Abstract

The properties of a wideband photonic crystal power splitter with different output power levels based on directional coupling are investigated numerically with the finite-difference time-domain method. The effects of changing the coupling length and radius of the coupling rods between parallel waveguides on output transmissions are investigated. By further splitting power in each branch a power splitter with four output branches is proposed.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T.-B. Yu, M.-H. Wang, X.-Q. Jiang, Q.-H. Liao, and J.-Y. Yang, “Ultracompact and wideband power splitter based on triple photonic crystal waveguides directional coupler,” J. Opt. A 9, 37-42 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. Park, H.-S. Lee, H.-J. Kim, K.-M. Moon, S.-G. Lee, B.-H. O, S.-G. Park, and E.-H. Lee, “Photonic crystal power-splitter based on directional coupling,” Opt. Express 12, 3599-3604 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Huang, J. Shi, D. Wang, and W. Li, “Power splitters with different output power levels built with two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Eng. 45, 0320503 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Strasser, R. Flückiger, R. Wüest, F. Robin, and H. Jäckel, “InP-based compact photonic crystal directional coupler with large operation range,” Opt. Express 8472-8478(2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Ghaffari, M. Djavid, F. Monifi, and M. S. Abrishamian, “Photonic crystal power-splitter and wavelength multi/demultiplexer based on directional coupling,” J. Opt. A 10, 075203 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Djavid, A. Ghaffari, F. Monifi, and M. S. Abrishamian, “Photonic crystal power dividers using l-shaped bend based on ring resonators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1231-1235(2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Ghaffari, F. Monifi, M. Djavid, and M. S. Abrishamian, “Photonic crystal bends and power splitters based on ring resonators,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5929-5934 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

A. Ghaffari, M. Djavid, F. Monifi, and M. S. Abrishamian, “Photonic crystal power-splitter and wavelength multi/demultiplexer based on directional coupling,” J. Opt. A 10, 075203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghaffari, F. Monifi, M. Djavid, and M. S. Abrishamian, “Photonic crystal bends and power splitters based on ring resonators,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5929-5934 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Djavid, A. Ghaffari, F. Monifi, and M. S. Abrishamian, “Photonic crystal power dividers using l-shaped bend based on ring resonators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1231-1235(2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

T.-B. Yu, M.-H. Wang, X.-Q. Jiang, Q.-H. Liao, and J.-Y. Yang, “Ultracompact and wideband power splitter based on triple photonic crystal waveguides directional coupler,” J. Opt. A 9, 37-42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Strasser, R. Flückiger, R. Wüest, F. Robin, and H. Jäckel, “InP-based compact photonic crystal directional coupler with large operation range,” Opt. Express 8472-8478(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. Huang, J. Shi, D. Wang, and W. Li, “Power splitters with different output power levels built with two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Eng. 45, 0320503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Abrishamian, M. S.

A. Ghaffari, M. Djavid, F. Monifi, and M. S. Abrishamian, “Photonic crystal power-splitter and wavelength multi/demultiplexer based on directional coupling,” J. Opt. A 10, 075203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghaffari, F. Monifi, M. Djavid, and M. S. Abrishamian, “Photonic crystal bends and power splitters based on ring resonators,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5929-5934 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Djavid, A. Ghaffari, F. Monifi, and M. S. Abrishamian, “Photonic crystal power dividers using l-shaped bend based on ring resonators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1231-1235(2008).
[CrossRef]

Djavid, M.

M. Djavid, A. Ghaffari, F. Monifi, and M. S. Abrishamian, “Photonic crystal power dividers using l-shaped bend based on ring resonators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1231-1235(2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghaffari, F. Monifi, M. Djavid, and M. S. Abrishamian, “Photonic crystal bends and power splitters based on ring resonators,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5929-5934 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghaffari, M. Djavid, F. Monifi, and M. S. Abrishamian, “Photonic crystal power-splitter and wavelength multi/demultiplexer based on directional coupling,” J. Opt. A 10, 075203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Flückiger, R.

P. Strasser, R. Flückiger, R. Wüest, F. Robin, and H. Jäckel, “InP-based compact photonic crystal directional coupler with large operation range,” Opt. Express 8472-8478(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghaffari, A.

A. Ghaffari, F. Monifi, M. Djavid, and M. S. Abrishamian, “Photonic crystal bends and power splitters based on ring resonators,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5929-5934 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Djavid, A. Ghaffari, F. Monifi, and M. S. Abrishamian, “Photonic crystal power dividers using l-shaped bend based on ring resonators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1231-1235(2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghaffari, M. Djavid, F. Monifi, and M. S. Abrishamian, “Photonic crystal power-splitter and wavelength multi/demultiplexer based on directional coupling,” J. Opt. A 10, 075203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

S. Huang, J. Shi, D. Wang, and W. Li, “Power splitters with different output power levels built with two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Eng. 45, 0320503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jäckel, H.

