Abstract

We present and characterize a sequential angular compounding method for reducing speckle contrast in optical coherence tomography images of paint layers. The results are compared with postprocessing methods, and we show that the compounding technique can improve the speckle contrast ratio in B-scans by better than a factor of 2 in exchange for a negligible loss of resolution. As a result, image aesthetics are improved, thin layers become more distinct, and edge-detection algorithms work more efficiently. The effect of varying the angular scan size and number of averages is investigated, and it is found that a degree of statistical correlation between speckle patterns exists, even for relatively large changes in angle of incidence. Angular compounding is also performed on three-dimensional data sets and compared with a method whereby en face slices are averaged over depth.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography-principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Liang, M. Cid, R. Cucu, G. Dobre, A. Podoleanu, J. Pedro, and D. Saunders, “En-face optical coherence tomography--a novel application of non-invasive imaging to art conservation,” Opt. Express 13, 6133-6144 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Targowski, M. Gora, and M. Wojtkowski, “Optical coherence tomography for artwork diagnostics,” Laser Chem. 2006, 1-11(2006).
  5. D. C. Adler, J. Stenger, I. Gorczynska, H. Lie, T. Hensick, R. Spronk, S. Wolohojian, N. Khandekar, J. Y. Jiang, and S. Barry, “Comparison of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and high resolution photography for art conservation studies,” Opt. Express 15, 15972-15986 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Spring, H. Liang, B. Peric, D. Saunders, and A. Podoleanu, “Optical coherence tomography--a tool for high resolution non-invasive 3D-imaging of the subsurface structure of paintings,” ICOM Committee For Conservation Newsletter 2008-4, 633-640 (2008).
  7. M. Gora, P. Targowski, A. Rycyk, and J. Marczak, “Varnish ablation control by optical coherence tomography,” Laser Chem. 2006, 1-7 (2006).
  8. E. Kwiatkowska, J. Marczak, R. Ostrowski, W. Skrzeczanowski, M. Sylwestrzak, M. Iwanicka, and P. Targowski, “Absolute LIBS stratigraphy with optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 7391, 73910F (2009).
  9. P. Targowski, M. Gora, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, B. Rouba, T. Lekawa-Wyslouch, and L. Tyminska-Widmer, “Optical coherence tomography for tracking canvas deformation,” Laser Chem. 2006, 1-8 (2006).
  10. J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Bashkansky and J. Reintjes, “Statistics and reduction of speckle in optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 25, 545-547 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Karamata, K. Hassler, M. Laubscher, and T. Lasser, “Speckle statistics in optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 593-596 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, developments and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D 38, 2519-2535 (2005).
  14. A. Labeyrie, “Attainment of diffraction limited resolution in large telescopes by Fourier analyzing speckle patterns in star images,” in Selected Papers on Interferometry (SPIE, 1991), Vol. MS-28, pp. 427-429.
  15. T. R. Hillman, S. G. Adie, V. Seemann, J. J. Armstrong, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Correlation of static speckle with sample properties in optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 31, 190-192 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, W. Y. Oh, S. M. Motaghiannezam, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Angle-resolved optical coherence tomography with sequential angular selectivity for speckle reduction,” Opt. Express 15, 6200-6209 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Speckle reduction in OCT using massively-parallel detection and frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express 14, 4736-4745(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Rogowska and M. E. Brezinski, “Image processing techniques for noise removal, enhancement and segmentation of cartilage OCT images,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 641-656 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, “Optical coherence tomography speckle reduction by a partially spatially coherent source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064034 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. B. Sander, M. Larsen, L. Thrane, J. L. Hougaard, and T. M. Jorgensen, “Enhanced optical coherence tomography imaging by multiple scan averaging,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 89, 207-212 (2005).
  22. J. M. Schmitt, “Array detection for speckle reduction in optical coherence microscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427-1440 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Wang and A. M. Rollins, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography using angular compounding by B-scan Doppler-shift encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030512 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. K. Wang and Z. Ma, “A practical approach to eliminate autocorrelation artefacts for volume-rate spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3231-3240(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. Dorrer, N. Belabas, J. P. Likforman, and M. Joffre, “Spectral resolution and sampling issues in Fourier-transform spectral interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1795-1802 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. Thevenaz, U. E. Ruttimann, and M. Unser, “A pyramid approach to subpixel registration based on intensity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 27-41 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. Liang, B. Peric, M. Spring, D. Saunders, M. Hughes, and A. Podoleanu, “Non-invasive imaging of subsurface paint layers with optical coherence tomography,” presented at Conservation Science 2007, Milan, Italy, 10-11 May 2007.

