Abstract

We present a method to determine chromophore concentrations, blood saturation, and epidermal thickness of human skin from diffuse reflectance spectra. Human skin was approximated as a plane-parallel slab of variable thickness supported by a semi-infinite layer corresponding to the epidermis and dermis, respectively. The absorption coefficient was modeled as a function of melanin content for the epidermis and blood content and oxygen saturation for the dermis. The scattering coefficient and refractive index of each layer were found in the literature. Diffuse reflectance spectra between 490 and 620 nm were generated using Monte Carlo simulations for a wide range of melanosome volume fraction, epidermal thickness, blood volume, and oxygen saturation. Then, an inverse method was developed to retrieve these physiologically meaningful parameters from the simulated diffuse reflectance spectra of skin. A previously developed accurate and efficient semiempirical model for diffuse reflectance of two layered media was used instead of time-consuming Monte Carlo simulations. All parameters could be estimated with relative root-mean-squared error of less than 5% for (i) melanosome volume fraction ranging from 1% to 8%, (ii) epidermal thickness from 20 to 150 μm, (iii) oxygen saturation from 25% to 100%, (iv) blood volume from 1.2% to 10%, and (v) tissue scattering coefficient typical of human skin in the visible part of the spectrum. A similar approach could be extended to other two-layer absorbing and scattering systems.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

D. Yudovsky, A. Nouvong, K. Schomacker, and L. Pilon, “Two-layer optical model of skin for early, non-invasive detection of wound development on the diabetic foot,” Proc. SPIE 7555, 755514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

D. J. Faber and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Are quantitative attenuation measurements of blood by optical coherence tomography feasible?,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1435-1437 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Mantis and G. Zonios, “Simple two-layer reflectance model for biological tissue applications,” Appl. Opt. 48, 3490-3496(2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Yudovsky and L. Pilon, “Simple and accurate expressions for diffuse reflectance of semi-infinite and two-layer absorbing and scattering media,” Appl. Opt. 48, 6670-6683 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Nouvong, B. Hoogwerf, E. Mohler, B. Davis, A. Tajaddini, and E. Medenilla, “Evaluation of diabetic foot ulcer healing with hyperspectral imaging of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin,” Diabetes Care 32, 2056-2061 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Guastalla, V. I. Guerci, A. Fabretto, F. Faletra, D. L. Grasso, E. Zocconi, D. Stefanidou, P. D'Adamo, L. Ronfani, M. Montico, M. Morgutti, and P. Gasparini, “Detection of epidermal thickening in GJB2 carriers with epidermal US,” Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 251, 280-286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

H. J. Yoon, D. H. Lee, S. O. Kim, K. C. Park, and S. W. Youn, “Acne erythema improvement by long-pulsed 595 nm pulsed-dye laser treatment: A pilot study,” J. Derm. Treat. 19, 38-44(2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Functional brain imaging by multi-wavelength time-resolved near infrared spectroscopy,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 16, 131-135 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, “Melanin absorption spectroscopy: new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014017 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Kuebler, “How NIR is the future in blood flow monitoring?,” J. Appl. Physiol. 104, 905-906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Tsumura, R. Usuba, K. Takase, T. Nakaguchi, N. Ojima, N. Komeda, and Y. Miyake, “Image-based control of skin translucency,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6543-6549 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Tsumura, D. Kawazoe, T. Nakaguchi, N. Ojima, and Y. Miyake, “Regression-based model of skin diffuse reflectance for skin color analysis,” Opt. Rev. 15, 292-294 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

A. Vogel, V. V. Chernomordik, J. D. Riley, M. Hassan, F. Amyot, B. Dasgeb, S. G. Demos, R. Pursley, R. F. Little, R. Yarchoan, T. Tao, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Using noninvasive multispectral imaging to quantitatively assess tissue vasculature,” J Biomed. Opt. 12, 051604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Khaodhiar, T. Dinh, K. T. Schomacker, S. V. Panasyuk, J. E. Freeman, R. Lew, T. Vo, A. A. Panasyuk, C. Lima, J. M. GiuriniT. E. Lyons, and A. Veves, “The use of medical hyperspectral technology to evaluate microcirculatory changes in diabetic foot ulcers and to predict clinical outcomes,” Diabetes Care 30, 903-910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

