S.-Y. Baek, O. Kwon, and Y.-H. Kim, “Temporal shaping of a heralded single-photon wave packet,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013829 (2008).

[CrossRef]

M. Stipcevic and B. M. Rogina, “Quantum random number generator based on photonic emission in semiconductors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 045104 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Fiorentino, C. Santori, S. M. Spillane, R. G. Beausoleil, and W. J. Munro, “Secure self-calibrating quantum random-bit generator,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 032334 (2007).

[CrossRef]

A. Fedrizzi, T. Herbst, A. Poppe, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger, “A wavelength-tunable fiber-coupled source of narrowband entangled photons,” Opt. Express 15, 15377-15386 (2007).

[PubMed]

P. X. Wang, G. L. Long, and Y. S. Li, “Scheme for a quantum random number generator,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 056107 (2006).

[CrossRef]

H.-Q. Ma, S.-M. Wang, D. Zhang, J.-T. Chang, L.-L. Ji, Y.-X. Hou, and L.-A. Wu, “A random number generator based on quantum entangled photon pairs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 1961-1965 (2004).

[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, “Quantum interference with beamlike type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 013804 (2003).

[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, “Two-photon interference without bunching two photons,” Phys. Lett. A 315, 352-357 (2003).

[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim and W. P. Grice, “Observation of correlated-photon statistics using a single detector,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 065802 (2003).

[CrossRef]

T. Jennewein, U. Achleitner, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “A fast and compact quantum random number generator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1675-1680 (2000).

[CrossRef]

A. Stefanov, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, L. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Optical quantum random number generator,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 595-598 (2000).

D. V. Strekalov, Y.-H. Kim, and Y. Shih, “Experimental study of a subsystem in an entangled two-photon state,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 2685-2688 (1999).

[CrossRef]

T. B. Pittman, D. V. Strekalov, A. Migdall, M. H. Rubin, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, “Can two-photon interference be considered the interference of two photons?,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1917-1920 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Y. Peres, “Iterating von Neumann's procedure for extracting random bits,” Ann. Stat. 20, 590-597 (1992).

[CrossRef]

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

C. K. Hong and L. Mandel, “Experimental realization of a localized one-photon state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 58-60 (1986).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

T. Jennewein, U. Achleitner, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “A fast and compact quantum random number generator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1675-1680 (2000).

[CrossRef]

M. A. Wayne, G. Akselrod, E. R. Jeffrey, and P. G. Kwiat, “High-speed quantum random number generation,” in *International Conference on Quantum Information* (Optical Society of America, 2007). paper JWC49.

S.-Y. Baek, O. Kwon, and Y.-H. Kim, “Temporal shaping of a heralded single-photon wave packet,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013829 (2008).

[CrossRef]

A. Rukhin, J. Soto, J. Nechvatal, M. Smid, E. Barker, S. Leigh, M. Levenson, M. Vangel, D. Banks, A. Heckert, J. Dray, and S. Vo, “A statistical test suite for random and pseudorandom number generators for cryptographic applications,” NIST Special Publication 800-22 (NIST, 2008), http://csrc.nist.gov/rng/.

A. Rukhin, J. Soto, J. Nechvatal, M. Smid, E. Barker, S. Leigh, M. Levenson, M. Vangel, D. Banks, A. Heckert, J. Dray, and S. Vo, “A statistical test suite for random and pseudorandom number generators for cryptographic applications,” NIST Special Publication 800-22 (NIST, 2008), http://csrc.nist.gov/rng/.

M. Fiorentino, C. Santori, S. M. Spillane, R. G. Beausoleil, and W. J. Munro, “Secure self-calibrating quantum random-bit generator,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 032334 (2007).

[CrossRef]

H.-Q. Ma, S.-M. Wang, D. Zhang, J.-T. Chang, L.-L. Ji, Y.-X. Hou, and L.-A. Wu, “A random number generator based on quantum entangled photon pairs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 1961-1965 (2004).

[CrossRef]

A. Rukhin, J. Soto, J. Nechvatal, M. Smid, E. Barker, S. Leigh, M. Levenson, M. Vangel, D. Banks, A. Heckert, J. Dray, and S. Vo, “A statistical test suite for random and pseudorandom number generators for cryptographic applications,” NIST Special Publication 800-22 (NIST, 2008), http://csrc.nist.gov/rng/.

M. Fiorentino, C. Santori, S. M. Spillane, R. G. Beausoleil, and W. J. Munro, “Secure self-calibrating quantum random-bit generator,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 032334 (2007).

[CrossRef]

A. Stefanov, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, L. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Optical quantum random number generator,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 595-598 (2000).

A. Stefanov, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, L. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Optical quantum random number generator,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 595-598 (2000).

A. Stefanov, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, L. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Optical quantum random number generator,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 595-598 (2000).

