of a random metallic rough surface by spectrophotometric measurements in the visible range,” Opt. Commun. 180, 191-198(2000).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

L. Tintori, “Golden tin in Sienese murals of early trecento,” Burlington Mag. 74(2), 94-96 (1982).

Adler, D. C.

Barry, S.

Beckmann, P.

P. Beckmann and A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces, ed. (Pergamon, 1963).

Boher, P.

W. Wei, P. Boher, M. Elias, J. Frohn, K. Martinez, and S. Sotiropoulou, “A new non-contact fingerprinting method for the identification and protection of objects of art and cultural heritage against theft and illegal trafficking,” in Proceedings of the 7th European Conference “SAUVEUR”--Safeguarded Cultural Heritage--Understanding & Viability for the Enlarged Europe, M.Drdacky and M.Chapuis, eds. (European Community, 2006), pp. 103-111, http://www.arcchip.cz/ec-conference/proc.php.
[PubMed]

Cable, A. E.

Charron, E.

M. Elias, R. De La Rie, J. Delanay, and E. Charron, “Leveling of varnishes over rough substrates,” Opt. Commun. 266, 586-591 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

P. Ravines, C. M. Wichern, and J. Chen, “Optical and surface metrology to study cultural heritage: confocal topometry applied to the surface study of photographic images,” in Proceedings of Art '08, 9th International Conference on Non-Destructive Testing of Art, Jerusalem, 25-30 May 2008.

De La Rie, R.

R. De La Rie, M. Elias, and J. Delanay, “The role of varnishes in modifying light reflection from rough surfaces--a study of changes in light scattering caused by variations in varnish topography and development of a drying model,” Stud. Conserv. 53, 170-186 (2009).

M. Elias, R. De La Rie, J. Delanay, and E. Charron, “Leveling of varnishes over rough substrates,” Opt. Commun. 266, 586-591 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Tagle, A.

W. Wei, S. Stangier, and A. De Tagle, “In situ characterisation of the surface of paintings before and after cleaning using white light confocal profilometry,” in Proceedings of Art '05, 8th International Conference on Non-destructive Investigations and Microanalysis for the Diagnostics and Conservation of the Cultural and Environmental Heritage, Lecce, Italy, 15-19 May 2005.

Delanay, J.

R. De La Rie, M. Elias, and J. Delanay, “The role of varnishes in modifying light reflection from rough surfaces--a study of changes in light scattering caused by variations in varnish topography and development of a drying model,” Stud. Conserv. 53, 170-186 (2009).

M. Elias, R. De La Rie, J. Delanay, and E. Charron, “Leveling of varnishes over rough substrates,” Opt. Commun. 266, 586-591 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Echard, J. P.

Elder, Pliny the

Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, J.Bostock, H.T.Riley, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 1855), Book 35, Chap. 1.

Elias, M.

C. Magnain, M. Elias, and J. M. Frigerio, “Influence of the artistic techniques on the visual appearance of complexions in art,” Proc. SPIE 7391, 739108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Latour, J. P. Echard, B. Soulier, I. Emond, S. Vaiedelich, and M. Elias, “Structural and optical properties of wood and wood finishes using optical coherence tomography: application to an 18th century Italian violin,” Appl. Opt. 48, 6485-6491 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. De La Rie, M. Elias, and J. Delanay, “The role of varnishes in modifying light reflection from rough surfaces--a study of changes in light scattering caused by variations in varnish topography and development of a drying model,” Stud. Conserv. 53, 170-186 (2009).

G. Latour, J. Moreau, M. Elias, and J. M. Frigerio, “Optical coherence tomography: non-destructive imaging and spectral information of pigments,” Proc. SPIE 6618, 661806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Elias, R. De La Rie, J. Delanay, and E. Charron, “Leveling of varnishes over rough substrates,” Opt. Commun. 266, 586-591 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Simonot and M. Elias, “Color change due to surface state modification,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 45-49 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Elias and M. Menu, “Experimental characterization of a random metallic rough surface by spectrophotometric measurements in the visible range,” Opt. Commun. 180, 191-198(2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Wei, P. Boher, M. Elias, J. Frohn, K. Martinez, and S. Sotiropoulou, “A new non-contact fingerprinting method for the identification and protection of objects of art and cultural heritage against theft and illegal trafficking,” in Proceedings of the 7th European Conference “SAUVEUR”--Safeguarded Cultural Heritage--Understanding & Viability for the Enlarged Europe, M.Drdacky and M.Chapuis, eds. (European Community, 2006), pp. 103-111, http://www.arcchip.cz/ec-conference/proc.php.
[PubMed]

Emond, I.