L. Kocsis, P. Herman, and A. Eke, “The modified Beer-Lambert law revisited,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, N91-N98 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Gambichler, J. Huyn, N. S. Tomi, G. Moussa, C. Moll, A. Sommer, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “A comparative pilot study on ultraviolet-induced skin changes assessed by noninvasive imaging techniques in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82, 1103-1107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Gambichler, R. Matip, G. Moussa, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “In vivo data of epidermal thickness evaluated by optical coherence tomography: effects of age, gender, skin type, and anatomic site,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 44, 145-152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Katika and L. Pilon, “Steady-state directional diffuse reflectance and fluorescence of human skin,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4174-4183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Tsumura, T. Nakaguchi, N. Ojima, K. Takase, S. Okaguchi, K. Hori, and Y. Miyake, “Image-based control of skin melanin texture,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6626-6633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. G. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Toward assessment of blood oxygen saturation by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1015-1017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm,” J. Phys. D 38, 2543-2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Greenman, S. Panasyuk, X. Wang, T. E. Lyons, T. Dinh, L. Longoria, J. M. Giurini, J. Freeman, L. Khaodhiar, and A. Veves, “Early changes in the skin microcirculation and muscle metabolism of the diabetic foot,” Lancet 366, 1711-1717(2005).
[CrossRef]

R. L. P. van Veen, A. Amelink, M. Menke-Pluymers, C. van der Pol, and H. Sterenborg, “Optical biopsy of breast tissue using differential path-length spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2573-2581 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. L. P. van Veen, A. Amelink, M. Menke-Pluymers, C. van der Pol, and H. Sterenborg, “Optical biopsy of breast tissue using differential path-length spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2573-2581 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, “Hemoglobin oxygen saturations in phantoms and in vivo from measurements of steady-state diffuse reflectance at a single, short source-detector separation,” Med. Phys. 31, 1949-1959 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Sassaroli and S. Fantini, “Comment on the modified Beer-Lambert law for scattering media,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49, N255-N257 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511-522 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

T. Kono, A. R. Erçöçen, H. Nakazawa, T. Honda, N. Hayashi, and M. Nozaki, “The flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser (585 nm) treatment of hypertrophic scars in Asians,” Ann. Plast. Surg. 51, 366-371 (2003).

J. Sandby-Moller, T. Poulsen, and H. C. Wulf, “Epidermal thickness at different body sites: relationship to age, gender, pigmentation, blood content, skin type and smoking habits,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 83, 410-413 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Doi and S. Tominaga, “Spectral estimation of human skin color using the Kubelka-Munk theory,” Proc. SPIE 5008, 221-228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

Y. Lee and K. Hwang, “Skin thickness of Korean adults,” Surg. Radiol. Anat. 24, 183-189 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hunter, M. S. Patterson, T. J. Farrell, and J. E. Hayward, “Haemoglobin oxygenation of a two-layer tissue-simulating phantom from time-resolved reflectance: effect of top layer thickness,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 193-208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Zuzak, M. D. Schaeberle, E. N. Lewis, and I. W. Levin, “Visible reflectance hyperspectral imaging: characterization of a noninvasive, in-vivo system for determining tissue perfusion,” Anal. Chem. 74, 2021-2028 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

E. Angelopoulou, “Understanding the color of human skin,” Proc. SPIE 4299, 243-251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Meglinski and S. J. Matcher, “Modeling of skin reflectance spectra,” Proc. SPIE , 4241, 78-87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

P. Clarys, K. Alewaeters, R. Lambrecht, and A. O. Barel, “Skin color measurements: comparison between three instruments: the Chromameter, the DermaSpectrometer and the Mexameter,” Skin Res. Technol. 6, 230-238 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Dwyer, G. Prota, L. Blizzard, R. Ashbolt, and M. R. Vincensi, “Melanin density and melanin type predict melanocytic naevi in 19-20 year olds of northern European ancestry,” Melanoma research 10, 387-394 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (5)