A. Rukhin, J. Soto, J. Nechvatal, M. Smid, E. Barker, S. Leigh, M. Levenson, M. Vangel, D. Banks, A. Heckert, J. Dray, and S. Vo, “A statistical test suite for random and pseudorandom number generators for cryptographic applications,” NIST Special Publication 800-22 (NIST, 2008), http://csrc.nist.gov/rng/.

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

C. K. Hong and L. Mandel, “Experimental realization of a localized one-photon state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 58-60 (1986).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H.-Q. Ma, S.-M. Wang, D. Zhang, J.-T. Chang, L.-L. Ji, Y.-X. Hou, and L.-A. Wu, “A random number generator based on quantum entangled photon pairs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 1961-1965 (2004).

[CrossRef]

M. A. Wayne, G. Akselrod, E. R. Jeffrey, and P. G. Kwiat, “High-speed quantum random number generation,” in *International Conference on Quantum Information* (Optical Society of America, 2007). paper JWC49.

A. Fedrizzi, T. Herbst, A. Poppe, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger, “A wavelength-tunable fiber-coupled source of narrowband entangled photons,” Opt. Express 15, 15377-15386 (2007).

[PubMed]

T. Jennewein, U. Achleitner, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “A fast and compact quantum random number generator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1675-1680 (2000).

[CrossRef]

H.-Q. Ma, S.-M. Wang, D. Zhang, J.-T. Chang, L.-L. Ji, Y.-X. Hou, and L.-A. Wu, “A random number generator based on quantum entangled photon pairs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 1961-1965 (2004).

[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Baek, O. Kwon, and Y.-H. Kim, “Temporal shaping of a heralded single-photon wave packet,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013829 (2008).

[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim and W. P. Grice, “Quantum interference with distinguishable photons through indistinguishable pathways,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 493-498 (2005).

[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, “Two-photon interference without bunching two photons,” Phys. Lett. A 315, 352-357 (2003).

[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim and W. P. Grice, “Observation of correlated-photon statistics using a single detector,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 065802 (2003).

[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, “Quantum interference with beamlike type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 013804 (2003).

[CrossRef]

D. V. Strekalov, Y.-H. Kim, and Y. Shih, “Experimental study of a subsystem in an entangled two-photon state,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 2685-2688 (1999).

[CrossRef]

M. A. Wayne, G. Akselrod, E. R. Jeffrey, and P. G. Kwiat, “High-speed quantum random number generation,” in *International Conference on Quantum Information* (Optical Society of America, 2007). paper JWC49.

S.-Y. Baek, O. Kwon, and Y.-H. Kim, “Temporal shaping of a heralded single-photon wave packet,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013829 (2008).

[CrossRef]

A. Rukhin, J. Soto, J. Nechvatal, M. Smid, E. Barker, S. Leigh, M. Levenson, M. Vangel, D. Banks, A. Heckert, J. Dray, and S. Vo, “A statistical test suite for random and pseudorandom number generators for cryptographic applications,” NIST Special Publication 800-22 (NIST, 2008), http://csrc.nist.gov/rng/.

A. Rukhin, J. Soto, J. Nechvatal, M. Smid, E. Barker, S. Leigh, M. Levenson, M. Vangel, D. Banks, A. Heckert, J. Dray, and S. Vo, “A statistical test suite for random and pseudorandom number generators for cryptographic applications,” NIST Special Publication 800-22 (NIST, 2008), http://csrc.nist.gov/rng/.

P. X. Wang, G. L. Long, and Y. S. Li, “Scheme for a quantum random number generator,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 056107 (2006).

[CrossRef]

P. X. Wang, G. L. Long, and Y. S. Li, “Scheme for a quantum random number generator,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 056107 (2006).

[CrossRef]

H.-Q. Ma, Y. Xie, and L.-A. Wu, “Random number generation based on the time of arrival of single photons,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7760-7763 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H.-Q. Ma, S.-M. Wang, D. Zhang, J.-T. Chang, L.-L. Ji, Y.-X. Hou, and L.-A. Wu, “A random number generator based on quantum entangled photon pairs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 1961-1965 (2004).

[CrossRef]

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

C. K. Hong and L. Mandel, “Experimental realization of a localized one-photon state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 58-60 (1986).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

T. B. Pittman, D. V. Strekalov, A. Migdall, M. H. Rubin, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, “Can two-photon interference be considered the interference of two photons?,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1917-1920 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Fiorentino, C. Santori, S. M. Spillane, R. G. Beausoleil, and W. J. Munro, “Secure self-calibrating quantum random-bit generator,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 032334 (2007).

[CrossRef]

A. Rukhin, J. Soto, J. Nechvatal, M. Smid, E. Barker, S. Leigh, M. Levenson, M. Vangel, D. Banks, A. Heckert, J. Dray, and S. Vo, “A statistical test suite for random and pseudorandom number generators for cryptographic applications,” NIST Special Publication 800-22 (NIST, 2008), http://csrc.nist.gov/rng/.