Frigerio, J. M.

C. Magnain, M. Elias, and J. M. Frigerio, “Influence of the artistic techniques on the visual appearance of complexions in art,” Proc. SPIE 7391, 739108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Latour, J. Moreau, M. Elias, and J. M. Frigerio, “Optical coherence tomography: non-destructive imaging and spectral information of pigments,” Proc. SPIE 6618, 661806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Frohn, J.

W. Wei, P. Boher, M. Elias, J. Frohn, K. Martinez, and S. Sotiropoulou, “A new non-contact fingerprinting method for the identification and protection of objects of art and cultural heritage against theft and illegal trafficking,” in Proceedings of the 7th European Conference “SAUVEUR”--Safeguarded Cultural Heritage--Understanding & Viability for the Enlarged Europe, M.Drdacky and M.Chapuis, eds. (European Community, 2006), pp. 103-111, http://www.arcchip.cz/ec-conference/proc.php.
[PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gorczynska, I.

Grynszpan, R. I.

R. I. Grynszpan, J. L. Pastol, S. Lesko, E. Paris, and C. Raepsaet, “Surface topology investigation for ancient coinage assessment using optical interferometry,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 273-276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hensick, T.

Huber, R.

Jiang, J. Y.

Khandekar, N.

Kwiatkowska, E. A.

P. Targowski, R. Ostrowski, J. Marczak, M. Sylwestrzak, and E. A. Kwiatkowska, “Picosecond laser ablation system with process control by optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 7391, 73910G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Latour, G.

Lesko, S.

R. I. Grynszpan, J. L. Pastol, S. Lesko, E. Paris, and C. Raepsaet, “Surface topology investigation for ancient coinage assessment using optical interferometry,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 273-276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lie, H.

Magnain, C.

C. Magnain, M. Elias, and J. M. Frigerio, “Influence of the artistic techniques on the visual appearance of complexions in art,” Proc. SPIE 7391, 739108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marczak, J.

P. Targowski, R. Ostrowski, J. Marczak, M. Sylwestrzak, and E. A. Kwiatkowska, “Picosecond laser ablation system with process control by optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 7391, 73910G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, K.

W. Wei, P. Boher, M. Elias, J. Frohn, K. Martinez, and S. Sotiropoulou, “A new non-contact fingerprinting method for the identification and protection of objects of art and cultural heritage against theft and illegal trafficking,” in Proceedings of the 7th European Conference “SAUVEUR”--Safeguarded Cultural Heritage--Understanding & Viability for the Enlarged Europe, M.Drdacky and M.Chapuis, eds. (European Community, 2006), pp. 103-111, http://www.arcchip.cz/ec-conference/proc.php.
[PubMed]

Menu, M.

M. Elias and M. Menu, “Experimental characterization of a random metallic rough surface by spectrophotometric measurements in the visible range,” Opt. Commun. 180, 191-198(2000).
[CrossRef]

Moreau, J.

G. Latour, J. Moreau, M. Elias, and J. M. Frigerio, “Optical coherence tomography: non-destructive imaging and spectral information of pigments,” Proc. SPIE 6618, 661806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ostrowski, R.

P. Targowski, R. Ostrowski, J. Marczak, M. Sylwestrzak, and E. A. Kwiatkowska, “Picosecond laser ablation system with process control by optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 7391, 73910G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Paris, E.

R. I. Grynszpan, J. L. Pastol, S. Lesko, E. Paris, and C. Raepsaet, “Surface topology investigation for ancient coinage assessment using optical interferometry,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 273-276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pastol, J. L.

R. I. Grynszpan, J. L. Pastol, S. Lesko, E. Paris, and C. Raepsaet, “Surface topology investigation for ancient coinage assessment using optical interferometry,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 273-276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Raepsaet, C.

R. I. Grynszpan, J. L. Pastol, S. Lesko, E. Paris, and C. Raepsaet, “Surface topology investigation for ancient coinage assessment using optical interferometry,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 273-276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ravines, P.

P. Ravines, C. M. Wichern, and J. Chen, “Optical and surface metrology to study cultural heritage: confocal topometry applied to the surface study of photographic images,” in Proceedings of Art '08, 9th International Conference on Non-Destructive Testing of Art, Jerusalem, 25-30 May 2008.

Simonot, L.

L. Simonot and M. Elias, “Color change due to surface state modification,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 45-49 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sotiropoulou, S.

