Abstract

We present electro-optic characteristics of a transparent nanophotonic device fabricated on quartz substrate based on multiwall carbon nanotubes and nematic liquid crystals (LCs). The nanotube electrodes spawn a Gaussian electric field to three dimensionally address the LC molecules. The electro- optic characteristics of the device were investigated to optimize the device performance and it was found that lower driving voltages were suitable for microlens array and phase modulation applications, while higher driving voltages with a holding voltage can be used for display-related applications.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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C. Y. Huang, W. Y. Jhuang, and C. T. Hsieh, “Switching of polymer-stabilized vertical alignment liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 16, 3859-3864 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Trushkevych, N. Collings, T. Hasan, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, W. I. Milne, J. Geng, B. F. G. Johnson, and S. Macaulay, “Characterization of carbon nanotube-thermotropic nematic liquid crystal composites,” J. Phys. D 41, 125106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Wilkinson, X. Wang, K. B. K. Teo, and W. I. Milne, “Sparse multiwall carbon nanotube electrode arrays for liquid-crystal photonic devices,” Adv. Mater. 20, 363-366(2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Huang, Y.-G. Lin, and Y.-J. Huang, “Switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal cell doped with carbon nanotubes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6407-6409 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2004

W. Lee, C.-Y. Wang, and Y.-C. Shih, “Effects of carbon nanosolids on the electro-optical properties of a twisted nematic liquid-crystal host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 513 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

W. I. Milne, K. B. K. Teo, M. Chhowalla, G. A. J. Amaratunga, S. B. Lee, D. G. Hasko, H. Ahmed, O. Groening, P. Legagneux, L. Gangloff, J. P. Schnell, G. Pirio, D. Pribat, M. Castignolles, A. Loiseau, V. Semet, and V. T. Binh, “Electrical and field emission investigation of individual carbon nanotubes from plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 12, 422-428 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. D. Lynch and D. L. Patrick, “Organizing carbon nanotubes with liquid crystals,” Nano Lett. 2, 1197-1201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. Ruslim and K. Ichimura, “Photocontrolled alignment of chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 13, 641-644(2001).
[CrossRef]

1987

1986

1984

1983

1982

Ahmed, H.

W. I. Milne, K. B. K. Teo, M. Chhowalla, G. A. J. Amaratunga, S. B. Lee, D. G. Hasko, H. Ahmed, O. Groening, P. Legagneux, L. Gangloff, J. P. Schnell, G. Pirio, D. Pribat, M. Castignolles, A. Loiseau, V. Semet, and V. T. Binh, “Electrical and field emission investigation of individual carbon nanotubes from plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 12, 422-428 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Amaratunga, G. A. J.

W. I. Milne, K. B. K. Teo, M. Chhowalla, G. A. J. Amaratunga, S. B. Lee, D. G. Hasko, H. Ahmed, O. Groening, P. Legagneux, L. Gangloff, J. P. Schnell, G. Pirio, D. Pribat, M. Castignolles, A. Loiseau, V. Semet, and V. T. Binh, “Electrical and field emission investigation of individual carbon nanotubes from plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 12, 422-428 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bates, T. D.

Binh, V. T.

W. I. Milne, K. B. K. Teo, M. Chhowalla, G. A. J. Amaratunga, S. B. Lee, D. G. Hasko, H. Ahmed, O. Groening, P. Legagneux, L. Gangloff, J. P. Schnell, G. Pirio, D. Pribat, M. Castignolles, A. Loiseau, V. Semet, and V. T. Binh, “Electrical and field emission investigation of individual carbon nanotubes from plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 12, 422-428 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Butt, H.

Castignolles, M.

W. I. Milne, K. B. K. Teo, M. Chhowalla, G. A. J. Amaratunga, S. B. Lee, D. G. Hasko, H. Ahmed, O. Groening, P. Legagneux, L. Gangloff, J. P. Schnell, G. Pirio, D. Pribat, M. Castignolles, A. Loiseau, V. Semet, and V. T. Binh, “Electrical and field emission investigation of individual carbon nanotubes from plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 12, 422-428 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chhowalla, M.

W. I. Milne, K. B. K. Teo, M. Chhowalla, G. A. J. Amaratunga, S. B. Lee, D. G. Hasko, H. Ahmed, O. Groening, P. Legagneux, L. Gangloff, J. P. Schnell, G. Pirio, D. Pribat, M. Castignolles, A. Loiseau, V. Semet, and V. T. Binh, “Electrical and field emission investigation of individual carbon nanotubes from plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 12, 422-428 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Collings, N.

O. Trushkevych, N. Collings, T. Hasan, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, W. I. Milne, J. Geng, B. F. G. Johnson, and S. Macaulay, “Characterization of carbon nanotube-thermotropic nematic liquid crystal composites,” J. Phys. D 41, 125106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crossland, W. A.

