Abstract

We present a method to determine the geometric form factor of a ground-based lidar using simultaneous lidar measurements made from the ground and from space. The theoretical basis is described. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by applying it to the measurement data acquired by the Cloud Aerosol Lidar Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) lidar and a ground-based lidar located at the Hampton University (37.02°N, 76.34°W). The geometric factors with different aerosol conditions are retrieved.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Sasano, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, and M. Okasa, “Geometrical form factor in the laser radar equation: an experimental determination,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3908-3910 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Halldórsson and J. Langerholc, “Geometrical form factors for the lidar function,” Appl. Opt. 17, 240-244 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Sassen and G. C. Dodd, “Lidar crossover function and misalignment effects,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3162-3165 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. M. Ancellet, M. J. Kavaya, R. T. Menzies, and A. M. Brothers, “Lidar telescope overlap function and effects of misalignment for unstable resonator transmitter and coherent receiver,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2886-2890 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Velotta, B. Bartoli, R. Capobianco, and N. Spinelli, “Analysis of the receiver response in lidar measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6999-7007 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. U. Wandinger and A. Ansmann, “Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 511-514 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Hu, X. Wang, and Y. Wu, “Geometrical form factor determination with Raman backscattering signals,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1879-1881 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. W. Dho, Y. J. Park, and H. J. Kong, “Experimental determination of a geometric form factor in a lidar equation for an inhomogeneous atmosphere,” Appl Opt. 36, 6009-6010(1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. T. Shipley, D. H. Tracy, E. W. Eloranta, J. T. Tauger, J. T. Sroga, F. L. Roesler, and J. A. Weinman, “High spectral resolution lidar to measure optical scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols. 1: Theory and instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3716-3724 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Z. Liu, I. Matsui, and N. Sugimoto, “High-spectral-resolution lidar using an iodine absorption filter for atmospheric measurements,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1661-1670(1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. J. Kunz, “Bipath method as a way to measure the spatial backscatter and extinction coefficients with lidar,” Appl. Opt. 26, 794-795 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. G. Hughes and M. R. Paulson, “Double-ended lidar technique for aerosol studies,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2273-2278(1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. E. Jørgensen, T. Mikkelsen, J. Streicher, H. Herrmann, C. Werner, and E. Lyck, “Lidar calibration experiments,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 355-361 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. S. Stachlewska and C. Ritter, “On retrieval of lidar extinction profiles using two-stream and Raman techniques,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 9, 20229-20257 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, and M. P. McCormick, “The CALIPSO mission: spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds,” Proc. SPIE. 4893, 1-11 (2003).
  16. C. Hostetler, Z. Liu, J. Reagan, M. Vaughan, D. Winker, M. Osborn, W. H. Hunt, K. A. Powell, and C. Trepte, “CALIOP algorithm theoretical basis document. Part 1: Calibration and level 1 data products,” PC-SCI-201, Release 1.0, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia (2006); Available online at http://www-calipso.larc.nasa.gov/resources/pdfs/PC-SCI-201v1.0.pdf.
  17. F. G. Fernald, “Analysis of atmospheric lidar observations: some comments,” Appl. Opt. 23, 652-653 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Z. Tao, Z. Liu, D. Wu, and M. P. McCormick, “Determination of aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratios from simultaneous ground-based and spaceborne lidar measurements,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2986-2988 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

I. S. Stachlewska and C. Ritter, “On retrieval of lidar extinction profiles using two-stream and Raman techniques,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 9, 20229-20257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, and M. P. McCormick, “The CALIPSO mission: spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds,” Proc. SPIE. 4893, 1-11 (2003).

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

Z. Liu, I. Matsui, and N. Sugimoto, “High-spectral-resolution lidar using an iodine absorption filter for atmospheric measurements,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1661-1670(1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

S. W. Dho, Y. J. Park, and H. J. Kong, “Experimental determination of a geometric form factor in a lidar equation for an inhomogeneous atmosphere,” Appl Opt. 36, 6009-6010(1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Jørgensen, T. Mikkelsen, J. Streicher, H. Herrmann, C. Werner, and E. Lyck, “Lidar calibration experiments,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 355-361 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

Ancellet, G. M.

Ansmann, A.

Bartoli, B.

Brothers, A. M.