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 967-982 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Shchyogolev, “Inverse problems of spectroturbidimetry of biological disperse systems: an overview,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 490-503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 24, 133-141 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Boulton, P. Meneses, and W. J. Ennis, “Diabetic foot ulcers: a framework for prevention and care,” Wound Repair Regen. 7, 7-16 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Tsumura, H. Haneishi, and Y. Miyake, “Independent-component analysis of skin color image,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2169-2176 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

1997 (3)

J. Lock-Andersen, P. Therkildsen, O. F. de Fine, M. Gniadecka, K. Dahlstrøm, T. Poulsen, and H. C. Wulf, “Epidermal thickness, skin pigmentation and constitutive photosensitivity,” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 13, 153-158(1997).

A. R. Young, “Chromophores in human skin,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 789-802 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Mourant, T. Fuselier, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, and I. J. Bigio, “Predictions and measurements of scattering and absorption over broad wavelength ranges in tissue phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 36, 949-957 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

C. Harle-Bachor and P. Boukamp, “Telomerase activity in the regenerative basal layer of the epidermis in human skin and in immortal and carcinoma-derived skin keratinocytes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 6476-6481 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Gardner, S. L. Jacques, and A. J. Welch, “Light transport in tissue: accurate expressions for one-dimensional fluence rate and escape function based upon Monte Carlo simulation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 129-138 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

J. S. Vande Berg and R. Rudolph, “Pressure (decubitus) ulcer: variation in histopathology--a light and electron microscope study,” Hum. Pathol. 26, 195-200 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Saidi, S. L. Jacques, and F. K. Tittel, “Mie and Rayleigh modeling of visible-light scattering in neonatal skin,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7410-7418 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, and D. T. Delpy, “The effect of overlying tissue on the spatial sensitivity profile of near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 2093-2108 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms,” Anal. Biochem. 227, 54-68 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

H. Zeng, C. E. MacAulay, B. Palcic, and D. I. McLean, “Monte Carlo modeling of tissue autofluorescence measurement and imaging,” Proc. SPIE 2135, 94-104 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. Zee, and D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859-1876 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, F. Partovi, M. S. Field, and R. P. Rava, “Diffuse reflectance from turbid media: an analytical model of photon migration,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1115-1121 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

S. L. Jacques and D. J. McAuliffe, “The melanosome: threshold temperature for explosive vaporization and internal absorption coefficient during pulsed laser irradiation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 769-775 (1991).

1990 (1)

M. C. Branchet, S. Boisnic, C. Frances, and A. M. Robert, “Skin thickness changes in normal aging skin,” Gerontology (Basel) 36, 28-35 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

M. J. C. Van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. Sterenborg, and W. M. Star, “Skin optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146-1154(1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “Light distributions in artery tissue: Monte Carlo simulations for finite-diameter laser beams,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 148-154(1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, and E. O. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation.,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta Bioenerg. 933, 184-192 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Harris, M. J. Sendak, R. T. Donham, M. Thomas, and D. Duncan, “Absorption characteristics of human fetal hemoglobin at wavelengths used in pulse oximetry,” J. Clin. Monitor. Comput. 4, 175-177 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (3)

M. J. C. van Gemert and W. M. Star, “Relations between the Kubelka-Munk and the transport equation models for anisotropic scattering,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 287-298 (1987).

S. L. Jacques, C. A. Alter, and S. A. Prahl, “Angular dependence of HeNe laser light scattering by human dermis,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 309-334 (1987).