2009 (2)

E. Kwiatkowska, J. Marczak, R. Ostrowski, W. Skrzeczanowski, M. Sylwestrzak, M. Iwanicka, and P. Targowski, “Absolute LIBS stratigraphy with optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 7391, 73910F (2009).

H. Wang and A. M. Rollins, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography using angular compounding by B-scan Doppler-shift encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. Spring, H. Liang, B. Peric, D. Saunders, and A. Podoleanu, “Optical coherence tomography--a tool for high resolution non-invasive 3D-imaging of the subsurface structure of paintings,” ICOM Committee For Conservation Newsletter 2008-4, 633-640 (2008).

2007 (2)

2006 (6)

T. R. Hillman, S. G. Adie, V. Seemann, J. J. Armstrong, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Correlation of static speckle with sample properties in optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 31, 190-192 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Speckle reduction in OCT using massively-parallel detection and frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express 14, 4736-4745(2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Targowski, M. Gora, and M. Wojtkowski, “Optical coherence tomography for artwork diagnostics,” Laser Chem. 2006, 1-11(2006).

M. Gora, P. Targowski, A. Rycyk, and J. Marczak, “Varnish ablation control by optical coherence tomography,” Laser Chem. 2006, 1-7 (2006).

P. Targowski, M. Gora, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, B. Rouba, T. Lekawa-Wyslouch, and L. Tyminska-Widmer, “Optical coherence tomography for tracking canvas deformation,” Laser Chem. 2006, 1-8 (2006).

R. K. Wang and Z. Ma, “A practical approach to eliminate autocorrelation artefacts for volume-rate spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3231-3240(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, “Optical coherence tomography speckle reduction by a partially spatially coherent source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Sander, M. Larsen, L. Thrane, J. L. Hougaard, and T. M. Jorgensen, “Enhanced optical coherence tomography imaging by multiple scan averaging,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 89, 207-212 (2005).

B. Karamata, K. Hassler, M. Laubscher, and T. Lasser, “Speckle statistics in optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 593-596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Liang, M. Cid, R. Cucu, G. Dobre, A. Podoleanu, J. Pedro, and D. Saunders, “En-face optical coherence tomography--a novel application of non-invasive imaging to art conservation,” Opt. Express 13, 6133-6144 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, developments and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D 38, 2519-2535 (2005).

2003 (2)

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography-principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Rogowska and M. E. Brezinski, “Image processing techniques for noise removal, enhancement and segmentation of cartilage OCT images,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 641-656 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. Thevenaz, U. E. Ruttimann, and M. Unser, “A pyramid approach to subpixel registration based on intensity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 27-41 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. M. Schmitt, “Array detection for speckle reduction in optical coherence microscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427-1440 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Adie, S. G.

Adler, D. C.

Armstrong, J. J.

Bajraszewski, T.

P. Targowski, M. Gora, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, B. Rouba, T. Lekawa-Wyslouch, and L. Tyminska-Widmer, “Optical coherence tomography for tracking canvas deformation,” Laser Chem. 2006, 1-8 (2006).

Barry, S.

Bashkansky, M.

Belabas, N.

Bouma, B. E.

Brezinski, M. E.

