Abstract

During January and February 2003, drought conditions led to major bushfires across southeast Australia, causing considerable damage. We have examined aerosol optical depth (AOD) data recorded by a sunphotometer at Wagga Wagga. Although this site lies to the northeast of the fires, periodic changes in wind direction brought smoke plumes over our instrument (AOD in excess of 1.0), sometimes via circuitous routes. By examining the hourly AOD spectra and, specifically, the Ångstrom exponent derived from our two shortest wavelengths, we have observed clear evidence of a shift in the peak radius of the fine mode, most likely as a result of particle coagulation. Selected data sets were inverted to obtain the aerosol size distribution, confirming this conclusion. This was particularly clear on 25 January, when the wind changed during the day so that the afternoon observations were of smoke that had traveled on a more circuitous route to the north of Wagga Wagga before returning.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Seiler and P. J. Crutzen, “Estimates of gross and net fluxes of carbon between the biosphere and the atmosphere from biomass burning,” Clim. Change 2, 207-247 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. O. Andreae, “Biomass burning: its history, use, and distribution and its impact on environmental quality and global climate,” in Global Biomass Burning, Atmospheric, Climatic, and Biospheric Implications, J. S. Levine, ed. (MIT Press, 1991), pp. 3-21.
  3. W. M. Hao and M.-H. Liu, “Spatial and temporal distribution of tropical biomass burning,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 8, 95-503 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Liousse, J. E. Penner, C. Chuang, J. J. Walton, H. Eddleman, and H. Cachier, “A global three-dimensional model study of carbonaceous aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19411-19432(1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. Lobert, W. C. Keene, L. A. Logan, and R. Yevich, “Global chlorine emissions from biomass burning: reactive chlorine emissions inventory,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 8373-8389 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, G. J. Collatz, and L. Giglio, “Carbon emissions from fires in tropical and subtropical ecosystems,” Global Change Biol. 9, 547-562 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Ito and J. E. Penner, “Global estimates of biomass burning emissions based on satellite imagery for the year 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D14S05 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. M. Mitchell, D. M. O'Brien, and S. K. Campbell, “Characteristics and radiative impact of the aerosol generated by the Canberra firestorm of January 2003,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D02204 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. A. Christopher, D. V. Kliche, J. Chou, and R. M. Welch, “First estimates of the radiative forcing of aerosols generated from biomass burning using satellite data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 21265-21273 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. S. Reid, P. V. Hobbs, R. J. Ferek, D. R. Blake, J. V. Martrins, M. R. Dunlap, and C. Liousse, “Physical, chemical, and optical properties of regional hazes dominated by smoke in Brazil ,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32059-32080 (1998).
  11. R. M. Mitchell and B. W. Forgan, “Aerosol measurement in the Australian outback: intercomparison of sun photometers,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 54-66 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. D. Kambezidis and D. G. Kaskaoutis, “Aerosol climatology over four AERONET sites: an overview,” Atmos. Environ. 42, 1892-1906 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Radhi, M. A. Box, G. P. Box, and B. W. Forgan, “Seasonal cycles of aerosol optical properties at Wagga Wagga and Tennant Creek, Australia,” Clean Air Env. Qual. 40, 40-44(2006).
  14. B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12097 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, P. V. Hobbs, and B. N. Holben, “Use of the Angstrom exponent to estimate the variability of optical and physical properties of aging smoke particles in Brazil,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 27473-27489 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, J. Swap, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Aerosol size distribution obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 2153-2167 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. P. Box, M. A. Box, and J. Krucker, “Information content and wavelength selection for multispectral radiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19211-19214 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. A. Kotchenruther and P. V. Hobbs, “Humidification factors of aerosols from biomass burning in Brazil,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32081-32089 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Haywood, P. Francis, O. Dubovik, M. Glew, and B. Holben, “Comparison of aerosol size distributions, radiative properties, and optical depths determined by aircraft observations and Sun photometers during SAFARI 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8471 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

H. D. Kambezidis and D. G. Kaskaoutis, “Aerosol climatology over four AERONET sites: an overview,” Atmos. Environ. 42, 1892-1906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. Radhi, M. A. Box, G. P. Box, and B. W. Forgan, “Seasonal cycles of aerosol optical properties at Wagga Wagga and Tennant Creek, Australia,” Clean Air Env. Qual. 40, 40-44(2006).