M. J. C. Van Gemert, A. J. Welch, W. M. Star, M. Motamedi, and W. F. Cheong, “Tissue optics for a slab geometry in the diffusion approximation,” Lasers Med. Sci. 2, 295-302 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13-19 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

S. Takatani and M. D. Graham, “Theoretical analysis of diffuse reflectance from a two-layer tissue model,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. bme-26, 656-664 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

D. W. Marquardt, “An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters,” J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 11, 431-441(1963).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

W. F. Southwood, “The thickness of the skin,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 15, 423-429 (1955).
[CrossRef]

1951 (1)

D. E. Barker, “Skin thickness in the human,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 7, 115-116 (1951).
[CrossRef]

1940 (1)

L. G. Henyey and J. L. Greenstein, “Diffuse radiation in the galaxy,” Ann. Astrophys. 93, 70-83 (1940).

Aalders, M. C.

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 967-982 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aalders, M. C. G.

Aarnoudse, J. G.

Alewaeters, K.

P. Clarys, K. Alewaeters, R. Lambrecht, and A. O. Barel, “Skin color measurements: comparison between three instruments: the Chromameter, the DermaSpectrometer and the Mexameter,” Skin Res. Technol. 6, 230-238 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Alter, C. A.

S. L. Jacques, C. A. Alter, and S. A. Prahl, “Angular dependence of HeNe laser light scattering by human dermis,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 309-334 (1987).

Altmeyer, P.

T. Gambichler, R. Matip, G. Moussa, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “In vivo data of epidermal thickness evaluated by optical coherence tomography: effects of age, gender, skin type, and anatomic site,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 44, 145-152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Gambichler, J. Huyn, N. S. Tomi, G. Moussa, C. Moll, A. Sommer, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “A comparative pilot study on ultraviolet-induced skin changes assessed by noninvasive imaging techniques in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82, 1103-1107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Amelink, A.

R. L. P. van Veen, A. Amelink, M. Menke-Pluymers, C. van der Pol, and H. Sterenborg, “Optical biopsy of breast tissue using differential path-length spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2573-2581 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. L. P. van Veen, A. Amelink, M. Menke-Pluymers, C. van der Pol, and H. Sterenborg, “Optical biopsy of breast tissue using differential path-length spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2573-2581 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Amyot, F.

A. Vogel, V. V. Chernomordik, J. D. Riley, M. Hassan, F. Amyot, B. Dasgeb, S. G. Demos, R. Pursley, R. F. Little, R. Yarchoan, T. Tao, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Using noninvasive multispectral imaging to quantitatively assess tissue vasculature,” J Biomed. Opt. 12, 051604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R. R.

R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13-19 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Andersson-Engels, S.

Angelopoulou, E.

E. Angelopoulou, “Understanding the color of human skin,” Proc. SPIE 4299, 243-251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arifler, D.

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511-522 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arridge, S. R.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. Zee, and D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859-1876 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ashbolt, R.

T. Dwyer, G. Prota, L. Blizzard, R. Ashbolt, and M. R. Vincensi, “Melanin density and melanin type predict melanocytic naevi in 19-20 year olds of northern European ancestry,” Melanoma research 10, 387-394 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Dwyer, H. K. Muller, L. Blizzard, R. Ashbolt, and G. Phillips, “The use of spectrophotometry to estimate melanin density in Caucasians,” Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 7, 203-206(1998).

Baranoski, G. V. G.

A. Krishnaswamy and G. V. G. Baranoski, “A biophysically-based spectral model of light interaction with human skin,” in Computer Graphics Forum (Blackwell, 2004), Vol. 23, pp. 331-340.

Barel, A. O.

P. Clarys, K. Alewaeters, R. Lambrecht, and A. O. Barel, “Skin color measurements: comparison between three instruments: the Chromameter, the DermaSpectrometer and the Mexameter,” Skin Res. Technol. 6, 230-238 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barker, D. E.

D. E. Barker, “Skin thickness in the human,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 7, 115-116 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. K.

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 24, 133-141 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bashkatov, A. N.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm,” J. Phys. D 38, 2543-2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bassukas, I.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, “Melanin absorption spectroscopy: new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014017 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Battarbee, H.