J. Rogowska and M. E. Brezinski, “Image processing techniques for noise removal, enhancement and segmentation of cartilage OCT images,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 641-656 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cid, M.

Cucu, R.

Desjardins, A. E.

Dobre, G.

Dorrer, C.

Drexler, W.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography-principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography-principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gora, M.

P. Targowski, M. Gora, and M. Wojtkowski, “Optical coherence tomography for artwork diagnostics,” Laser Chem. 2006, 1-11(2006).

M. Gora, P. Targowski, A. Rycyk, and J. Marczak, “Varnish ablation control by optical coherence tomography,” Laser Chem. 2006, 1-7 (2006).

P. Targowski, M. Gora, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, B. Rouba, T. Lekawa-Wyslouch, and L. Tyminska-Widmer, “Optical coherence tomography for tracking canvas deformation,” Laser Chem. 2006, 1-8 (2006).

Gorczynska, I.

Götzinger, E.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hassler, K.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hensick, T.

Hillman, T. R.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography-principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hougaard, J. L.

B. Sander, M. Larsen, L. Thrane, J. L. Hougaard, and T. M. Jorgensen, “Enhanced optical coherence tomography imaging by multiple scan averaging,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 89, 207-212 (2005).

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, M.

H. Liang, B. Peric, M. Spring, D. Saunders, M. Hughes, and A. Podoleanu, “Non-invasive imaging of subsurface paint layers with optical coherence tomography,” presented at Conservation Science 2007, Milan, Italy, 10-11 May 2007.

Iwanicka, M.

E. Kwiatkowska, J. Marczak, R. Ostrowski, W. Skrzeczanowski, M. Sylwestrzak, M. Iwanicka, and P. Targowski, “Absolute LIBS stratigraphy with optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 7391, 73910F (2009).

Jacques, S. L.

Jiang, J. Y.

Joffre, M.

Jorgensen, T. M.

B. Sander, M. Larsen, L. Thrane, J. L. Hougaard, and T. M. Jorgensen, “Enhanced optical coherence tomography imaging by multiple scan averaging,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 89, 207-212 (2005).

Karamata, B.

Khandekar, N.

Kim, E.

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, “Optical coherence tomography speckle reduction by a partially spatially coherent source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, “Optical coherence tomography speckle reduction by a partially spatially coherent source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kwiatkowska, E.

E. Kwiatkowska, J. Marczak, R. Ostrowski, W. Skrzeczanowski, M. Sylwestrzak, M. Iwanicka, and P. Targowski, “Absolute LIBS stratigraphy with optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 7391, 73910F (2009).

Labeyrie, A.

A. Labeyrie, “Attainment of diffraction limited resolution in large telescopes by Fourier analyzing speckle patterns in star images,” in Selected Papers on Interferometry (SPIE, 1991), Vol. MS-28, pp. 427-429.

Larsen, M.

B. Sander, M. Larsen, L. Thrane, J. L. Hougaard, and T. M. Jorgensen, “Enhanced optical coherence tomography imaging by multiple scan averaging,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 89, 207-212 (2005).

Lasser, T.

B. Karamata, K. Hassler, M. Laubscher, and T. Lasser, “Speckle statistics in optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 593-596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography-principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laubscher, M.

Leitgeb, R.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lekawa-Wyslouch, T.

P. Targowski, M. Gora, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, B. Rouba, T. Lekawa-Wyslouch, and L. Tyminska-Widmer, “Optical coherence tomography for tracking canvas deformation,” Laser Chem. 2006, 1-8 (2006).

Liang, H.

M. Spring, H. Liang, B. Peric, D. Saunders, and A. Podoleanu, “Optical coherence tomography--a tool for high resolution non-invasive 3D-imaging of the subsurface structure of paintings,” ICOM Committee For Conservation Newsletter 2008-4, 633-640 (2008).