W. Wei, P. Boher, M. Elias, J. Frohn, K. Martinez, and S. Sotiropoulou, “A new non-contact fingerprinting method for the identification and protection of objects of art and cultural heritage against theft and illegal trafficking,” in Proceedings of the 7th European Conference “SAUVEUR”--Safeguarded Cultural Heritage--Understanding & Viability for the Enlarged Europe, M.Drdacky and M.Chapuis, eds. (European Community, 2006), pp. 103-111, http://www.arcchip.cz/ec-conference/proc.php.
[PubMed]

Soulier, B.

Spizzichino, A.

P. Beckmann and A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces, ed. (Pergamon, 1963).

Spronk, R.

Stangier, S.

W. Wei, S. Stangier, and A. De Tagle, “In situ characterisation of the surface of paintings before and after cleaning using white light confocal profilometry,” in Proceedings of Art '05, 8th International Conference on Non-destructive Investigations and Microanalysis for the Diagnostics and Conservation of the Cultural and Environmental Heritage, Lecce, Italy, 15-19 May 2005.

Stemp, M.

W. J. Stemp and M. Stemp, “Documenting stages of polish development on experimental Stone tools: surface characterization by fractal geometry using UBM laser profilometry,” J. Archaeol. Sci. 30, 287-296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stemp, W. J.

W. J. Stemp and M. Stemp, “Documenting stages of polish development on experimental Stone tools: surface characterization by fractal geometry using UBM laser profilometry,” J. Archaeol. Sci. 30, 287-296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stenger, J.

Sylwestrzak, M.

P. Targowski, R. Ostrowski, J. Marczak, M. Sylwestrzak, and E. A. Kwiatkowska, “Picosecond laser ablation system with process control by optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 7391, 73910G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Targowski, P.

P. Targowski, R. Ostrowski, J. Marczak, M. Sylwestrzak, and E. A. Kwiatkowska, “Picosecond laser ablation system with process control by optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 7391, 73910G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Théophile, M.

M. Théophile, An Essay Upon Diverse Arts (c. 1125) translation, J.G.Hawthorne and C.C. S.Smith, eds. (Dover, 1979).

Tintori, L.

L. Tintori, “Golden tin in Sienese murals of early trecento,” Burlington Mag. 74(2), 94-96 (1982).

Vaiedelich, S.

Wei, W.

W. Wei, P. Boher, M. Elias, J. Frohn, K. Martinez, and S. Sotiropoulou, “A new non-contact fingerprinting method for the identification and protection of objects of art and cultural heritage against theft and illegal trafficking,” in Proceedings of the 7th European Conference “SAUVEUR”--Safeguarded Cultural Heritage--Understanding & Viability for the Enlarged Europe, M.Drdacky and M.Chapuis, eds. (European Community, 2006), pp. 103-111, http://www.arcchip.cz/ec-conference/proc.php.
[PubMed]

W. Wei, S. Stangier, and A. De Tagle, “In situ characterisation of the surface of paintings before and after cleaning using white light confocal profilometry,” in Proceedings of Art '05, 8th International Conference on Non-destructive Investigations and Microanalysis for the Diagnostics and Conservation of the Cultural and Environmental Heritage, Lecce, Italy, 15-19 May 2005.

Wichern, C. M.

P. Ravines, C. M. Wichern, and J. Chen, “Optical and surface metrology to study cultural heritage: confocal topometry applied to the surface study of photographic images,” in Proceedings of Art '08, 9th International Conference on Non-Destructive Testing of Art, Jerusalem, 25-30 May 2008.

Wolohojian, S.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

R. I. Grynszpan, J. L. Pastol, S. Lesko, E. Paris, and C. Raepsaet, “Surface topology investigation for ancient coinage assessment using optical interferometry,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 273-276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Burlington Mag. (1)

L. Tintori, “Golden tin in Sienese murals of early trecento,” Burlington Mag. 74(2), 94-96 (1982).

Color Res. Appl. (1)

L. Simonot and M. Elias, “Color change due to surface state modification,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 45-49 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Archaeol. Sci. (1)

W. J. Stemp and M. Stemp, “Documenting stages of polish development on experimental Stone tools: surface characterization by fractal geometry using UBM laser profilometry,” J. Archaeol. Sci. 30, 287-296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

M. Elias and M. Menu, “Experimental characterization of a random metallic rough surface by spectrophotometric measurements in the visible range,” Opt. Commun. 180, 191-198(2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Elias, R. De La Rie, J. Delanay, and E. Charron, “Leveling of varnishes over rough substrates,” Opt. Commun. 266, 586-591 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (3)

C. Magnain, M. Elias, and J. M. Frigerio, “Influence of the artistic techniques on the visual appearance of complexions in art,” Proc. SPIE 7391, 739108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Latour, J. Moreau, M. Elias, and J. M. Frigerio, “Optical coherence tomography: non-destructive imaging and spectral information of pigments,” Proc. SPIE 6618, 661806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Targowski, R. Ostrowski, J. Marczak, M. Sylwestrzak, and E. A. Kwiatkowska, “Picosecond laser ablation system with process control by optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 7391, 73910G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stud. Conserv. (1)

R. De La Rie, M. Elias, and J. Delanay, “The role of varnishes in modifying light reflection from rough surfaces--a study of changes in light scattering caused by variations in varnish topography and development of a drying model,” Stud. Conserv. 53, 170-186 (2009).

