Abstract

We demonstrate fast, efficient beam steering using a single 1×32 analog ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) spatial light modulator. A high-tilt FLC material with 82° optic-axis switching provides, in a reflective-mode device with a passive quarter-wave retarder between a half-wave FLC layer and a mirror, 91% of full 0-2π phase modulation. Electronic drive based on applied charge gives 200 μs response-time analog modulation.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Fracasso, J. L. de Bougrenet de La Tocnaye, and P. Ambs, “Recording reconfigurable binary computer-generated holograms on bistable optically addressed ferroelectric liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1473-1475 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. C. O'Brien, R. J. Mears, T. D. Wilkinson, and W. A. Crossland, “Dynamic holographic interconnects that use ferroelectric liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2795-2803 (1994).
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    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Berthelé, B. Fracasso, and J.-L. de Bougrenet de La Tocnaye, “Design and characterization of a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator for a polarization-insensitive optical space switch,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5461-5468 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. J. O'Callaghan and M. A. Handschy, “Diffractive ferroelectric liquid-crystal shutters for unpolarized light,” Opt. Lett. 16, 770-772 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. O. Freeman, T. A. Brown, and D. M. Walba, “Quantized complex ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3917-3929 (1992).
  8. S. E. Broomfield, M. A. A. Neil, and E. G. S. Paige, “Programmable multiple-level phase modulation that uses ferroelectric liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6652- (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. M. J. O'Callaghan, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal SLMs for beam steering, field-of-view steering, and computer-generated holograms,” Supplement to Opt. Photon. News 9(9), 105(1991).
  11. J. E. Stockley, S. A. Serati, G. D. Sharp, P. Wang, K. F. Walsh, and K. M. Johnson, “Broadband beam steering,” Proc. SPIE 3131, 111-123 (1997).
  12. S. Inui, N. Iimura, T. Suzuki, H. Iwane, K. Miyachi, Y. Takanishi, and A. Fukuda, “Thresholdless antiferroelectricity in liquid crystals and its application to displays,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 671-673 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Coleman, D. Mueller, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. F. Shao, S. Bardon, and D. M. Walba, “Control of molecular orientation in electrostatically stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 175505 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. J. O'Callaghan, “Switching dynamics and surface forces in thresholdless “V-shaped” switching ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 011710 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. J. O'Callaghan, M. D. Wand, C. M. Walker, and M. Nakata, “Charge controlled, fixed optic axis analog ('v-shaped') switching of a bent-core ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6344-6346 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. J. O'Callaghan, M. Wand, C. Walker, W. Thurmes, and K. More, “High-tilt, high-Ps, de Vries FLCs for analog electro-optic phase modulation,” Ferroelectrics 343, 201-207(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Engström, P. Rudquist, J. Bengtsson, K. D'havé, and S. Galt, “Analog low-loss full-range phase modulation by utilizing a V-shaped switched ferroelectric liquid crystal cell in reflective mode,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2906-2908 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Williams and L. E. Davis, “Alignment of chiral smectic liquid crystals,” J. Phys. D 19, L34-L41 (1986).
  19. R. Dąbrowski, J. Gąsowska, J. Otón, W. Piecek, J. Przedmojski, and M. Tykarsk, “High tilted antiferroelectric liquid crystalline materials,” Displays 25, 9-19 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2006 (3)

2004 (3)

R. Dąbrowski, J. Gąsowska, J. Otón, W. Piecek, J. Przedmojski, and M. Tykarsk, “High tilted antiferroelectric liquid crystalline materials,” Displays 25, 9-19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. J. O'Callaghan, M. D. Wand, C. M. Walker, and M. Nakata, “Charge controlled, fixed optic axis analog ('v-shaped') switching of a bent-core ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6344-6346 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Engström, S. Hård, P. Rudquist, K. D'Havé, T. Matuszczyk, M. Skeren, and B. Löfving, “Beam steering experiment with two cascaded ferroelectric liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1559-1569 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. Coleman, D. Mueller, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. F. Shao, S. Bardon, and D. M. Walba, “Control of molecular orientation in electrostatically stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 175505 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. O'Callaghan, “Switching dynamics and surface forces in thresholdless “V-shaped” switching ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 011710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

J. E. Stockley, S. A. Serati, G. D. Sharp, P. Wang, K. F. Walsh, and K. M. Johnson, “Broadband beam steering,” Proc. SPIE 3131, 111-123 (1997).