O. Trushkevych, N. Collings, T. Hasan, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, W. I. Milne, J. Geng, B. F. G. Johnson, and S. Macaulay, “Characterization of carbon nanotube-thermotropic nematic liquid crystal composites,” J. Phys. D 41, 125106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Efron, U.

Ferrari, A. C.

O. Trushkevych, N. Collings, T. Hasan, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, W. I. Milne, J. Geng, B. F. G. Johnson, and S. Macaulay, “Characterization of carbon nanotube-thermotropic nematic liquid crystal composites,” J. Phys. D 41, 125106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fox, D. W.

Gangloff, L.

W. I. Milne, K. B. K. Teo, M. Chhowalla, G. A. J. Amaratunga, S. B. Lee, D. G. Hasko, H. Ahmed, O. Groening, P. Legagneux, L. Gangloff, J. P. Schnell, G. Pirio, D. Pribat, M. Castignolles, A. Loiseau, V. Semet, and V. T. Binh, “Electrical and field emission investigation of individual carbon nanotubes from plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 12, 422-428 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Geng, J.

O. Trushkevych, N. Collings, T. Hasan, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, W. I. Milne, J. Geng, B. F. G. Johnson, and S. Macaulay, “Characterization of carbon nanotube-thermotropic nematic liquid crystal composites,” J. Phys. D 41, 125106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Groening, O.

W. I. Milne, K. B. K. Teo, M. Chhowalla, G. A. J. Amaratunga, S. B. Lee, D. G. Hasko, H. Ahmed, O. Groening, P. Legagneux, L. Gangloff, J. P. Schnell, G. Pirio, D. Pribat, M. Castignolles, A. Loiseau, V. Semet, and V. T. Binh, “Electrical and field emission investigation of individual carbon nanotubes from plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 12, 422-428 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

O. Trushkevych, N. Collings, T. Hasan, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, W. I. Milne, J. Geng, B. F. G. Johnson, and S. Macaulay, “Characterization of carbon nanotube-thermotropic nematic liquid crystal composites,” J. Phys. D 41, 125106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hasko, D. G.

W. I. Milne, K. B. K. Teo, M. Chhowalla, G. A. J. Amaratunga, S. B. Lee, D. G. Hasko, H. Ahmed, O. Groening, P. Legagneux, L. Gangloff, J. P. Schnell, G. Pirio, D. Pribat, M. Castignolles, A. Loiseau, V. Semet, and V. T. Binh, “Electrical and field emission investigation of individual carbon nanotubes from plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 12, 422-428 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hess, L. D.

Hsieh, C. T.

Huang, C. Y.

Huang, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Huang, Y.-G. Lin, and Y.-J. Huang, “Switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal cell doped with carbon nanotubes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6407-6409 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.-J.

C.-Y. Huang, Y.-G. Lin, and Y.-J. Huang, “Switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal cell doped with carbon nanotubes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6407-6409 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ichimura, K.

C. Ruslim and K. Ichimura, “Photocontrolled alignment of chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 13, 641-644(2001).
[CrossRef]

Ina, H.

Jeong, K.-U.

Jeong, S. H.

Jeong, S. J.

Jhuang, W. Y.

Johnson, B. F. G.

O. Trushkevych, N. Collings, T. Hasan, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, W. I. Milne, J. Geng, B. F. G. Johnson, and S. Macaulay, “Characterization of carbon nanotube-thermotropic nematic liquid crystal composites,” J. Phys. D 41, 125106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, S.

Lee, S. B.

W. I. Milne, K. B. K. Teo, M. Chhowalla, G. A. J. Amaratunga, S. B. Lee, D. G. Hasko, H. Ahmed, O. Groening, P. Legagneux, L. Gangloff, J. P. Schnell, G. Pirio, D. Pribat, M. Castignolles, A. Loiseau, V. Semet, and V. T. Binh, “Electrical and field emission investigation of individual carbon nanotubes from plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 12, 422-428 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

Lee, W.

W. Lee, C.-Y. Wang, and Y.-C. Shih, “Effects of carbon nanosolids on the electro-optical properties of a twisted nematic liquid-crystal host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 513 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

Legagneux, P.

W. I. Milne, K. B. K. Teo, M. Chhowalla, G. A. J. Amaratunga, S. B. Lee, D. G. Hasko, H. Ahmed, O. Groening, P. Legagneux, L. Gangloff, J. P. Schnell, G. Pirio, D. Pribat, M. Castignolles, A. Loiseau, V. Semet, and V. T. Binh, “Electrical and field emission investigation of individual carbon nanotubes from plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 12, 422-428 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-G.