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Y. Peres, “Iterating von Neumann's procedure for extracting random bits,” Ann. Stat. 20, 590-597 (1992).

[CrossRef]

T. B. Pittman, D. V. Strekalov, A. Migdall, M. H. Rubin, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, “Can two-photon interference be considered the interference of two photons?,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1917-1920 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Stipcevic and B. M. Rogina, “Quantum random number generator based on photonic emission in semiconductors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 045104 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

T. B. Pittman, D. V. Strekalov, A. Migdall, M. H. Rubin, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, “Can two-photon interference be considered the interference of two photons?,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1917-1920 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. Rukhin, J. Soto, J. Nechvatal, M. Smid, E. Barker, S. Leigh, M. Levenson, M. Vangel, D. Banks, A. Heckert, J. Dray, and S. Vo, “A statistical test suite for random and pseudorandom number generators for cryptographic applications,” NIST Special Publication 800-22 (NIST, 2008), http://csrc.nist.gov/rng/.

M. Fiorentino, C. Santori, S. M. Spillane, R. G. Beausoleil, and W. J. Munro, “Secure self-calibrating quantum random-bit generator,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 032334 (2007).

[CrossRef]

T. B. Pittman, D. V. Strekalov, A. Migdall, M. H. Rubin, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, “Can two-photon interference be considered the interference of two photons?,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1917-1920 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. V. Strekalov, Y.-H. Kim, and Y. Shih, “Experimental study of a subsystem in an entangled two-photon state,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 2685-2688 (1999).

[CrossRef]

T. B. Pittman, D. V. Strekalov, A. Migdall, M. H. Rubin, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, “Can two-photon interference be considered the interference of two photons?,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1917-1920 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. Rukhin, J. Soto, J. Nechvatal, M. Smid, E. Barker, S. Leigh, M. Levenson, M. Vangel, D. Banks, A. Heckert, J. Dray, and S. Vo, “A statistical test suite for random and pseudorandom number generators for cryptographic applications,” NIST Special Publication 800-22 (NIST, 2008), http://csrc.nist.gov/rng/.

A. Rukhin, J. Soto, J. Nechvatal, M. Smid, E. Barker, S. Leigh, M. Levenson, M. Vangel, D. Banks, A. Heckert, J. Dray, and S. Vo, “A statistical test suite for random and pseudorandom number generators for cryptographic applications,” NIST Special Publication 800-22 (NIST, 2008), http://csrc.nist.gov/rng/.

M. Fiorentino, C. Santori, S. M. Spillane, R. G. Beausoleil, and W. J. Munro, “Secure self-calibrating quantum random-bit generator,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 032334 (2007).

[CrossRef]

A. Stefanov, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, L. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Optical quantum random number generator,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 595-598 (2000).

M. Stipcevic and B. M. Rogina, “Quantum random number generator based on photonic emission in semiconductors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 045104 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. V. Strekalov, Y.-H. Kim, and Y. Shih, “Experimental study of a subsystem in an entangled two-photon state,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 2685-2688 (1999).

[CrossRef]

T. B. Pittman, D. V. Strekalov, A. Migdall, M. H. Rubin, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, “Can two-photon interference be considered the interference of two photons?,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1917-1920 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. Rukhin, J. Soto, J. Nechvatal, M. Smid, E. Barker, S. Leigh, M. Levenson, M. Vangel, D. Banks, A. Heckert, J. Dray, and S. Vo, “A statistical test suite for random and pseudorandom number generators for cryptographic applications,” NIST Special Publication 800-22 (NIST, 2008), http://csrc.nist.gov/rng/.

A. Rukhin, J. Soto, J. Nechvatal, M. Smid, E. Barker, S. Leigh, M. Levenson, M. Vangel, D. Banks, A. Heckert, J. Dray, and S. Vo, “A statistical test suite for random and pseudorandom number generators for cryptographic applications,” NIST Special Publication 800-22 (NIST, 2008), http://csrc.nist.gov/rng/.

J. von Neumann, “Various techniques used in connection with random digits,” National Bureau of Standards Applied Mathematics Series No. 12, (National Bureau of Standards, 1951), pp.36-38.

P. X. Wang, G. L. Long, and Y. S. Li, “Scheme for a quantum random number generator,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 056107 (2006).

[CrossRef]

H.-Q. Ma, S.-M. Wang, D. Zhang, J.-T. Chang, L.-L. Ji, Y.-X. Hou, and L.-A. Wu, “A random number generator based on quantum entangled photon pairs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 1961-1965 (2004).

[CrossRef]

M. A. Wayne, G. Akselrod, E. R. Jeffrey, and P. G. Kwiat, “High-speed quantum random number generation,” in *International Conference on Quantum Information* (Optical Society of America, 2007). paper JWC49.