R. M. Mitchell, D. M. O'Brien, and S. K. Campbell, “Characteristics and radiative impact of the aerosol generated by the Canberra firestorm of January 2003,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D02204 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Ito and J. E. Penner, “Global estimates of biomass burning emissions based on satellite imagery for the year 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D14S05 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, G. J. Collatz, and L. Giglio, “Carbon emissions from fires in tropical and subtropical ecosystems,” Global Change Biol. 9, 547-562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Mitchell and B. W. Forgan, “Aerosol measurement in the Australian outback: intercomparison of sun photometers,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 54-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, J. Swap, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Haywood, P. Francis, O. Dubovik, M. Glew, and B. Holben, “Comparison of aerosol size distributions, radiative properties, and optical depths determined by aircraft observations and Sun photometers during SAFARI 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, P. V. Hobbs, and B. N. Holben, “Use of the Angstrom exponent to estimate the variability of optical and physical properties of aging smoke particles in Brazil,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 27473-27489 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Lobert, W. C. Keene, L. A. Logan, and R. Yevich, “Global chlorine emissions from biomass burning: reactive chlorine emissions inventory,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 8373-8389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. S. Reid, P. V. Hobbs, R. J. Ferek, D. R. Blake, J. V. Martrins, M. R. Dunlap, and C. Liousse, “Physical, chemical, and optical properties of regional hazes dominated by smoke in Brazil ,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32059-32080 (1998).

R. A. Kotchenruther and P. V. Hobbs, “Humidification factors of aerosols from biomass burning in Brazil,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32081-32089 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

G. P. Box, M. A. Box, and J. Krucker, “Information content and wavelength selection for multispectral radiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19211-19214 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Liousse, J. E. Penner, C. Chuang, J. J. Walton, H. Eddleman, and H. Cachier, “A global three-dimensional model study of carbonaceous aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19411-19432(1996).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Christopher, D. V. Kliche, J. Chou, and R. M. Welch, “First estimates of the radiative forcing of aerosols generated from biomass burning using satellite data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 21265-21273 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

W. M. Hao and M.-H. Liu, “Spatial and temporal distribution of tropical biomass burning,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 8, 95-503 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

W. Seiler and P. J. Crutzen, “Estimates of gross and net fluxes of carbon between the biosphere and the atmosphere from biomass burning,” Clim. Change 2, 207-247 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Aerosol size distribution obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 2153-2167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Abuhassan, N.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Andreae, M. O.

M. O. Andreae, “Biomass burning: its history, use, and distribution and its impact on environmental quality and global climate,” in Global Biomass Burning, Atmospheric, Climatic, and Biospheric Implications, J. S. Levine, ed. (MIT Press, 1991), pp. 3-21.

Blake, D. R.

J. S. Reid, P. V. Hobbs, R. J. Ferek, D. R. Blake, J. V. Martrins, M. R. Dunlap, and C. Liousse, “Physical, chemical, and optical properties of regional hazes dominated by smoke in Brazil ,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32059-32080 (1998).

Box, G. P.

M. Radhi, M. A. Box, G. P. Box, and B. W. Forgan, “Seasonal cycles of aerosol optical properties at Wagga Wagga and Tennant Creek, Australia,” Clean Air Env. Qual. 40, 40-44(2006).

G. P. Box, M. A. Box, and J. Krucker, “Information content and wavelength selection for multispectral radiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19211-19214 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Box, M. A.

M. Radhi, M. A. Box, G. P. Box, and B. W. Forgan, “Seasonal cycles of aerosol optical properties at Wagga Wagga and Tennant Creek, Australia,” Clean Air Env. Qual. 40, 40-44(2006).

G. P. Box, M. A. Box, and J. Krucker, “Information content and wavelength selection for multispectral radiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19211-19214 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, D. M.

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Aerosol size distribution obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 2153-2167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Cachier, H.

C. Liousse, J. E. Penner, C. Chuang, J. J. Walton, H. Eddleman, and H. Cachier, “A global three-dimensional model study of carbonaceous aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19411-19432(1996).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, S. K.