Capobianco, R.

Dho, S. W.

S. W. Dho, Y. J. Park, and H. J. Kong, “Experimental determination of a geometric form factor in a lidar equation for an inhomogeneous atmosphere,” Appl Opt. 36, 6009-6010(1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dodd, G. C.

Eloranta, E. W.

Fernald, F. G.

Halldórsson, T.

Herrmann, H.

H. E. Jørgensen, T. Mikkelsen, J. Streicher, H. Herrmann, C. Werner, and E. Lyck, “Lidar calibration experiments,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 355-361 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hostetler, C.

C. Hostetler, Z. Liu, J. Reagan, M. Vaughan, D. Winker, M. Osborn, W. H. Hunt, K. A. Powell, and C. Trepte, “CALIOP algorithm theoretical basis document. Part 1: Calibration and level 1 data products,” PC-SCI-201, Release 1.0, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia (2006); Available online at http://www-calipso.larc.nasa.gov/resources/pdfs/PC-SCI-201v1.0.pdf.

Hu, S.

Hughes, H. G.

Hunt, W. H.

C. Hostetler, Z. Liu, J. Reagan, M. Vaughan, D. Winker, M. Osborn, W. H. Hunt, K. A. Powell, and C. Trepte, “CALIOP algorithm theoretical basis document. Part 1: Calibration and level 1 data products,” PC-SCI-201, Release 1.0, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia (2006); Available online at http://www-calipso.larc.nasa.gov/resources/pdfs/PC-SCI-201v1.0.pdf.

Jørgensen, H. E.

H. E. Jørgensen, T. Mikkelsen, J. Streicher, H. Herrmann, C. Werner, and E. Lyck, “Lidar calibration experiments,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 355-361 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kavaya, M. J.

Kong, H. J.

S. W. Dho, Y. J. Park, and H. J. Kong, “Experimental determination of a geometric form factor in a lidar equation for an inhomogeneous atmosphere,” Appl Opt. 36, 6009-6010(1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kunz, G. J.

Langerholc, J.

Liu, Z.

Z. Tao, Z. Liu, D. Wu, and M. P. McCormick, “Determination of aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratios from simultaneous ground-based and spaceborne lidar measurements,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2986-2988 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, I. Matsui, and N. Sugimoto, “High-spectral-resolution lidar using an iodine absorption filter for atmospheric measurements,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1661-1670(1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Hostetler, Z. Liu, J. Reagan, M. Vaughan, D. Winker, M. Osborn, W. H. Hunt, K. A. Powell, and C. Trepte, “CALIOP algorithm theoretical basis document. Part 1: Calibration and level 1 data products,” PC-SCI-201, Release 1.0, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia (2006); Available online at http://www-calipso.larc.nasa.gov/resources/pdfs/PC-SCI-201v1.0.pdf.

Lyck, E.

H. E. Jørgensen, T. Mikkelsen, J. Streicher, H. Herrmann, C. Werner, and E. Lyck, “Lidar calibration experiments,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 355-361 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, I.

Z. Liu, I. Matsui, and N. Sugimoto, “High-spectral-resolution lidar using an iodine absorption filter for atmospheric measurements,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1661-1670(1999).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M. P.

Z. Tao, Z. Liu, D. Wu, and M. P. McCormick, “Determination of aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratios from simultaneous ground-based and spaceborne lidar measurements,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2986-2988 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, and M. P. McCormick, “The CALIPSO mission: spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds,” Proc. SPIE. 4893, 1-11 (2003).

Menzies, R. T.

Mikkelsen, T.

H. E. Jørgensen, T. Mikkelsen, J. Streicher, H. Herrmann, C. Werner, and E. Lyck, “Lidar calibration experiments,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 355-361 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Okasa, M.

Osborn, M.

C. Hostetler, Z. Liu, J. Reagan, M. Vaughan, D. Winker, M. Osborn, W. H. Hunt, K. A. Powell, and C. Trepte, “CALIOP algorithm theoretical basis document. Part 1: Calibration and level 1 data products,” PC-SCI-201, Release 1.0, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia (2006); Available online at http://www-calipso.larc.nasa.gov/resources/pdfs/PC-SCI-201v1.0.pdf.

Park, Y. J.