T. Jennewein, U. Achleitner, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “A fast and compact quantum random number generator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1675-1680 (2000).

[CrossRef]

T. Jennewein, U. Achleitner, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “A fast and compact quantum random number generator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1675-1680 (2000).

[CrossRef]

H.-Q. Ma, Y. Xie, and L.-A. Wu, “Random number generation based on the time of arrival of single photons,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7760-7763 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H.-Q. Ma, S.-M. Wang, D. Zhang, J.-T. Chang, L.-L. Ji, Y.-X. Hou, and L.-A. Wu, “A random number generator based on quantum entangled photon pairs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 1961-1965 (2004).

[CrossRef]

A. Stefanov, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, L. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Optical quantum random number generator,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 595-598 (2000).

A. Fedrizzi, T. Herbst, A. Poppe, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger, “A wavelength-tunable fiber-coupled source of narrowband entangled photons,” Opt. Express 15, 15377-15386 (2007).

[PubMed]

T. Jennewein, U. Achleitner, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “A fast and compact quantum random number generator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1675-1680 (2000).

[CrossRef]

H.-Q. Ma, S.-M. Wang, D. Zhang, J.-T. Chang, L.-L. Ji, Y.-X. Hou, and L.-A. Wu, “A random number generator based on quantum entangled photon pairs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 1961-1965 (2004).

[CrossRef]

Y. Peres, “Iterating von Neumann's procedure for extracting random bits,” Ann. Stat. 20, 590-597 (1992).

[CrossRef]

H.-Q. Ma, S.-M. Wang, D. Zhang, J.-T. Chang, L.-L. Ji, Y.-X. Hou, and L.-A. Wu, “A random number generator based on quantum entangled photon pairs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 1961-1965 (2004).

[CrossRef]

P. X. Wang, G. L. Long, and Y. S. Li, “Scheme for a quantum random number generator,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 056107 (2006).

[CrossRef]

A. Stefanov, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, L. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Optical quantum random number generator,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 595-598 (2000).

Y.-H. Kim, “Two-photon interference without bunching two photons,” Phys. Lett. A 315, 352-357 (2003).

[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim and W. P. Grice, “Observation of correlated-photon statistics using a single detector,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 065802 (2003).

[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, “Quantum interference with beamlike type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 013804 (2003).

[CrossRef]

M. Fiorentino, C. Santori, S. M. Spillane, R. G. Beausoleil, and W. J. Munro, “Secure self-calibrating quantum random-bit generator,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 032334 (2007).

[CrossRef]

D. V. Strekalov, Y.-H. Kim, and Y. Shih, “Experimental study of a subsystem in an entangled two-photon state,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 2685-2688 (1999).

[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Baek, O. Kwon, and Y.-H. Kim, “Temporal shaping of a heralded single-photon wave packet,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013829 (2008).

[CrossRef]

C. K. Hong and L. Mandel, “Experimental realization of a localized one-photon state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 58-60 (1986).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

T. B. Pittman, D. V. Strekalov, A. Migdall, M. H. Rubin, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, “Can two-photon interference be considered the interference of two photons?,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1917-1920 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

T. Jennewein, U. Achleitner, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “A fast and compact quantum random number generator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1675-1680 (2000).

[CrossRef]

M. Stipcevic and B. M. Rogina, “Quantum random number generator based on photonic emission in semiconductors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 045104 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. A. Wayne, G. Akselrod, E. R. Jeffrey, and P. G. Kwiat, “High-speed quantum random number generation,” in *International Conference on Quantum Information* (Optical Society of America, 2007). paper JWC49.

Implementation of the beam splitter QRNG scheme reported in Ref. makes use of only the signal photon of the SPDC signal-idler photon pair. The scheme, therefore, is equivalent to illuminating a beam splitter with a weak thermal light .

J. von Neumann, “Various techniques used in connection with random digits,” National Bureau of Standards Applied Mathematics Series No. 12, (National Bureau of Standards, 1951), pp.36-38.

Generally speaking, although commonly in use, it is incorrect to say that two photons must simultaneously arrive at a beam splitter to exhibit two-photon quantum interference. The condition for observing two-photon quantum interference involving a beam splitter is that the two biphoton detection amplitudes be indistinguishable. It is in fact possible to observe two-photon quantum interference without actually overlapping two photons at the beam splitter. See Refs. .

A. Rukhin, J. Soto, J. Nechvatal, M. Smid, E. Barker, S. Leigh, M. Levenson, M. Vangel, D. Banks, A. Heckert, J. Dray, and S. Vo, “A statistical test suite for random and pseudorandom number generators for cryptographic applications,” NIST Special Publication 800-22 (NIST, 2008), http://csrc.nist.gov/rng/.