Abstract

The absorption spectra of surface-scattered solar radiation were measured from the top of Mount Tsukuba (altitude 833m) in the short wavelength infrared region using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The FTS used in this experiment was the breadboard model of the FTS on the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite, which was launched on 23 January 2009. In situ measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2) from a Cessna airplane was performed simultaneously with the FTS observation. The CO2 column abundances were retrieved from the observed spectra under the assumption of the absence of aerosol. The retrieved CO2 column abundances over a few minutes dispersed within 1%. The remaining bias was considered to be caused by the no-aerosol assumption.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

H. Matsueda, T. Machida, Y. Sawa, Y. Nakagawa, K. Hirotani, H. Ikeda, N. Kondo, and K. Goto, “Evaluation of atmospheric CO2 measurements from new flask air sampling of JAL airliner observations,” Pap. Met. Geophys. 59, 1-17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Connor, H. Boesch, G. Toon, B. Sen, C. Miller, and D. Crisp, “Orbiting Carbon Observatory: inverse method and prospective error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D05305(2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ota, Y. Yoshida, and T. Yokota, “Study of retrieving column amount of carbon dioxide from satellite-based near-infrared observation of solar scattered light in clear sky condition: error estimation and optimization of vertical pressure grid,” J. Remote Sens. Soc. Japan 28, 152-160 (2008) (in Japanese with English abstract and figure captions).

2006 (1)

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, K. Lo, D. W. Lea, and M. Medina-Elizade, “Global temperature change,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 14288-14293 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

S. C. Olsen and J. T. Randerson, “Differences between surface and column atmospheric CO2 and implications for carbon cycle research,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D02301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

P. K. Patra, S. Maksyutov, Y. Sasano, H. Nakajima, G. Inoue, and T. Nakazawa, “An evaluation of CO2 observations with solar occultation FTS for inclined-orbit satellite sensor for surface source inversion,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Rodgers and B. J. Connor, “Intercomparison of remote sounding instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. J. Rayner and D. M. O'Brien, “The utility of remotely sensed CO2 concentration data in surface source inversions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 175-178 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

T. Nakajima and M. Tanaka, “Matrix formulations for the radiative transfer of solar radiation in a plane-parallel scattering atmosphere,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 35, 13-21 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

G. Hanel, “The properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as functions of the relative humidity as a thermodynamic equilibrium with the surrounding moist air,” Adv. Geophys. 19, 73-188 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Auwera, J. Vander

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. Chris

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boesch, H.

B. J. Connor, H. Boesch, G. Toon, B. Sen, C. Miller, and D. Crisp, “Orbiting Carbon Observatory: inverse method and prospective error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D05305(2008).
[CrossRef]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Champion, J.-P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Connor, B. J.

B. J. Connor, H. Boesch, G. Toon, B. Sen, C. Miller, and D. Crisp, “Orbiting Carbon Observatory: inverse method and prospective error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D05305(2008).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Rodgers and B. J. Connor, “Intercomparison of remote sounding instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Crisp, D.

B. J. Connor, H. Boesch, G. Toon, B. Sen, C. Miller, and D. Crisp, “Orbiting Carbon Observatory: inverse method and prospective error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D05305(2008).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eguchi, N.

H. Oguma, T. Yokota, I. Morino, H. Suto, Y. Yoshida, N. Eguchi, A. Kuze, and G. Inoue are preparing a manuscript to be called “Observations of CO2 absorption spectra using the airship-borne FTIR (GOSAT TANSO-FTS BBM) in SWIR spectral region.”

Fally, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fenn, R. W.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, and J. S. Garing, “Optical properties of the atmosphere,” (3rd ed.) Environmental Research Paper 411 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, 1972).

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” AFGL-TR-79-0214 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, 1979).

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
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Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
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Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
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H. Matsueda, T. Machida, Y. Sawa, Y. Nakagawa, K. Hirotani, H. Ikeda, N. Kondo, and K. Goto, “Evaluation of atmospheric CO2 measurements from new flask air sampling of JAL airliner observations,” Pap. Met. Geophys. 59, 1-17 (2008).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Matsueda, T. Machida, Y. Sawa, Y. Nakagawa, K. Hirotani, H. Ikeda, N. Kondo, and K. Goto, “Evaluation of atmospheric CO2 measurements from new flask air sampling of JAL airliner observations,” Pap. Met. Geophys. 59, 1-17 (2008).
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H. Matsueda, T. Machida, Y. Sawa, Y. Nakagawa, K. Hirotani, H. Ikeda, N. Kondo, and K. Goto, “Evaluation of atmospheric CO2 measurements from new flask air sampling of JAL airliner observations,” Pap. Met. Geophys. 59, 1-17 (2008).
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P. K. Patra, S. Maksyutov, Y. Sasano, H. Nakajima, G. Inoue, and T. Nakazawa, “An evaluation of CO2 observations with solar occultation FTS for inclined-orbit satellite sensor for surface source inversion,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4759 (2003).
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H. Oguma, T. Yokota, I. Morino, H. Suto, Y. Yoshida, N. Eguchi, A. Kuze, and G. Inoue are preparing a manuscript to be called “Observations of CO2 absorption spectra using the airship-borne FTIR (GOSAT TANSO-FTS BBM) in SWIR spectral region.”