A. N. Yaroslavsky, A. V. Priezzhev, J. R. I. V. Yaroslavsky, and H. Battarbee, “Optics of blood,” in Handbook of Optical Biomedical Diagnostics, V.V.Tuchin, ed. (SPIE, 2002), pp. 169-216.

Bigio, I. J.

Blizzard, L.

T. Dwyer, G. Prota, L. Blizzard, R. Ashbolt, and M. R. Vincensi, “Melanin density and melanin type predict melanocytic naevi in 19-20 year olds of northern European ancestry,” Melanoma research 10, 387-394 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Dwyer, H. K. Muller, L. Blizzard, R. Ashbolt, and G. Phillips, “The use of spectrophotometry to estimate melanin density in Caucasians,” Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 7, 203-206(1998).

Boisnic, S.

M. C. Branchet, S. Boisnic, C. Frances, and A. M. Robert, “Skin thickness changes in normal aging skin,” Gerontology (Basel) 36, 28-35 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Boukamp, P.

C. Harle-Bachor and P. Boukamp, “Telomerase activity in the regenerative basal layer of the epidermis in human skin and in immortal and carcinoma-derived skin keratinocytes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 6476-6481 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boulton, A. J.

A. J. Boulton, P. Meneses, and W. J. Ennis, “Diabetic foot ulcers: a framework for prevention and care,” Wound Repair Regen. 7, 7-16 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, J.

Branchet, M. C.

M. C. Branchet, S. Boisnic, C. Frances, and A. M. Robert, “Skin thickness changes in normal aging skin,” Gerontology (Basel) 36, 28-35 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chan, E. K.

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 24, 133-141 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. K.

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511-522 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, W. F.

M. J. C. Van Gemert, A. J. Welch, W. M. Star, M. Motamedi, and W. F. Cheong, “Tissue optics for a slab geometry in the diffusion approximation,” Lasers Med. Sci. 2, 295-302 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chernomordik, V. V.

A. Vogel, V. V. Chernomordik, J. D. Riley, M. Hassan, F. Amyot, B. Dasgeb, S. G. Demos, R. Pursley, R. F. Little, R. Yarchoan, T. Tao, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Using noninvasive multispectral imaging to quantitatively assess tissue vasculature,” J Biomed. Opt. 12, 051604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Clarys, P.

P. Clarys, K. Alewaeters, R. Lambrecht, and A. O. Barel, “Skin color measurements: comparison between three instruments: the Chromameter, the DermaSpectrometer and the Mexameter,” Skin Res. Technol. 6, 230-238 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Contini, D.

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Functional brain imaging by multi-wavelength time-resolved near infrared spectroscopy,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 16, 131-135 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, C. E.

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms,” Anal. Biochem. 227, 54-68 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cope, M.

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms,” Anal. Biochem. 227, 54-68 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. Zee, and D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859-1876 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, and E. O. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation.,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta Bioenerg. 933, 184-192 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cross, F. W.

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 967-982 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cubeddu, R.

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Functional brain imaging by multi-wavelength time-resolved near infrared spectroscopy,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 16, 131-135 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D'Adamo, P.

P. P. Guastalla, V. I. Guerci, A. Fabretto, F. Faletra, D. L. Grasso, E. Zocconi, D. Stefanidou, P. D'Adamo, L. Ronfani, M. Montico, M. Morgutti, and P. Gasparini, “Detection of epidermal thickening in GJB2 carriers with epidermal US,” Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 251, 280-286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dahlstrøm, K.

J. Lock-Andersen, P. Therkildsen, O. F. de Fine, M. Gniadecka, K. Dahlstrøm, T. Poulsen, and H. C. Wulf, “Epidermal thickness, skin pigmentation and constitutive photosensitivity,” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 13, 153-158(1997).

Dasgeb, B.

A. Vogel, V. V. Chernomordik, J. D. Riley, M. Hassan, F. Amyot, B. Dasgeb, S. G. Demos, R. Pursley, R. F. Little, R. Yarchoan, T. Tao, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Using noninvasive multispectral imaging to quantitatively assess tissue vasculature,” J Biomed. Opt. 12, 051604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davis, B.