H. Liang, M. Cid, R. Cucu, G. Dobre, A. Podoleanu, J. Pedro, and D. Saunders, “En-face optical coherence tomography--a novel application of non-invasive imaging to art conservation,” Opt. Express 13, 6133-6144 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Liang, B. Peric, M. Spring, D. Saunders, M. Hughes, and A. Podoleanu, “Non-invasive imaging of subsurface paint layers with optical coherence tomography,” presented at Conservation Science 2007, Milan, Italy, 10-11 May 2007.

Lie, H.

Likforman, J. P.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Z.

R. K. Wang and Z. Ma, “A practical approach to eliminate autocorrelation artefacts for volume-rate spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3231-3240(2006).
[CrossRef]

Marczak, J.

E. Kwiatkowska, J. Marczak, R. Ostrowski, W. Skrzeczanowski, M. Sylwestrzak, M. Iwanicka, and P. Targowski, “Absolute LIBS stratigraphy with optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 7391, 73910F (2009).

M. Gora, P. Targowski, A. Rycyk, and J. Marczak, “Varnish ablation control by optical coherence tomography,” Laser Chem. 2006, 1-7 (2006).

Miller, D. T.

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, “Optical coherence tomography speckle reduction by a partially spatially coherent source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Milner, T. E.

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, “Optical coherence tomography speckle reduction by a partially spatially coherent source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Motaghiannezam, S. M.

Oh, J.

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, “Optical coherence tomography speckle reduction by a partially spatially coherent source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S.

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, “Optical coherence tomography speckle reduction by a partially spatially coherent source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oh, W. Y.

Ostrowski, R.

E. Kwiatkowska, J. Marczak, R. Ostrowski, W. Skrzeczanowski, M. Sylwestrzak, M. Iwanicka, and P. Targowski, “Absolute LIBS stratigraphy with optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 7391, 73910F (2009).

Pedro, J.

Peric, B.

M. Spring, H. Liang, B. Peric, D. Saunders, and A. Podoleanu, “Optical coherence tomography--a tool for high resolution non-invasive 3D-imaging of the subsurface structure of paintings,” ICOM Committee For Conservation Newsletter 2008-4, 633-640 (2008).

H. Liang, B. Peric, M. Spring, D. Saunders, M. Hughes, and A. Podoleanu, “Non-invasive imaging of subsurface paint layers with optical coherence tomography,” presented at Conservation Science 2007, Milan, Italy, 10-11 May 2007.

Pircher, M.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Podoleanu, A.

M. Spring, H. Liang, B. Peric, D. Saunders, and A. Podoleanu, “Optical coherence tomography--a tool for high resolution non-invasive 3D-imaging of the subsurface structure of paintings,” ICOM Committee For Conservation Newsletter 2008-4, 633-640 (2008).

H. Liang, M. Cid, R. Cucu, G. Dobre, A. Podoleanu, J. Pedro, and D. Saunders, “En-face optical coherence tomography--a novel application of non-invasive imaging to art conservation,” Opt. Express 13, 6133-6144 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Liang, B. Peric, M. Spring, D. Saunders, M. Hughes, and A. Podoleanu, “Non-invasive imaging of subsurface paint layers with optical coherence tomography,” presented at Conservation Science 2007, Milan, Italy, 10-11 May 2007.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Reintjes, J.

Rogowska, J.

J. Rogowska and M. E. Brezinski, “Image processing techniques for noise removal, enhancement and segmentation of cartilage OCT images,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 641-656 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rollins, A. M.

H. Wang and A. M. Rollins, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography using angular compounding by B-scan Doppler-shift encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rouba, B.

P. Targowski, M. Gora, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, B. Rouba, T. Lekawa-Wyslouch, and L. Tyminska-Widmer, “Optical coherence tomography for tracking canvas deformation,” Laser Chem. 2006, 1-8 (2006).

Ruttimann, U. E.

P. Thevenaz, U. E. Ruttimann, and M. Unser, “A pyramid approach to subpixel registration based on intensity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 27-41 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rycyk, A.