C.-Y. Huang, Y.-G. Lin, and Y.-J. Huang, “Switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal cell doped with carbon nanotubes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6407-6409 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Loiseau, A.

W. I. Milne, K. B. K. Teo, M. Chhowalla, G. A. J. Amaratunga, S. B. Lee, D. G. Hasko, H. Ahmed, O. Groening, P. Legagneux, L. Gangloff, J. P. Schnell, G. Pirio, D. Pribat, M. Castignolles, A. Loiseau, V. Semet, and V. T. Binh, “Electrical and field emission investigation of individual carbon nanotubes from plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 12, 422-428 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, R.

Lynch, M. D.

M. D. Lynch and D. L. Patrick, “Organizing carbon nanotubes with liquid crystals,” Nano Lett. 2, 1197-1201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Macaulay, S.

O. Trushkevych, N. Collings, T. Hasan, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, W. I. Milne, J. Geng, B. F. G. Johnson, and S. Macaulay, “Characterization of carbon nanotube-thermotropic nematic liquid crystal composites,” J. Phys. D 41, 125106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Macy, W. W.

Milne, W. I.

O. Trushkevych, N. Collings, T. Hasan, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, W. I. Milne, J. Geng, B. F. G. Johnson, and S. Macaulay, “Characterization of carbon nanotube-thermotropic nematic liquid crystal composites,” J. Phys. D 41, 125106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Wilkinson, X. Wang, K. B. K. Teo, and W. I. Milne, “Sparse multiwall carbon nanotube electrode arrays for liquid-crystal photonic devices,” Adv. Mater. 20, 363-366(2008).
[CrossRef]

W. I. Milne, K. B. K. Teo, M. Chhowalla, G. A. J. Amaratunga, S. B. Lee, D. G. Hasko, H. Ahmed, O. Groening, P. Legagneux, L. Gangloff, J. P. Schnell, G. Pirio, D. Pribat, M. Castignolles, A. Loiseau, V. Semet, and V. T. Binh, “Electrical and field emission investigation of individual carbon nanotubes from plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 12, 422-428 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, D. L.

M. D. Lynch and D. L. Patrick, “Organizing carbon nanotubes with liquid crystals,” Nano Lett. 2, 1197-1201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pirio, G.

W. I. Milne, K. B. K. Teo, M. Chhowalla, G. A. J. Amaratunga, S. B. Lee, D. G. Hasko, H. Ahmed, O. Groening, P. Legagneux, L. Gangloff, J. P. Schnell, G. Pirio, D. Pribat, M. Castignolles, A. Loiseau, V. Semet, and V. T. Binh, “Electrical and field emission investigation of individual carbon nanotubes from plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 12, 422-428 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pribat, D.

W. I. Milne, K. B. K. Teo, M. Chhowalla, G. A. J. Amaratunga, S. B. Lee, D. G. Hasko, H. Ahmed, O. Groening, P. Legagneux, L. Gangloff, J. P. Schnell, G. Pirio, D. Pribat, M. Castignolles, A. Loiseau, V. Semet, and V. T. Binh, “Electrical and field emission investigation of individual carbon nanotubes from plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 12, 422-428 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ranjith, R.

Ren, H.

Roddier, C.

Roddier, F.

Ruslim, C.

C. Ruslim and K. Ichimura, “Photocontrolled alignment of chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 13, 641-644(2001).
[CrossRef]

Scardaci, V.

O. Trushkevych, N. Collings, T. Hasan, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, W. I. Milne, J. Geng, B. F. G. Johnson, and S. Macaulay, “Characterization of carbon nanotube-thermotropic nematic liquid crystal composites,” J. Phys. D 41, 125106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schnell, J. P.

W. I. Milne, K. B. K. Teo, M. Chhowalla, G. A. J. Amaratunga, S. B. Lee, D. G. Hasko, H. Ahmed, O. Groening, P. Legagneux, L. Gangloff, J. P. Schnell, G. Pirio, D. Pribat, M. Castignolles, A. Loiseau, V. Semet, and V. T. Binh, “Electrical and field emission investigation of individual carbon nanotubes from plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 12, 422-428 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Semet, V.

W. I. Milne, K. B. K. Teo, M. Chhowalla, G. A. J. Amaratunga, S. B. Lee, D. G. Hasko, H. Ahmed, O. Groening, P. Legagneux, L. Gangloff, J. P. Schnell, G. Pirio, D. Pribat, M. Castignolles, A. Loiseau, V. Semet, and V. T. Binh, “Electrical and field emission investigation of individual carbon nanotubes from plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 12, 422-428 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Y.-C.

W. Lee, C.-Y. Wang, and Y.-C. Shih, “Effects of carbon nanosolids on the electro-optical properties of a twisted nematic liquid-crystal host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 513 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, A. K.