A. Nouvong, B. Hoogwerf, E. Mohler, B. Davis, A. Tajaddini, and E. Medenilla, “Evaluation of diabetic foot ulcer healing with hyperspectral imaging of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin,” Diabetes Care 32, 2056-2061 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Fine, O. F.

J. Lock-Andersen, P. Therkildsen, O. F. de Fine, M. Gniadecka, K. Dahlstrøm, T. Poulsen, and H. C. Wulf, “Epidermal thickness, skin pigmentation and constitutive photosensitivity,” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 13, 153-158(1997).

de Mul, F. F. M.

Delpy, D. T.

E. Okada, M. Firbank, and D. T. Delpy, “The effect of overlying tissue on the spatial sensitivity profile of near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 2093-2108 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms,” Anal. Biochem. 227, 54-68 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. Zee, and D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859-1876 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, and E. O. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation.,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta Bioenerg. 933, 184-192 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Demos, S. G.

A. Vogel, V. V. Chernomordik, J. D. Riley, M. Hassan, F. Amyot, B. Dasgeb, S. G. Demos, R. Pursley, R. F. Little, R. Yarchoan, T. Tao, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Using noninvasive multispectral imaging to quantitatively assess tissue vasculature,” J Biomed. Opt. 12, 051604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dimou, A.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, “Melanin absorption spectroscopy: new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014017 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dinh, T.

L. Khaodhiar, T. Dinh, K. T. Schomacker, S. V. Panasyuk, J. E. Freeman, R. Lew, T. Vo, A. A. Panasyuk, C. Lima, J. M. GiuriniT. E. Lyons, and A. Veves, “The use of medical hyperspectral technology to evaluate microcirculatory changes in diabetic foot ulcers and to predict clinical outcomes,” Diabetes Care 30, 903-910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Greenman, S. Panasyuk, X. Wang, T. E. Lyons, T. Dinh, L. Longoria, J. M. Giurini, J. Freeman, L. Khaodhiar, and A. Veves, “Early changes in the skin microcirculation and muscle metabolism of the diabetic foot,” Lancet 366, 1711-1717(2005).
[CrossRef]

Doi, M.

M. Doi and S. Tominaga, “Spectral estimation of human skin color using the Kubelka-Munk theory,” Proc. SPIE 5008, 221-228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Donham, R. T.

A. P. Harris, M. J. Sendak, R. T. Donham, M. Thomas, and D. Duncan, “Absorption characteristics of human fetal hemoglobin at wavelengths used in pulse oximetry,” J. Clin. Monitor. Comput. 4, 175-177 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Doornbos, R. M. P.

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 967-982 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Drezek, R.

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511-522 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, D.

A. P. Harris, M. J. Sendak, R. T. Donham, M. Thomas, and D. Duncan, “Absorption characteristics of human fetal hemoglobin at wavelengths used in pulse oximetry,” J. Clin. Monitor. Comput. 4, 175-177 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dwyer, T.

T. Dwyer, G. Prota, L. Blizzard, R. Ashbolt, and M. R. Vincensi, “Melanin density and melanin type predict melanocytic naevi in 19-20 year olds of northern European ancestry,” Melanoma research 10, 387-394 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Dwyer, H. K. Muller, L. Blizzard, R. Ashbolt, and G. Phillips, “The use of spectrophotometry to estimate melanin density in Caucasians,” Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 7, 203-206(1998).

Eick, A. A.

Eke, A.

L. Kocsis, P. Herman, and A. Eke, “The modified Beer-Lambert law revisited,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, N91-N98 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elwell, C. E.

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms,” Anal. Biochem. 227, 54-68 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ennis, W. J.

A. J. Boulton, P. Meneses, and W. J. Ennis, “Diabetic foot ulcers: a framework for prevention and care,” Wound Repair Regen. 7, 7-16 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Erçöçen, A. R.

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Essenpreis, M.

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