M. Gora, P. Targowski, A. Rycyk, and J. Marczak, “Varnish ablation control by optical coherence tomography,” Laser Chem. 2006, 1-7 (2006).

Sampson, D. D.

Sander, B.

B. Sander, M. Larsen, L. Thrane, J. L. Hougaard, and T. M. Jorgensen, “Enhanced optical coherence tomography imaging by multiple scan averaging,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 89, 207-212 (2005).

Saunders, D.

M. Spring, H. Liang, B. Peric, D. Saunders, and A. Podoleanu, “Optical coherence tomography--a tool for high resolution non-invasive 3D-imaging of the subsurface structure of paintings,” ICOM Committee For Conservation Newsletter 2008-4, 633-640 (2008).

H. Liang, M. Cid, R. Cucu, G. Dobre, A. Podoleanu, J. Pedro, and D. Saunders, “En-face optical coherence tomography--a novel application of non-invasive imaging to art conservation,” Opt. Express 13, 6133-6144 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Liang, B. Peric, M. Spring, D. Saunders, M. Hughes, and A. Podoleanu, “Non-invasive imaging of subsurface paint layers with optical coherence tomography,” presented at Conservation Science 2007, Milan, Italy, 10-11 May 2007.

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, “Array detection for speckle reduction in optical coherence microscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427-1440 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Seemann, V.

Skrzeczanowski, W.

E. Kwiatkowska, J. Marczak, R. Ostrowski, W. Skrzeczanowski, M. Sylwestrzak, M. Iwanicka, and P. Targowski, “Absolute LIBS stratigraphy with optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 7391, 73910F (2009).

Spring, M.

M. Spring, H. Liang, B. Peric, D. Saunders, and A. Podoleanu, “Optical coherence tomography--a tool for high resolution non-invasive 3D-imaging of the subsurface structure of paintings,” ICOM Committee For Conservation Newsletter 2008-4, 633-640 (2008).

H. Liang, B. Peric, M. Spring, D. Saunders, M. Hughes, and A. Podoleanu, “Non-invasive imaging of subsurface paint layers with optical coherence tomography,” presented at Conservation Science 2007, Milan, Italy, 10-11 May 2007.

Spronk, R.

Stenger, J.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sylwestrzak, M.

E. Kwiatkowska, J. Marczak, R. Ostrowski, W. Skrzeczanowski, M. Sylwestrzak, M. Iwanicka, and P. Targowski, “Absolute LIBS stratigraphy with optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 7391, 73910F (2009).

Szkulmowski, M.

P. Targowski, M. Gora, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, B. Rouba, T. Lekawa-Wyslouch, and L. Tyminska-Widmer, “Optical coherence tomography for tracking canvas deformation,” Laser Chem. 2006, 1-8 (2006).

Targowski, P.

E. Kwiatkowska, J. Marczak, R. Ostrowski, W. Skrzeczanowski, M. Sylwestrzak, M. Iwanicka, and P. Targowski, “Absolute LIBS stratigraphy with optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 7391, 73910F (2009).

P. Targowski, M. Gora, and M. Wojtkowski, “Optical coherence tomography for artwork diagnostics,” Laser Chem. 2006, 1-11(2006).

P. Targowski, M. Gora, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, B. Rouba, T. Lekawa-Wyslouch, and L. Tyminska-Widmer, “Optical coherence tomography for tracking canvas deformation,” Laser Chem. 2006, 1-8 (2006).

M. Gora, P. Targowski, A. Rycyk, and J. Marczak, “Varnish ablation control by optical coherence tomography,” Laser Chem. 2006, 1-7 (2006).

Tearney, G. J.

Thevenaz, P.

P. Thevenaz, U. E. Ruttimann, and M. Unser, “A pyramid approach to subpixel registration based on intensity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 27-41 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thrane, L.