R. M. Mitchell, D. M. O'Brien, and S. K. Campbell, “Characteristics and radiative impact of the aerosol generated by the Canberra firestorm of January 2003,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D02204 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chatenet, B.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chou, J.

S. A. Christopher, D. V. Kliche, J. Chou, and R. M. Welch, “First estimates of the radiative forcing of aerosols generated from biomass burning using satellite data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 21265-21273 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Christopher, S. A.

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, P. V. Hobbs, and B. N. Holben, “Use of the Angstrom exponent to estimate the variability of optical and physical properties of aging smoke particles in Brazil,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 27473-27489 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Christopher, D. V. Kliche, J. Chou, and R. M. Welch, “First estimates of the radiative forcing of aerosols generated from biomass burning using satellite data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 21265-21273 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, C.

C. Liousse, J. E. Penner, C. Chuang, J. J. Walton, H. Eddleman, and H. Cachier, “A global three-dimensional model study of carbonaceous aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19411-19432(1996).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Collatz, G. J.

G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, G. J. Collatz, and L. Giglio, “Carbon emissions from fires in tropical and subtropical ecosystems,” Global Change Biol. 9, 547-562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Crutzen, P. J.

W. Seiler and P. J. Crutzen, “Estimates of gross and net fluxes of carbon between the biosphere and the atmosphere from biomass burning,” Clim. Change 2, 207-247 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Dubovik, O.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, J. Swap, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Haywood, P. Francis, O. Dubovik, M. Glew, and B. Holben, “Comparison of aerosol size distributions, radiative properties, and optical depths determined by aircraft observations and Sun photometers during SAFARI 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dunlap, M. R.

J. S. Reid, P. V. Hobbs, R. J. Ferek, D. R. Blake, J. V. Martrins, M. R. Dunlap, and C. Liousse, “Physical, chemical, and optical properties of regional hazes dominated by smoke in Brazil ,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32059-32080 (1998).

Eck, T. F.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, J. Swap, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, P. V. Hobbs, and B. N. Holben, “Use of the Angstrom exponent to estimate the variability of optical and physical properties of aging smoke particles in Brazil,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 27473-27489 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eddleman, H.

C. Liousse, J. E. Penner, C. Chuang, J. J. Walton, H. Eddleman, and H. Cachier, “A global three-dimensional model study of carbonaceous aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19411-19432(1996).
[CrossRef]

Ferek, R. J.

J. S. Reid, P. V. Hobbs, R. J. Ferek, D. R. Blake, J. V. Martrins, M. R. Dunlap, and C. Liousse, “Physical, chemical, and optical properties of regional hazes dominated by smoke in Brazil ,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32059-32080 (1998).

Forgan, B. W.

M. Radhi, M. A. Box, G. P. Box, and B. W. Forgan, “Seasonal cycles of aerosol optical properties at Wagga Wagga and Tennant Creek, Australia,” Clean Air Env. Qual. 40, 40-44(2006).

R. M. Mitchell and B. W. Forgan, “Aerosol measurement in the Australian outback: intercomparison of sun photometers,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 54-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Francis, P.

J. Haywood, P. Francis, O. Dubovik, M. Glew, and B. Holben, “Comparison of aerosol size distributions, radiative properties, and optical depths determined by aircraft observations and Sun photometers during SAFARI 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Giglio, L.

G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, G. J. Collatz, and L. Giglio, “Carbon emissions from fires in tropical and subtropical ecosystems,” Global Change Biol. 9, 547-562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Glew, M.

J. Haywood, P. Francis, O. Dubovik, M. Glew, and B. Holben, “Comparison of aerosol size distributions, radiative properties, and optical depths determined by aircraft observations and Sun photometers during SAFARI 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Halthore, R.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hao, W. M.

W. M. Hao and M.-H. Liu, “Spatial and temporal distribution of tropical biomass burning,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 8, 95-503 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Haywood, J.

J. Haywood, P. Francis, O. Dubovik, M. Glew, and B. Holben, “Comparison of aerosol size distributions, radiative properties, and optical depths determined by aircraft observations and Sun photometers during SAFARI 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Herman, B. M.