Other (8)

www.nanofocus-us.com/index.php?id=16.

Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, J.Bostock, H.T.Riley, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 1855), Book 35, Chap. 1.

M. Théophile, An Essay Upon Diverse Arts (c. 1125) translation, J.G.Hawthorne and C.C. S.Smith, eds. (Dover, 1979).

W. Wei, S. Stangier, and A. De Tagle, “In situ characterisation of the surface of paintings before and after cleaning using white light confocal profilometry,” in Proceedings of Art '05, 8th International Conference on Non-destructive Investigations and Microanalysis for the Diagnostics and Conservation of the Cultural and Environmental Heritage, Lecce, Italy, 15-19 May 2005.

P. Ravines, C. M. Wichern, and J. Chen, “Optical and surface metrology to study cultural heritage: confocal topometry applied to the surface study of photographic images,” in Proceedings of Art '08, 9th International Conference on Non-Destructive Testing of Art, Jerusalem, 25-30 May 2008.

European Project 022453--Sixth Framework Programme Priority 8.1.B.3.6. “Fingartprint,” http://www.technologyreview.com/Infotech/18241/?a=f.

W. Wei, P. Boher, M. Elias, J. Frohn, K. Martinez, and S. Sotiropoulou, “A new non-contact fingerprinting method for the identification and protection of objects of art and cultural heritage against theft and illegal trafficking,” in Proceedings of the 7th European Conference “SAUVEUR”--Safeguarded Cultural Heritage--Understanding & Viability for the Enlarged Europe, M.Drdacky and M.Chapuis, eds. (European Community, 2006), pp. 103-111, http://www.arcchip.cz/ec-conference/proc.php.
[PubMed]

P. Beckmann and A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces, ed. (Pergamon, 1963).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Three different instruments used in this study: (a) a goniospectrophotometer in backscattered configuration, (b) a full-field and time-domain OCT in the visible range, and (c) a portable confocal microscope μsurf (Nanofocus AG), mounted on a robot.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Examples of different gold application methods: (a) gold on a mixtion, Russian icon, 15th century; (b) gold on a bole, Virgin, Giovanni di Paolo, 15th century; and (c) eggshell paint, manuscript, 15th century.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Goniophometry in backscattered configuration: normalized radiance L norm as a function of the backscattered angle θ for the three different gold application techniques and for the golden column of Grünewald’s altarpiece presented on Fig. 4.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The angels’ concert, part of the Issenheim’s altarpiece by Grünewald (16th century), Unterlinden Museum, Colmar, France.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Goniophometry in backscattered configuration: normalized radiance as a function of the backscattered angle for samples made of burnt umber and different binders.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

OCT cross sections for samples made of a burnt umber and cellulose binder (down) and burnt umber with carthame oil (top).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Confocal microscopy cross section on a paint sample varnished with a fresh mastic in turpentine.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

OCT cross section in 3D of a paint sample varnished with a fresh mastic in turpentine [12].

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) 3D confocal image of the air/varnish interface of the same sample. (b) 3D confocal images of the varnish/paint interface of the same sample.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Profile of the interface air/varnish of the same sample along a diagonal of the en-face confocal image of Fig. 9a. (b) Profile of the interface varnish/paint of the same sample along a diagonal of the en-face confocal image [Fig. 9b].

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Ratio h / l as a Function of the Different Gold Techniques

Tables Icon

Table 2 Ratio h / l and Specular Gloss for Different Angles and Different Binders [19, 20]

Tables Icon

Table 3 Topographic Characteristics of Both Interfaces of the Same Sample, Deduced from Previous Confocal Profiles

Tables Icon

Table 4 Topographic Characteristics and Gloss of Two Synthetic Varnishes, AYAT and Regalrez, Applied on a Rough Glass [19, 20]

Equations (1)

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( h l ) 2 = 1 2 tan 2 θ = 1 2 tan 2 θ L norm ( θ ) d Ω L norm ( θ ) d Ω .

Metrics