S. W. Dho, Y. J. Park, and H. J. Kong, “Experimental determination of a geometric form factor in a lidar equation for an inhomogeneous atmosphere,” Appl Opt. 36, 6009-6010(1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulson, M. R.

Pelon, J.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, and M. P. McCormick, “The CALIPSO mission: spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds,” Proc. SPIE. 4893, 1-11 (2003).

Powell, K. A.

C. Hostetler, Z. Liu, J. Reagan, M. Vaughan, D. Winker, M. Osborn, W. H. Hunt, K. A. Powell, and C. Trepte, “CALIOP algorithm theoretical basis document. Part 1: Calibration and level 1 data products,” PC-SCI-201, Release 1.0, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia (2006); Available online at http://www-calipso.larc.nasa.gov/resources/pdfs/PC-SCI-201v1.0.pdf.

Reagan, J.

C. Hostetler, Z. Liu, J. Reagan, M. Vaughan, D. Winker, M. Osborn, W. H. Hunt, K. A. Powell, and C. Trepte, “CALIOP algorithm theoretical basis document. Part 1: Calibration and level 1 data products,” PC-SCI-201, Release 1.0, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia (2006); Available online at http://www-calipso.larc.nasa.gov/resources/pdfs/PC-SCI-201v1.0.pdf.

Ritter, C.

I. S. Stachlewska and C. Ritter, “On retrieval of lidar extinction profiles using two-stream and Raman techniques,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 9, 20229-20257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, F. L.

Sasano, Y.

Sassen, K.

Shimizu, H.

Shipley, S. T.

Spinelli, N.

Sroga, J. T.

Stachlewska, I. S.

I. S. Stachlewska and C. Ritter, “On retrieval of lidar extinction profiles using two-stream and Raman techniques,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 9, 20229-20257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Streicher, J.

H. E. Jørgensen, T. Mikkelsen, J. Streicher, H. Herrmann, C. Werner, and E. Lyck, “Lidar calibration experiments,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 355-361 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Z. Liu, I. Matsui, and N. Sugimoto, “High-spectral-resolution lidar using an iodine absorption filter for atmospheric measurements,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1661-1670(1999).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, N.

Tao, Z.

Tauger, J. T.

Tracy, D. H.

Trepte, C.

C. Hostetler, Z. Liu, J. Reagan, M. Vaughan, D. Winker, M. Osborn, W. H. Hunt, K. A. Powell, and C. Trepte, “CALIOP algorithm theoretical basis document. Part 1: Calibration and level 1 data products,” PC-SCI-201, Release 1.0, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia (2006); Available online at http://www-calipso.larc.nasa.gov/resources/pdfs/PC-SCI-201v1.0.pdf.

Vaughan, M.

C. Hostetler, Z. Liu, J. Reagan, M. Vaughan, D. Winker, M. Osborn, W. H. Hunt, K. A. Powell, and C. Trepte, “CALIOP algorithm theoretical basis document. Part 1: Calibration and level 1 data products,” PC-SCI-201, Release 1.0, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia (2006); Available online at http://www-calipso.larc.nasa.gov/resources/pdfs/PC-SCI-201v1.0.pdf.

Velotta, R.

Wandinger, U.

Wang, X.

Weinman, J. A.

Werner, C.

H. E. Jørgensen, T. Mikkelsen, J. Streicher, H. Herrmann, C. Werner, and E. Lyck, “Lidar calibration experiments,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 355-361 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Winker, D.

C. Hostetler, Z. Liu, J. Reagan, M. Vaughan, D. Winker, M. Osborn, W. H. Hunt, K. A. Powell, and C. Trepte, “CALIOP algorithm theoretical basis document. Part 1: Calibration and level 1 data products,” PC-SCI-201, Release 1.0, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia (2006); Available online at http://www-calipso.larc.nasa.gov/resources/pdfs/PC-SCI-201v1.0.pdf.

Winker, D. M.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, and M. P. McCormick, “The CALIPSO mission: spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds,” Proc. SPIE. 4893, 1-11 (2003).

Wu, D.

Wu, Y.