1996 (2)

S. Inui, N. Iimura, T. Suzuki, H. Iwane, K. Miyachi, Y. Takanishi, and A. Fukuda, “Thresholdless antiferroelectricity in liquid crystals and its application to displays,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 671-673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (2)

M. J. O'Callaghan and M. A. Handschy, “Diffractive ferroelectric liquid-crystal shutters for unpolarized light,” Opt. Lett. 16, 770-772 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. J. O'Callaghan, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal SLMs for beam steering, field-of-view steering, and computer-generated holograms,” Supplement to Opt. Photon. News 9(9), 105(1991).

1990 (1)

1986 (1)

D. Williams and L. E. Davis, “Alignment of chiral smectic liquid crystals,” J. Phys. D 19, L34-L41 (1986).

Ambs, P.

Bardon, S.

D. Coleman, D. Mueller, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. F. Shao, S. Bardon, and D. M. Walba, “Control of molecular orientation in electrostatically stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 175505 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bengtsson, J.

Berthelé, P.

Broomfield, S. E.

Brown, T. A.

Clark, N. A.

D. Coleman, D. Mueller, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. F. Shao, S. Bardon, and D. M. Walba, “Control of molecular orientation in electrostatically stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 175505 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, D.

D. Coleman, D. Mueller, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. F. Shao, S. Bardon, and D. M. Walba, “Control of molecular orientation in electrostatically stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 175505 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, D. L.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Crossland, W. A.

Dabrowski, R.

R. Dąbrowski, J. Gąsowska, J. Otón, W. Piecek, J. Przedmojski, and M. Tykarsk, “High tilted antiferroelectric liquid crystalline materials,” Displays 25, 9-19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davis, L. E.

D. Williams and L. E. Davis, “Alignment of chiral smectic liquid crystals,” J. Phys. D 19, L34-L41 (1986).

de Bougrenet de La Tocnaye, J. L.

de Bougrenet de La Tocnaye, J.-L.

D'havé, K.

Dorschner, T. A.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Engström, D.

Eriksson, E.

Fracasso, B.

Freeman, M. O.

Friedman, L. J.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, A.

S. Inui, N. Iimura, T. Suzuki, H. Iwane, K. Miyachi, Y. Takanishi, and A. Fukuda, “Thresholdless antiferroelectricity in liquid crystals and its application to displays,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 671-673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fukushima, S.

Galt, S.

Gasowska, J.

R. Dąbrowski, J. Gąsowska, J. Otón, W. Piecek, J. Przedmojski, and M. Tykarsk, “High tilted antiferroelectric liquid crystalline materials,” Displays 25, 9-19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goksör, M.

Handschy, M. A.

Hård, S.

Hobbs, D. S.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Holz, M.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Iimura, N.

S. Inui, N. Iimura, T. Suzuki, H. Iwane, K. Miyachi, Y. Takanishi, and A. Fukuda, “Thresholdless antiferroelectricity in liquid crystals and its application to displays,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 671-673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Inui, S.

S. Inui, N. Iimura, T. Suzuki, H. Iwane, K. Miyachi, Y. Takanishi, and A. Fukuda, “Thresholdless antiferroelectricity in liquid crystals and its application to displays,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 671-673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Iwane, H.

S. Inui, N. Iimura, T. Suzuki, H. Iwane, K. Miyachi, Y. Takanishi, and A. Fukuda, “Thresholdless antiferroelectricity in liquid crystals and its application to displays,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 671-673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K. M.

J. E. Stockley, S. A. Serati, G. D. Sharp, P. Wang, K. F. Walsh, and K. M. Johnson, “Broadband beam steering,” Proc. SPIE 3131, 111-123 (1997).

Liberman, S.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Löfving, B.

Maclennan, J. E.

D. Coleman, D. Mueller, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. F. Shao, S. Bardon, and D. M. Walba, “Control of molecular orientation in electrostatically stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 175505 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matuszczyk, T.