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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H. Matsueda, T. Machida, Y. Sawa, Y. Nakagawa, K. Hirotani, H. Ikeda, N. Kondo, and K. Goto, “Evaluation of atmospheric CO2 measurements from new flask air sampling of JAL airliner observations,” Pap. Met. Geophys. 59, 1-17 (2008).
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H. Oguma, T. Yokota, I. Morino, H. Suto, Y. Yoshida, N. Eguchi, A. Kuze, and G. Inoue are preparing a manuscript to be called “Observations of CO2 absorption spectra using the airship-borne FTIR (GOSAT TANSO-FTS BBM) in SWIR spectral region.”

A. Kuze and H. Suto, “TOKYO and TSUKUBA models--TANSO precursor experiments,” presented at the Twenty-Sixth International Symposium on Space Technology and Science, Hamamatsu, Japan, June 2008.

Lacome, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
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J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, K. Lo, D. W. Lea, and M. Medina-Elizade, “Global temperature change,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 14288-14293 (2006).
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Lo, K.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, K. Lo, D. W. Lea, and M. Medina-Elizade, “Global temperature change,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 14288-14293 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Machida, T.

H. Matsueda, T. Machida, Y. Sawa, Y. Nakagawa, K. Hirotani, H. Ikeda, N. Kondo, and K. Goto, “Evaluation of atmospheric CO2 measurements from new flask air sampling of JAL airliner observations,” Pap. Met. Geophys. 59, 1-17 (2008).
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T. Machida, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba 305-8506, Japan (personal communication, 2006).

Maksyutov, S.

P. K. Patra, S. Maksyutov, Y. Sasano, H. Nakajima, G. Inoue, and T. Nakazawa, “An evaluation of CO2 observations with solar occultation FTS for inclined-orbit satellite sensor for surface source inversion,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
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Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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H. Matsueda, T. Machida, Y. Sawa, Y. Nakagawa, K. Hirotani, H. Ikeda, N. Kondo, and K. Goto, “Evaluation of atmospheric CO2 measurements from new flask air sampling of JAL airliner observations,” Pap. Met. Geophys. 59, 1-17 (2008).
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R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, and J. S. Garing, “Optical properties of the atmosphere,” (3rd ed.) Environmental Research Paper 411 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, 1972).

Medina-Elizade, M.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, K. Lo, D. W. Lea, and M. Medina-Elizade, “Global temperature change,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 14288-14293 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
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B. J. Connor, H. Boesch, G. Toon, B. Sen, C. Miller, and D. Crisp, “Orbiting Carbon Observatory: inverse method and prospective error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D05305(2008).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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T. Yokota, H. Oguma, I. Morino, and G. Inoue, “2004: A nadir looking SWIR FTS to monitor CO2 column density for Japanese GOSAT project,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (Selected Papers) (Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences, 2004), pp. 887-889.

H. Oguma, T. Yokota, I. Morino, H. Suto, Y. Yoshida, N. Eguchi, A. Kuze, and G. Inoue are preparing a manuscript to be called “Observations of CO2 absorption spectra using the airship-borne FTIR (GOSAT TANSO-FTS BBM) in SWIR spectral region.”

Nakagawa, Y.

H. Matsueda, T. Machida, Y. Sawa, Y. Nakagawa, K. Hirotani, H. Ikeda, N. Kondo, and K. Goto, “Evaluation of atmospheric CO2 measurements from new flask air sampling of JAL airliner observations,” Pap. Met. Geophys. 59, 1-17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, H.

P. K. Patra, S. Maksyutov, Y. Sasano, H. Nakajima, G. Inoue, and T. Nakazawa, “An evaluation of CO2 observations with solar occultation FTS for inclined-orbit satellite sensor for surface source inversion,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4759 (2003).
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P. K. Patra, S. Maksyutov, Y. Sasano, H. Nakajima, G. Inoue, and T. Nakazawa, “An evaluation of CO2 observations with solar occultation FTS for inclined-orbit satellite sensor for surface source inversion,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4759 (2003).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
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T. Yokota, H. Oguma, I. Morino, and G. Inoue, “2004: A nadir looking SWIR FTS to monitor CO2 column density for Japanese GOSAT project,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (Selected Papers) (Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences, 2004), pp. 887-889.