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Aerosol size distribution obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 2153-2167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, P. V.

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, P. V. Hobbs, and B. N. Holben, “Use of the Angstrom exponent to estimate the variability of optical and physical properties of aging smoke particles in Brazil,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 27473-27489 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kotchenruther and P. V. Hobbs, “Humidification factors of aerosols from biomass burning in Brazil,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32081-32089 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Reid, P. V. Hobbs, R. J. Ferek, D. R. Blake, J. V. Martrins, M. R. Dunlap, and C. Liousse, “Physical, chemical, and optical properties of regional hazes dominated by smoke in Brazil ,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32059-32080 (1998).

Holben, B.

J. Haywood, P. Francis, O. Dubovik, M. Glew, and B. Holben, “Comparison of aerosol size distributions, radiative properties, and optical depths determined by aircraft observations and Sun photometers during SAFARI 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, J. Swap, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, P. V. Hobbs, and B. N. Holben, “Use of the Angstrom exponent to estimate the variability of optical and physical properties of aging smoke particles in Brazil,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 27473-27489 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, N. C.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, J. Swap, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ito, A.

A. Ito and J. E. Penner, “Global estimates of biomass burning emissions based on satellite imagery for the year 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D14S05 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kambezidis, H. D.

H. D. Kambezidis and D. G. Kaskaoutis, “Aerosol climatology over four AERONET sites: an overview,” Atmos. Environ. 42, 1892-1906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Karneli, A.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kaskaoutis, D. G.

H. D. Kambezidis and D. G. Kaskaoutis, “Aerosol climatology over four AERONET sites: an overview,” Atmos. Environ. 42, 1892-1906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y. J.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Keene, W. C.

J. M. Lobert, W. C. Keene, L. A. Logan, and R. Yevich, “Global chlorine emissions from biomass burning: reactive chlorine emissions inventory,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 8373-8389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

King, M. D.

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Aerosol size distribution obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 2153-2167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kliche, D. V.

S. A. Christopher, D. V. Kliche, J. Chou, and R. M. Welch, “First estimates of the radiative forcing of aerosols generated from biomass burning using satellite data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 21265-21273 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kotchenruther, R. A.

R. A. Kotchenruther and P. V. Hobbs, “Humidification factors of aerosols from biomass burning in Brazil,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32081-32089 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krucker, J.

G. P. Box, M. A. Box, and J. Krucker, “Information content and wavelength selection for multispectral radiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19211-19214 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lavenu, F.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Le Roux, J.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, J. Swap, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liousse, C.

J. S. Reid, P. V. Hobbs, R. J. Ferek, D. R. Blake, J. V. Martrins, M. R. Dunlap, and C. Liousse, “Physical, chemical, and optical properties of regional hazes dominated by smoke in Brazil ,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32059-32080 (1998).

C. Liousse, J. E. Penner, C. Chuang, J. J. Walton, H. Eddleman, and H. Cachier, “A global three-dimensional model study of carbonaceous aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19411-19432(1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.-H.

W. M. Hao and M.-H. Liu, “Spatial and temporal distribution of tropical biomass burning,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 8, 95-503 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lobert, J. M.

J. M. Lobert, W. C. Keene, L. A. Logan, and R. Yevich, “Global chlorine emissions from biomass burning: reactive chlorine emissions inventory,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 8373-8389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Logan, L. A.

J. M. Lobert, W. C. Keene, L. A. Logan, and R. Yevich, “Global chlorine emissions from biomass burning: reactive chlorine emissions inventory,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 8373-8389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Markham, B.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Martrins, J. V.

J. S. Reid, P. V. Hobbs, R. J. Ferek, D. R. Blake, J. V. Martrins, M. R. Dunlap, and C. Liousse, “Physical, chemical, and optical properties of regional hazes dominated by smoke in Brazil ,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32059-32080 (1998).

Mitchell, R. M.

R. M. Mitchell, D. M. O'Brien, and S. K. Campbell, “Characteristics and radiative impact of the aerosol generated by the Canberra firestorm of January 2003,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D02204 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Mitchell and B. W. Forgan, “Aerosol measurement in the Australian outback: intercomparison of sun photometers,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 54-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mukelabai, M. M.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, J. Swap, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Newcomb, W. W.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O'Brien, D. M.

