A series of waveguides was inscribed in a borosilicate glass (BK7) by an repetition rate femtosecond laser operating with pulse energies from 16 to and focused at various depths within the bulk material. The index modification was measured using a quantitative phase microscopy technique that revealed central index changes ranging from to , leading to waveguides that exhibited propagation losses of at a wavelength of and at a wavelength of with efficient mode matching, less than , to standard optical fibers. Analysis of the experimental data shows that, for a given inscription energy, the index modification has a strong dependence on inscription scanning velocity. At higher energies, the index modification increases with increasing inscription scanning velocity with other fabrication parameters constant.
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