Sureshkumar, P.

Takeda, M.

Teo, K. B. K.

T. D. Wilkinson, X. Wang, K. B. K. Teo, and W. I. Milne, “Sparse multiwall carbon nanotube electrode arrays for liquid-crystal photonic devices,” Adv. Mater. 20, 363-366(2008).
[CrossRef]

W. I. Milne, K. B. K. Teo, M. Chhowalla, G. A. J. Amaratunga, S. B. Lee, D. G. Hasko, H. Ahmed, O. Groening, P. Legagneux, L. Gangloff, J. P. Schnell, G. Pirio, D. Pribat, M. Castignolles, A. Loiseau, V. Semet, and V. T. Binh, “Electrical and field emission investigation of individual carbon nanotubes from plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 12, 422-428 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trushkevych, O.

O. Trushkevych, N. Collings, T. Hasan, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, W. I. Milne, J. Geng, B. F. G. Johnson, and S. Macaulay, “Characterization of carbon nanotube-thermotropic nematic liquid crystal composites,” J. Phys. D 41, 125106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.-Y.

W. Lee, C.-Y. Wang, and Y.-C. Shih, “Effects of carbon nanosolids on the electro-optical properties of a twisted nematic liquid-crystal host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 513 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

T. D. Wilkinson, X. Wang, K. B. K. Teo, and W. I. Milne, “Sparse multiwall carbon nanotube electrode arrays for liquid-crystal photonic devices,” Adv. Mater. 20, 363-366(2008).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, T. D.

T. D. Wilkinson, X. Wang, K. B. K. Teo, and W. I. Milne, “Sparse multiwall carbon nanotube electrode arrays for liquid-crystal photonic devices,” Adv. Mater. 20, 363-366(2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Trushkevych, N. Collings, T. Hasan, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, W. I. Milne, J. Geng, B. F. G. Johnson, and S. Macaulay, “Characterization of carbon nanotube-thermotropic nematic liquid crystal composites,” J. Phys. D 41, 125106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, Timothy D.

Wu, B.

Wu, S. T.

Wu, S.-T.

Adv. Mater.

T. D. Wilkinson, X. Wang, K. B. K. Teo, and W. I. Milne, “Sparse multiwall carbon nanotube electrode arrays for liquid-crystal photonic devices,” Adv. Mater. 20, 363-366(2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Ruslim and K. Ichimura, “Photocontrolled alignment of chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 13, 641-644(2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. Lee, C.-Y. Wang, and Y.-C. Shih, “Effects of carbon nanosolids on the electro-optical properties of a twisted nematic liquid-crystal host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 513 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Diamond Relat. Mater.

W. I. Milne, K. B. K. Teo, M. Chhowalla, G. A. J. Amaratunga, S. B. Lee, D. G. Hasko, H. Ahmed, O. Groening, P. Legagneux, L. Gangloff, J. P. Schnell, G. Pirio, D. Pribat, M. Castignolles, A. Loiseau, V. Semet, and V. T. Binh, “Electrical and field emission investigation of individual carbon nanotubes from plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 12, 422-428 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. D

O. Trushkevych, N. Collings, T. Hasan, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, W. I. Milne, J. Geng, B. F. G. Johnson, and S. Macaulay, “Characterization of carbon nanotube-thermotropic nematic liquid crystal composites,” J. Phys. D 41, 125106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

C.-Y. Huang, Y.-G. Lin, and Y.-J. Huang, “Switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal cell doped with carbon nanotubes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6407-6409 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

M. D. Lynch and D. L. Patrick, “Organizing carbon nanotubes with liquid crystals,” Nano Lett. 2, 1197-1201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

CNT and LC based transparent nano photonic device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission electron microscope image of multiwall CNT electrodes on quartz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

T–V characteristic of the transparent nanophotonic device along with an image of the device switching at 0, 3, and 4.5 V rms .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission of the device with respect to angle of rotation at two different voltages: 0 and 3 V rms .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Device switched OFF from 3.12 to 0 V rms and (b) switched ON from 0  to 3.12 V rms (upper trace, optical response; lower trace, electrical signal).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Device switched ON from 4.7 to 8 .5 V rms , with 4.7 V rms as the holding voltage (upper trace, optical response; lower trace, electrical signal).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Response time with respect to different voltage transitions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Contrast ratio of the device with respect to different voltage transitions.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Unwrapped phase of a single lenslet and interference fringes from the nanophotonic device (four lenslets) at (a) 0.98 , (b) 2 , and (c)  2.5 V rms .

Equations (3)

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δ = 2 π d Δ n λ sin 2 θ ,
I = I o exp ( α 0 d ) sin 2 δ 2 ,
f = Γ 2 2 OPD ,

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