McManamon, P. F.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mears, R. J.

Milewski, G.

Miyachi, K.

S. Inui, N. Iimura, T. Suzuki, H. Iwane, K. Miyachi, Y. Takanishi, and A. Fukuda, “Thresholdless antiferroelectricity in liquid crystals and its application to displays,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 671-673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

More, K.

M. J. O'Callaghan, M. Wand, C. Walker, W. Thurmes, and K. More, “High-tilt, high-Ps, de Vries FLCs for analog electro-optic phase modulation,” Ferroelectrics 343, 201-207(2006).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, D.

D. Coleman, D. Mueller, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. F. Shao, S. Bardon, and D. M. Walba, “Control of molecular orientation in electrostatically stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 175505 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakata, M.

M. J. O'Callaghan, M. D. Wand, C. M. Walker, and M. Nakata, “Charge controlled, fixed optic axis analog ('v-shaped') switching of a bent-core ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6344-6346 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neil, M. A. A.

Nguyen, H. Q.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O'Brien, D. C.

O'Callaghan, M. J.

M. J. O'Callaghan, M. Wand, C. Walker, W. Thurmes, and K. More, “High-tilt, high-Ps, de Vries FLCs for analog electro-optic phase modulation,” Ferroelectrics 343, 201-207(2006).
[CrossRef]

M. J. O'Callaghan, M. D. Wand, C. M. Walker, and M. Nakata, “Charge controlled, fixed optic axis analog ('v-shaped') switching of a bent-core ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6344-6346 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. J. O'Callaghan, “Switching dynamics and surface forces in thresholdless “V-shaped” switching ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 011710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. O'Callaghan, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal SLMs for beam steering, field-of-view steering, and computer-generated holograms,” Supplement to Opt. Photon. News 9(9), 105(1991).

M. J. O'Callaghan and M. A. Handschy, “Diffractive ferroelectric liquid-crystal shutters for unpolarized light,” Opt. Lett. 16, 770-772 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Otón, J.

R. Dąbrowski, J. Gąsowska, J. Otón, W. Piecek, J. Przedmojski, and M. Tykarsk, “High tilted antiferroelectric liquid crystalline materials,” Displays 25, 9-19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paige, E. G. S.

Piecek, W.

R. Dąbrowski, J. Gąsowska, J. Otón, W. Piecek, J. Przedmojski, and M. Tykarsk, “High tilted antiferroelectric liquid crystalline materials,” Displays 25, 9-19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Przedmojski, J.

R. Dąbrowski, J. Gąsowska, J. Otón, W. Piecek, J. Przedmojski, and M. Tykarsk, “High tilted antiferroelectric liquid crystalline materials,” Displays 25, 9-19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Resler, D. P.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rudquist, P.

Serati, S. A.

J. E. Stockley, S. A. Serati, G. D. Sharp, P. Wang, K. F. Walsh, and K. M. Johnson, “Broadband beam steering,” Proc. SPIE 3131, 111-123 (1997).

Shao, R. F.

D. Coleman, D. Mueller, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. F. Shao, S. Bardon, and D. M. Walba, “Control of molecular orientation in electrostatically stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 175505 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, G. D.

J. E. Stockley, S. A. Serati, G. D. Sharp, P. Wang, K. F. Walsh, and K. M. Johnson, “Broadband beam steering,” Proc. SPIE 3131, 111-123 (1997).

Sharp, R. C.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Skeren, M.

Stockley, J. E.

J. E. Stockley, S. A. Serati, G. D. Sharp, P. Wang, K. F. Walsh, and K. M. Johnson, “Broadband beam steering,” Proc. SPIE 3131, 111-123 (1997).

Suzuki, T.

S. Inui, N. Iimura, T. Suzuki, H. Iwane, K. Miyachi, Y. Takanishi, and A. Fukuda, “Thresholdless antiferroelectricity in liquid crystals and its application to displays,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 671-673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takanishi, Y.

S. Inui, N. Iimura, T. Suzuki, H. Iwane, K. Miyachi, Y. Takanishi, and A. Fukuda, “Thresholdless antiferroelectricity in liquid crystals and its application to displays,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 671-673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thurmes, W.