H. Oguma, T. Yokota, I. Morino, H. Suto, Y. Yoshida, N. Eguchi, A. Kuze, and G. Inoue are preparing a manuscript to be called “Observations of CO2 absorption spectra using the airship-borne FTIR (GOSAT TANSO-FTS BBM) in SWIR spectral region.”

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S. C. Olsen and J. T. Randerson, “Differences between surface and column atmospheric CO2 and implications for carbon cycle research,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D02301 (2004).
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Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
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Y. Ota, Y. Yoshida, and T. Yokota, “Study of retrieving column amount of carbon dioxide from satellite-based near-infrared observation of solar scattered light in clear sky condition: error estimation and optimization of vertical pressure grid,” J. Remote Sens. Soc. Japan 28, 152-160 (2008) (in Japanese with English abstract and figure captions).

Patra, P. K.

P. K. Patra, S. Maksyutov, Y. Sasano, H. Nakajima, G. Inoue, and T. Nakazawa, “An evaluation of CO2 observations with solar occultation FTS for inclined-orbit satellite sensor for surface source inversion,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Perevalov, V. I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Predoi-Cross, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Randerson, J. T.

S. C. Olsen and J. T. Randerson, “Differences between surface and column atmospheric CO2 and implications for carbon cycle research,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D02301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, P. J.

P. J. Rayner and D. M. O'Brien, “The utility of remotely sensed CO2 concentration data in surface source inversions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 175-178 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, C. D.

C. D. Rodgers and B. J. Connor, “Intercomparison of remote sounding instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice (World Scientific, 2000).
[CrossRef]

Rotger, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ruedy, R.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, K. Lo, D. W. Lea, and M. Medina-Elizade, “Global temperature change,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 14288-14293 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasano, Y.

P. K. Patra, S. Maksyutov, Y. Sasano, H. Nakajima, G. Inoue, and T. Nakazawa, “An evaluation of CO2 observations with solar occultation FTS for inclined-orbit satellite sensor for surface source inversion,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sato, M.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, K. Lo, D. W. Lea, and M. Medina-Elizade, “Global temperature change,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 14288-14293 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sawa, Y.

H. Matsueda, T. Machida, Y. Sawa, Y. Nakagawa, K. Hirotani, H. Ikeda, N. Kondo, and K. Goto, “Evaluation of atmospheric CO2 measurements from new flask air sampling of JAL airliner observations,” Pap. Met. Geophys. 59, 1-17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Selby, J. E. A.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, and J. S. Garing, “Optical properties of the atmosphere,” (3rd ed.) Environmental Research Paper 411 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, 1972).

Sen, B.

B. J. Connor, H. Boesch, G. Toon, B. Sen, C. Miller, and D. Crisp, “Orbiting Carbon Observatory: inverse method and prospective error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D05305(2008).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” AFGL-TR-79-0214 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, 1979).

Simeckova, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Suto, H.

A. Kuze and H. Suto, “TOKYO and TSUKUBA models--TANSO precursor experiments,” presented at the Twenty-Sixth International Symposium on Space Technology and Science, Hamamatsu, Japan, June 2008.

H. Oguma, T. Yokota, I. Morino, H. Suto, Y. Yoshida, N. Eguchi, A. Kuze, and G. Inoue are preparing a manuscript to be called “Observations of CO2 absorption spectra using the airship-borne FTIR (GOSAT TANSO-FTS BBM) in SWIR spectral region.”

Tanaka, M.

T. Nakajima and M. Tanaka, “Matrix formulations for the radiative transfer of solar radiation in a plane-parallel scattering atmosphere,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 35, 13-21 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tashkun, S. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Toon, G.

B. J. Connor, H. Boesch, G. Toon, B. Sen, C. Miller, and D. Crisp, “Orbiting Carbon Observatory: inverse method and prospective error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D05305(2008).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vandaele, A. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Volz, F. E.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, and J. S. Garing, “Optical properties of the atmosphere,” (3rd ed.) Environmental Research Paper 411 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, 1972).

Wallace, L.

W. Livingston and L. Wallace, “An atlas of the solar spectrum in the infrared from 1850 to 9000 cm−1 (1.1 to 5.4 μm),” in NSO Technical Report #91-001 (NSO, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 1991).

Yokota, T.