R. M. Mitchell, D. M. O'Brien, and S. K. Campbell, “Characteristics and radiative impact of the aerosol generated by the Canberra firestorm of January 2003,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D02204 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O'Neill, N. T.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Penner, J. E.

A. Ito and J. E. Penner, “Global estimates of biomass burning emissions based on satellite imagery for the year 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D14S05 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Liousse, J. E. Penner, C. Chuang, J. J. Walton, H. Eddleman, and H. Cachier, “A global three-dimensional model study of carbonaceous aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19411-19432(1996).
[CrossRef]

Pietras, C.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Piketh, S. J.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, J. Swap, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pinker, R. T.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Queface, A.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, J. Swap, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Radhi, M.

M. Radhi, M. A. Box, G. P. Box, and B. W. Forgan, “Seasonal cycles of aerosol optical properties at Wagga Wagga and Tennant Creek, Australia,” Clean Air Env. Qual. 40, 40-44(2006).

Randerson, J. T.

G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, G. J. Collatz, and L. Giglio, “Carbon emissions from fires in tropical and subtropical ecosystems,” Global Change Biol. 9, 547-562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Aerosol size distribution obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 2153-2167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Reid, J. S.

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, P. V. Hobbs, and B. N. Holben, “Use of the Angstrom exponent to estimate the variability of optical and physical properties of aging smoke particles in Brazil,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 27473-27489 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Reid, P. V. Hobbs, R. J. Ferek, D. R. Blake, J. V. Martrins, M. R. Dunlap, and C. Liousse, “Physical, chemical, and optical properties of regional hazes dominated by smoke in Brazil ,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32059-32080 (1998).

Schafer, J. S.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, J. Swap, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Seiler, W.

W. Seiler and P. J. Crutzen, “Estimates of gross and net fluxes of carbon between the biosphere and the atmosphere from biomass burning,” Clim. Change 2, 207-247 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Setzer, A.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Slutsker, I.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, J. Swap, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, J. Swap, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Swap, J.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, J. Swap, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tanré, D.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

van der Werf, G. R.

G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, G. J. Collatz, and L. Giglio, “Carbon emissions from fires in tropical and subtropical ecosystems,” Global Change Biol. 9, 547-562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vande, J.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walton, J. J.

C. Liousse, J. E. Penner, C. Chuang, J. J. Walton, H. Eddleman, and H. Cachier, “A global three-dimensional model study of carbonaceous aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19411-19432(1996).
[CrossRef]

Ward, D. E.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, J. Swap, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Welch, R. M.

S. A. Christopher, D. V. Kliche, J. Chou, and R. M. Welch, “First estimates of the radiative forcing of aerosols generated from biomass burning using satellite data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 21265-21273 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yevich, R.

J. M. Lobert, W. C. Keene, L. A. Logan, and R. Yevich, “Global chlorine emissions from biomass burning: reactive chlorine emissions inventory,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 8373-8389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zibordi, G.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Environ. (1)

H. D. Kambezidis and D. G. Kaskaoutis, “Aerosol climatology over four AERONET sites: an overview,” Atmos. Environ. 42, 1892-1906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clean Air Env. Qual. (1)

M. Radhi, M. A. Box, G. P. Box, and B. W. Forgan, “Seasonal cycles of aerosol optical properties at Wagga Wagga and Tennant Creek, Australia,” Clean Air Env. Qual. 40, 40-44(2006).

Clim. Change (1)

W. Seiler and P. J. Crutzen, “Estimates of gross and net fluxes of carbon between the biosphere and the atmosphere from biomass burning,” Clim. Change 2, 207-247 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Global Biogeochem. Cycles (1)

W. M. Hao and M.-H. Liu, “Spatial and temporal distribution of tropical biomass burning,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 8, 95-503 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Global Change Biol. (1)

G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, G. J. Collatz, and L. Giglio, “Carbon emissions from fires in tropical and subtropical ecosystems,” Global Change Biol. 9, 547-562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