M. J. O'Callaghan, M. Wand, C. Walker, W. Thurmes, and K. More, “High-tilt, high-Ps, de Vries FLCs for analog electro-optic phase modulation,” Ferroelectrics 343, 201-207(2006).
[CrossRef]

Tykarsk, M.

R. Dąbrowski, J. Gąsowska, J. Otón, W. Piecek, J. Przedmojski, and M. Tykarsk, “High tilted antiferroelectric liquid crystalline materials,” Displays 25, 9-19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Walba, D. M.

D. Coleman, D. Mueller, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. F. Shao, S. Bardon, and D. M. Walba, “Control of molecular orientation in electrostatically stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 175505 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Freeman, T. A. Brown, and D. M. Walba, “Quantized complex ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3917-3929 (1992).

Walker, C.

M. J. O'Callaghan, M. Wand, C. Walker, W. Thurmes, and K. More, “High-tilt, high-Ps, de Vries FLCs for analog electro-optic phase modulation,” Ferroelectrics 343, 201-207(2006).
[CrossRef]

Walker, C. M.

M. J. O'Callaghan, M. D. Wand, C. M. Walker, and M. Nakata, “Charge controlled, fixed optic axis analog ('v-shaped') switching of a bent-core ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6344-6346 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, K. F.

J. E. Stockley, S. A. Serati, G. D. Sharp, P. Wang, K. F. Walsh, and K. M. Johnson, “Broadband beam steering,” Proc. SPIE 3131, 111-123 (1997).

Wand, M.

M. J. O'Callaghan, M. Wand, C. Walker, W. Thurmes, and K. More, “High-tilt, high-Ps, de Vries FLCs for analog electro-optic phase modulation,” Ferroelectrics 343, 201-207(2006).
[CrossRef]

Wand, M. D.

M. J. O'Callaghan, M. D. Wand, C. M. Walker, and M. Nakata, “Charge controlled, fixed optic axis analog ('v-shaped') switching of a bent-core ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6344-6346 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

J. E. Stockley, S. A. Serati, G. D. Sharp, P. Wang, K. F. Walsh, and K. M. Johnson, “Broadband beam steering,” Proc. SPIE 3131, 111-123 (1997).

Watson, E. A.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, T. D.

Williams, D.

D. Williams and L. E. Davis, “Alignment of chiral smectic liquid crystals,” J. Phys. D 19, L34-L41 (1986).

Yamazaki, H.

Appl. Opt. (7)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. J. O'Callaghan, M. D. Wand, C. M. Walker, and M. Nakata, “Charge controlled, fixed optic axis analog ('v-shaped') switching of a bent-core ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6344-6346 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Displays (1)

R. Dąbrowski, J. Gąsowska, J. Otón, W. Piecek, J. Przedmojski, and M. Tykarsk, “High tilted antiferroelectric liquid crystalline materials,” Displays 25, 9-19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (1)

M. J. O'Callaghan, M. Wand, C. Walker, W. Thurmes, and K. More, “High-tilt, high-Ps, de Vries FLCs for analog electro-optic phase modulation,” Ferroelectrics 343, 201-207(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

S. Inui, N. Iimura, T. Suzuki, H. Iwane, K. Miyachi, Y. Takanishi, and A. Fukuda, “Thresholdless antiferroelectricity in liquid crystals and its application to displays,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 671-673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

D. Williams and L. E. Davis, “Alignment of chiral smectic liquid crystals,” J. Phys. D 19, L34-L41 (1986).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

M. J. O'Callaghan, “Switching dynamics and surface forces in thresholdless “V-shaped” switching ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 011710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Coleman, D. Mueller, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. F. Shao, S. Bardon, and D. M. Walba, “Control of molecular orientation in electrostatically stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 175505 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. E. Stockley, S. A. Serati, G. D. Sharp, P. Wang, K. F. Walsh, and K. M. Johnson, “Broadband beam steering,” Proc. SPIE 3131, 111-123 (1997).

Supplement to Opt. Photon. News (1)

M. J. O'Callaghan, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal SLMs for beam steering, field-of-view steering, and computer-generated holograms,” Supplement to Opt. Photon. News 9(9), 105(1991).

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