Y. Ota, Y. Yoshida, and T. Yokota, “Study of retrieving column amount of carbon dioxide from satellite-based near-infrared observation of solar scattered light in clear sky condition: error estimation and optimization of vertical pressure grid,” J. Remote Sens. Soc. Japan 28, 152-160 (2008) (in Japanese with English abstract and figure captions).

H. Oguma, T. Yokota, I. Morino, H. Suto, Y. Yoshida, N. Eguchi, A. Kuze, and G. Inoue are preparing a manuscript to be called “Observations of CO2 absorption spectra using the airship-borne FTIR (GOSAT TANSO-FTS BBM) in SWIR spectral region.”

T. Yokota, H. Oguma, I. Morino, and G. Inoue, “2004: A nadir looking SWIR FTS to monitor CO2 column density for Japanese GOSAT project,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (Selected Papers) (Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences, 2004), pp. 887-889.

Yoshida, Y.

Y. Ota, Y. Yoshida, and T. Yokota, “Study of retrieving column amount of carbon dioxide from satellite-based near-infrared observation of solar scattered light in clear sky condition: error estimation and optimization of vertical pressure grid,” J. Remote Sens. Soc. Japan 28, 152-160 (2008) (in Japanese with English abstract and figure captions).

H. Oguma, T. Yokota, I. Morino, H. Suto, Y. Yoshida, N. Eguchi, A. Kuze, and G. Inoue are preparing a manuscript to be called “Observations of CO2 absorption spectra using the airship-borne FTIR (GOSAT TANSO-FTS BBM) in SWIR spectral region.”

Adv. Geophys. (1)

G. Hanel, “The properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as functions of the relative humidity as a thermodynamic equilibrium with the surrounding moist air,” Adv. Geophys. 19, 73-188 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

P. J. Rayner and D. M. O'Brien, “The utility of remotely sensed CO2 concentration data in surface source inversions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 175-178 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

P. K. Patra, S. Maksyutov, Y. Sasano, H. Nakajima, G. Inoue, and T. Nakazawa, “An evaluation of CO2 observations with solar occultation FTS for inclined-orbit satellite sensor for surface source inversion,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Olsen and J. T. Randerson, “Differences between surface and column atmospheric CO2 and implications for carbon cycle research,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D02301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Rodgers and B. J. Connor, “Intercomparison of remote sounding instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Connor, H. Boesch, G. Toon, B. Sen, C. Miller, and D. Crisp, “Orbiting Carbon Observatory: inverse method and prospective error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D05305(2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. (2)

T. Nakajima and M. Tanaka, “Matrix formulations for the radiative transfer of solar radiation in a plane-parallel scattering atmosphere,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 35, 13-21 (1986).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Trans. 110, 533-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Remote Sens. Soc. Japan (1)

Y. Ota, Y. Yoshida, and T. Yokota, “Study of retrieving column amount of carbon dioxide from satellite-based near-infrared observation of solar scattered light in clear sky condition: error estimation and optimization of vertical pressure grid,” J. Remote Sens. Soc. Japan 28, 152-160 (2008) (in Japanese with English abstract and figure captions).

Pap. Met. Geophys. (1)

H. Matsueda, T. Machida, Y. Sawa, Y. Nakagawa, K. Hirotani, H. Ikeda, N. Kondo, and K. Goto, “Evaluation of atmospheric CO2 measurements from new flask air sampling of JAL airliner observations,” Pap. Met. Geophys. 59, 1-17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, K. Lo, D. W. Lea, and M. Medina-Elizade, “Global temperature change,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 14288-14293 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (10)

WMO World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases, “WMO Global Atmosphere Watch World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases,” http://gaw.kishou.go.jp/wdcgg/.

T. Yokota, H. Oguma, I. Morino, and G. Inoue, “2004: A nadir looking SWIR FTS to monitor CO2 column density for Japanese GOSAT project,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (Selected Papers) (Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences, 2004), pp. 887-889.

C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice (World Scientific, 2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Kuze and H. Suto, “TOKYO and TSUKUBA models--TANSO precursor experiments,” presented at the Twenty-Sixth International Symposium on Space Technology and Science, Hamamatsu, Japan, June 2008.

H. Oguma, T. Yokota, I. Morino, H. Suto, Y. Yoshida, N. Eguchi, A. Kuze, and G. Inoue are preparing a manuscript to be called “Observations of CO2 absorption spectra using the airship-borne FTIR (GOSAT TANSO-FTS BBM) in SWIR spectral region.”

T. Machida, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba 305-8506, Japan (personal communication, 2006).

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” AFGL-TR-79-0214 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, 1979).