R. M. Mitchell and B. W. Forgan, “Aerosol measurement in the Australian outback: intercomparison of sun photometers,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 54-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Aerosol size distribution obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 2153-2167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (11)

G. P. Box, M. A. Box, and J. Krucker, “Information content and wavelength selection for multispectral radiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19211-19214 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kotchenruther and P. V. Hobbs, “Humidification factors of aerosols from biomass burning in Brazil,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32081-32089 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Haywood, P. Francis, O. Dubovik, M. Glew, and B. Holben, “Comparison of aerosol size distributions, radiative properties, and optical depths determined by aircraft observations and Sun photometers during SAFARI 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, P. V. Hobbs, and B. N. Holben, “Use of the Angstrom exponent to estimate the variability of optical and physical properties of aging smoke particles in Brazil,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 27473-27489 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, J. Swap, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Ito and J. E. Penner, “Global estimates of biomass burning emissions based on satellite imagery for the year 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D14S05 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Mitchell, D. M. O'Brien, and S. K. Campbell, “Characteristics and radiative impact of the aerosol generated by the Canberra firestorm of January 2003,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D02204 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Christopher, D. V. Kliche, J. Chou, and R. M. Welch, “First estimates of the radiative forcing of aerosols generated from biomass burning using satellite data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 21265-21273 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Liousse, J. E. Penner, C. Chuang, J. J. Walton, H. Eddleman, and H. Cachier, “A global three-dimensional model study of carbonaceous aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19411-19432(1996).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Lobert, W. C. Keene, L. A. Logan, and R. Yevich, “Global chlorine emissions from biomass burning: reactive chlorine emissions inventory,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 8373-8389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Physical, chemical, and optical properties of regional hazes dominated by smoke in Brazil (1)

J. S. Reid, P. V. Hobbs, R. J. Ferek, D. R. Blake, J. V. Martrins, M. R. Dunlap, and C. Liousse, “Physical, chemical, and optical properties of regional hazes dominated by smoke in Brazil ,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32059-32080 (1998).

Other (1)

M. O. Andreae, “Biomass burning: its history, use, and distribution and its impact on environmental quality and global climate,” in Global Biomass Burning, Atmospheric, Climatic, and Biospheric Implications, J. S. Levine, ed. (MIT Press, 1991), pp. 3-21.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Daily mean values of AOD at 500 nm , from March 2001 to December 2004, over Wagga Wagga. (b) Sea sonal frequency distribution of daily means.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Seasonal frequency distribution of daily mean values of Angstrom coefficient α, from March 2001 to December 2004, over Wagga Wagga.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plumes of smoke traveling to both the southeast and the northwest on 25 January 2003. (Image from Aqua at 03:35 UTC.)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Hourly mean values of AOD over Wagga Wagga during summer 2003 southeastern Australia bushfires.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Three-band (r, g, b) overlay of MODIS-Terra image on 24 January 2003, 0020 UTC, showing smoke plumes over Wagga Wagga and surrounding areas. (b) Aerosol optical thickness retrieval for the same image, showing very high AOD values ( > 2.0 ) for thick smoke plumes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Time series of AOD from ground-based (sunphotometer) and space-based (MODIS-Terra), during January and February 2003. (b) Scatter plot regression between the ground-based (sunphotometer) and space-based (MODIS-Terra) AOD, for the same period. (c) Time series of AOD from ground-based (sunphotometer) and space-based (MODIS-Aqua), during January 2003. (d) Scatter plot regression between the ground-based (sunphotometer) and space-based (MODIS-Aqua) AOD, for the same period.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Scatter plot of hourly means of AOD versus both (a)  α S and (b)  α L .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Scatter plots of τ L versus both α S and α L for 9, 10, 11, and 12 January 2003.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Particle volume-weighted size distributions from 7–13 January 2003.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Scatter plots of τ H versus both α S and α L on 25 January: (a) whole day, (b) morning period, and (c) afternoon period.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Hourly particle volume-weighted distributions during 25 January 2003: (a) morning and (b) afternoon.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Statistics of Aerosol Optical Properties during the Bushfire Months in 2003 and the Same Months for 2002 and 2004 (Relatively Smoke Free)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Hourly Mean Values of τ 500 and α S during 25 January 2003

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