Appl Opt. (1)

S. W. Dho, Y. J. Park, and H. J. Kong, “Experimental determination of a geometric form factor in a lidar equation for an inhomogeneous atmosphere,” Appl Opt. 36, 6009-6010(1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (10)

S. T. Shipley, D. H. Tracy, E. W. Eloranta, J. T. Tauger, J. T. Sroga, F. L. Roesler, and J. A. Weinman, “High spectral resolution lidar to measure optical scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols. 1: Theory and instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3716-3724 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Fernald, “Analysis of atmospheric lidar observations: some comments,” Appl. Opt. 23, 652-653 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sasano, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, and M. Okasa, “Geometrical form factor in the laser radar equation: an experimental determination,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3908-3910 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Halldórsson and J. Langerholc, “Geometrical form factors for the lidar function,” Appl. Opt. 17, 240-244 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sassen and G. C. Dodd, “Lidar crossover function and misalignment effects,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3162-3165 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Ancellet, M. J. Kavaya, R. T. Menzies, and A. M. Brothers, “Lidar telescope overlap function and effects of misalignment for unstable resonator transmitter and coherent receiver,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2886-2890 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Velotta, B. Bartoli, R. Capobianco, and N. Spinelli, “Analysis of the receiver response in lidar measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6999-7007 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger and A. Ansmann, “Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 511-514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Kunz, “Bipath method as a way to measure the spatial backscatter and extinction coefficients with lidar,” Appl. Opt. 26, 794-795 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Hughes and M. R. Paulson, “Double-ended lidar technique for aerosol studies,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2273-2278(1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. E. Jørgensen, T. Mikkelsen, J. Streicher, H. Herrmann, C. Werner, and E. Lyck, “Lidar calibration experiments,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 355-361 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (1)

I. S. Stachlewska and C. Ritter, “On retrieval of lidar extinction profiles using two-stream and Raman techniques,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 9, 20229-20257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Z. Liu, I. Matsui, and N. Sugimoto, “High-spectral-resolution lidar using an iodine absorption filter for atmospheric measurements,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1661-1670(1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE. (1)

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, and M. P. McCormick, “The CALIPSO mission: spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds,” Proc. SPIE. 4893, 1-11 (2003).

Other (1)

C. Hostetler, Z. Liu, J. Reagan, M. Vaughan, D. Winker, M. Osborn, W. H. Hunt, K. A. Powell, and C. Trepte, “CALIOP algorithm theoretical basis document. Part 1: Calibration and level 1 data products,” PC-SCI-201, Release 1.0, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia (2006); Available online at http://www-calipso.larc.nasa.gov/resources/pdfs/PC-SCI-201v1.0.pdf.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Attenuated backscattered signals acquired by the HU lidar and the CALIPSO lidar on 15 August 2008; (b)  T 4 due to the aerosol extinction retrieved from the CALIPSO lidar measurements using lidar ratios of 30 and 50 sr ; (c) corresponding GFF profiles.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Same as Fig. 1 but for the measurements taken on 22 August 2008.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Aerosol extinction coefficient profiles retrieved from the HU lidar measurement at 14:00 h (Eastern Daylight Time) on 10 September 2008 with (triangles) and without (solid curve) the GFF correction and molecular extinction coefficient profile (dotted curve). Temporal variation of aerosol extinction coefficients (b) with and (c) without the GFF correction for the time period from 12:30 to 15:30 h on the day.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

X ( z ) = k f ( z ) β ( z ) exp ( 2 0 z α ( z ) d z ) ,
β ( z ) = f ( z ) β ( z ) exp ( 2 η ( z ) z z c a ( z ) d z ) ,
β ( z f ) X ( z i ) β ( z i ) X ( z f ) = β ( z f ) exp ( 2 z f z c a ( z ) d z ) k f ( z i ) β ( z i ) exp ( 2 0 z i a ( z ) d z ) β ( z i ) exp ( 2 z i z c a ( z ) d z ) k f ( z f ) β ( z f ) exp ( 2 0 z f a ( z ) d z ) ,
f ( z i ) = f ( z f ) β ( z f ) X ( z i ) β ( z i ) X ( z f ) exp ( 4 z i z f a ( z ) d z ) .
T 4 = exp ( 4 z i z f α ( z ) d z ) ,
f ( z i ) = β ( z f ) X ( z i ) β ( z i ) X ( z f ) T 4 ( z i ) .

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