R. L. Kurucz, “Synthetic infrared spectra,” in Infrared Solar Physics, International Astronomical Union Symposium 154, D.M.Rabin and J.T.Jefferies, eds. (Kluwer, 1994), pp. 523-531.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, and J. S. Garing, “Optical properties of the atmosphere,” (3rd ed.) Environmental Research Paper 411 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, 1972).

W. Livingston and L. Wallace, “An atlas of the solar spectrum in the infrared from 1850 to 9000 cm−1 (1.1 to 5.4 μm),” in NSO Technical Report #91-001 (NSO, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 1991).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of the experimental setup. The thick black line indicates the optical path of solar light observed with the BBM. The gray line indicates the flight pattern of the Cessna airplane. The line with circles represents where the Cessna ascended/descended in a spiral track.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Spectrum in the 1.6 μm spectral region observed with the BBM (solid curve, left axis) and its response function (broken curve, right axis). (b) Line intensities of CO 2 , CH 4 , and H 2 O in the same spectral region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Vertical profiles of the (a)  CO 2 concentration, (b) potential temperature, and (c) specific humidity observed during an ascending flight of the Cessna airplane.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal variations of the (a) in situ measured CO 2 concentration, (b) surface pressure, (c) air temperature, (d) relative humidity, and (e) wind observed at the surface site. (a) also plots the in situ measured CO 2 concentration at the mountain site.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Temporal variations of X CO 2 retrieved from spectra observed with the BBM as well as those measured in situ from the Cessna airplane. (b) Spectral structure of the retrieved surface albedos and an example of measured surface albedo. The dashed arrow in the figure indicates the temporal-variation trend of the retrieved variables.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temporal variations of X CO 2 retrieved from spectra between 6180 and 6280 cm 1 observed with the BBM. The X CO 2 retrieved from spectra between 6280 and 6380 cm 1 as well as those measured in situ from the Cessna airplane [same as Fig. 5a] are also plotted.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Temporal variations of X CO 2 retrieved by assuming the existence of aerosol. The “rural” and “urban” aerosol models were used. The X CO 2 retrieved by assuming the absence of aerosol as well as those measured in situ from the Cessna airplane [same as Fig. 5a] are also plotted.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of a spectrum observed (a) with the BBM and a spectrum simulated by HSTAR and (b) their difference. Solar spectral data by (c) Kurucz and from (d) Kitt Peak are also plotted. Shaded areas indicate the wavenumbers associated with Fraunhofer lines, according to Kurucz or Kitt Peak.

Equations (17)

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J ( x ) = [ y F ( x ) ] T S ε 1 [ y F ( x ) ] + ( x x a ) T S a 1 ( x x a ) min ,
x i + 1 = x i + ( K i T S ε 1 K i + S a 1 ) 1 [ K i T S ε 1 ( y F ( x i ) ) S a 1 ( x i x a ) ] ,
K l = F ( x + Δ x l e l ) F ( x ) Δ x l ,
S m = G x S ε G x T ,
S s = ( A x x I ) S e , x ( A x x I ) T ,
S i = A x b S e , b A x b T ,
A x x = G x K x ,
A x b = G x K b ,
G x = S a , x K x T ( S ε + K x S a , x K x T + K b S a , b K b T ) 1 .
X CO 2 in situ = h T [ x a , x + A x x ( x in situ x a , x ) ] ,
X CO 2 = N CO 2 d z N dry d z = N dry · C CO 2 d z N dry d z ,
p = N dry + N H 2 O A · R U · T = ρ m dry + m H 2 O · R U · T · ( m dry n dry + m H 2 O n H 2 O ) ,
d p d z = ρ · g = N dry + N H 2 O A 1 + ε · C H 2 O 1 + C H 2 O · n dry · g = N dry A ( 1 + ε · C H 2 O ) · n dry · g ,
C H 2 O = N H 2 O N dry = m H 2 O n H 2 O m dry n dry ,
ε = n H 2 O n dry .
X CO 2 = A n dry · g C CO 2 1 + ε · C H 2 O d p A n dry · g 1 1 + ε · C H 2 O d p l C ¯ CO 2 1 + ε · C ¯ H 2 O , l ( p b , l p t , l ) l 1 1 + ε · C ¯ H 2 O ( p b , l p t , l ) ,
h = ( 1 1 + ε · C ¯ H 2 O , 1 ( p b , 1 p t , 1 ) l 1 1 + ε · C ¯ H 2 O , l ( p b , l p t , l ) 1 1 + ε · C ¯ H 2 O , n ( p b , n p t , n ) l 1 1 + ε · C ¯ H 2 O , l ( p b , l p t , l ) ) .

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