B. Sander, M. Larsen, L. Thrane, J. L. Hougaard, and T. M. Jorgensen, “Enhanced optical coherence tomography imaging by multiple scan averaging,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 89, 207-212 (2005).

Tomlins, P. H.

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, developments and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D 38, 2519-2535 (2005).

Tyminska-Widmer, L.

P. Targowski, M. Gora, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, B. Rouba, T. Lekawa-Wyslouch, and L. Tyminska-Widmer, “Optical coherence tomography for tracking canvas deformation,” Laser Chem. 2006, 1-8 (2006).

Unser, M.

P. Thevenaz, U. E. Ruttimann, and M. Unser, “A pyramid approach to subpixel registration based on intensity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 27-41 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vakoc, B. J.

Wang, H.

H. Wang and A. M. Rollins, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography using angular compounding by B-scan Doppler-shift encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R. K.

R. K. Wang and Z. Ma, “A practical approach to eliminate autocorrelation artefacts for volume-rate spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3231-3240(2006).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, developments and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D 38, 2519-2535 (2005).

Wojtkowski, M.

P. Targowski, M. Gora, and M. Wojtkowski, “Optical coherence tomography for artwork diagnostics,” Laser Chem. 2006, 1-11(2006).

Wolohojian, S.

Xiang, S. H.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yung, K. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

B. Sander, M. Larsen, L. Thrane, J. L. Hougaard, and T. M. Jorgensen, “Enhanced optical coherence tomography imaging by multiple scan averaging,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 89, 207-212 (2005).

ICOM Committee For Conservation Newsletter (1)

M. Spring, H. Liang, B. Peric, D. Saunders, and A. Podoleanu, “Optical coherence tomography--a tool for high resolution non-invasive 3D-imaging of the subsurface structure of paintings,” ICOM Committee For Conservation Newsletter 2008-4, 633-640 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

P. Thevenaz, U. E. Ruttimann, and M. Unser, “A pyramid approach to subpixel registration based on intensity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 27-41 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

H. Wang and A. M. Rollins, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography using angular compounding by B-scan Doppler-shift encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, “Optical coherence tomography speckle reduction by a partially spatially coherent source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, developments and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D 38, 2519-2535 (2005).

Laser Chem. (3)

P. Targowski, M. Gora, and M. Wojtkowski, “Optical coherence tomography for artwork diagnostics,” Laser Chem. 2006, 1-11(2006).

P. Targowski, M. Gora, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, B. Rouba, T. Lekawa-Wyslouch, and L. Tyminska-Widmer, “Optical coherence tomography for tracking canvas deformation,” Laser Chem. 2006, 1-8 (2006).

M. Gora, P. Targowski, A. Rycyk, and J. Marczak, “Varnish ablation control by optical coherence tomography,” Laser Chem. 2006, 1-7 (2006).

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Med. Biol. (3)

J. Rogowska and M. E. Brezinski, “Image processing techniques for noise removal, enhancement and segmentation of cartilage OCT images,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 641-656 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, “Array detection for speckle reduction in optical coherence microscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427-1440 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang and Z. Ma, “A practical approach to eliminate autocorrelation artefacts for volume-rate spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3231-3240(2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

E. Kwiatkowska, J. Marczak, R. Ostrowski, W. Skrzeczanowski, M. Sylwestrzak, M. Iwanicka, and P. Targowski, “Absolute LIBS stratigraphy with optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 7391, 73910F (2009).

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography-principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. Labeyrie, “Attainment of diffraction limited resolution in large telescopes by Fourier analyzing speckle patterns in star images,” in Selected Papers on Interferometry (SPIE, 1991), Vol. MS-28, pp. 427-429.

H. Liang, B. Peric, M. Spring, D. Saunders, M. Hughes, and A. Podoleanu, “Non-invasive imaging of subsurface paint layers with optical coherence tomography,” presented at Conservation Science 2007, Milan, Italy, 10-11 May 2007.

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