P. Strasser, R. Flückiger, R. Wüest, F. Robin, and H. Jäckel, “InP-based compact photonic crystal directional coupler with large operation range,” Opt. Express 8472-8478(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, X.-Q.

T.-B. Yu, M.-H. Wang, X.-Q. Jiang, Q.-H. Liao, and J.-Y. Yang, “Ultracompact and wideband power splitter based on triple photonic crystal waveguides directional coupler,” J. Opt. A 9, 37-42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.-J.

Lee, E.-H.

Lee, H.-S.

Lee, S.-G.

Li, W.

S. Huang, J. Shi, D. Wang, and W. Li, “Power splitters with different output power levels built with two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Eng. 45, 0320503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Q.-H.

T.-B. Yu, M.-H. Wang, X.-Q. Jiang, Q.-H. Liao, and J.-Y. Yang, “Ultracompact and wideband power splitter based on triple photonic crystal waveguides directional coupler,” J. Opt. A 9, 37-42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Monifi, F.

M. Djavid, A. Ghaffari, F. Monifi, and M. S. Abrishamian, “Photonic crystal power dividers using l-shaped bend based on ring resonators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1231-1235(2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghaffari, F. Monifi, M. Djavid, and M. S. Abrishamian, “Photonic crystal bends and power splitters based on ring resonators,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5929-5934 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghaffari, M. Djavid, F. Monifi, and M. S. Abrishamian, “Photonic crystal power-splitter and wavelength multi/demultiplexer based on directional coupling,” J. Opt. A 10, 075203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moon, K.-M.

O, B.-H.

Park, I.

Park, S.-G.

Robin, F.

P. Strasser, R. Flückiger, R. Wüest, F. Robin, and H. Jäckel, “InP-based compact photonic crystal directional coupler with large operation range,” Opt. Express 8472-8478(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, J.

S. Huang, J. Shi, D. Wang, and W. Li, “Power splitters with different output power levels built with two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Eng. 45, 0320503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, P.

P. Strasser, R. Flückiger, R. Wüest, F. Robin, and H. Jäckel, “InP-based compact photonic crystal directional coupler with large operation range,” Opt. Express 8472-8478(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

S. Huang, J. Shi, D. Wang, and W. Li, “Power splitters with different output power levels built with two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Eng. 45, 0320503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.-H.

T.-B. Yu, M.-H. Wang, X.-Q. Jiang, Q.-H. Liao, and J.-Y. Yang, “Ultracompact and wideband power splitter based on triple photonic crystal waveguides directional coupler,” J. Opt. A 9, 37-42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wüest, R.

P. Strasser, R. Flückiger, R. Wüest, F. Robin, and H. Jäckel, “InP-based compact photonic crystal directional coupler with large operation range,” Opt. Express 8472-8478(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J.-Y.

T.-B. Yu, M.-H. Wang, X.-Q. Jiang, Q.-H. Liao, and J.-Y. Yang, “Ultracompact and wideband power splitter based on triple photonic crystal waveguides directional coupler,” J. Opt. A 9, 37-42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T.-B.

T.-B. Yu, M.-H. Wang, X.-Q. Jiang, Q.-H. Liao, and J.-Y. Yang, “Ultracompact and wideband power splitter based on triple photonic crystal waveguides directional coupler,” J. Opt. A 9, 37-42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (2)

T.-B. Yu, M.-H. Wang, X.-Q. Jiang, Q.-H. Liao, and J.-Y. Yang, “Ultracompact and wideband power splitter based on triple photonic crystal waveguides directional coupler,” J. Opt. A 9, 37-42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghaffari, M. Djavid, F. Monifi, and M. S. Abrishamian, “Photonic crystal power-splitter and wavelength multi/demultiplexer based on directional coupling,” J. Opt. A 10, 075203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Ghaffari, F. Monifi, M. Djavid, and M. S. Abrishamian, “Photonic crystal bends and power splitters based on ring resonators,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5929-5934 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. Huang, J. Shi, D. Wang, and W. Li, “Power splitters with different output power levels built with two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Eng. 45, 0320503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

P. Strasser, R. Flückiger, R. Wüest, F. Robin, and H. Jäckel, “InP-based compact photonic crystal directional coupler with large operation range,” Opt. Express 8472-8478(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Park, H.-S. Lee, H.-J. Kim, K.-M. Moon, S.-G. Lee, B.-H. O, S.-G. Park, and E.-H. Lee, “Photonic crystal power-splitter based on directional coupling,” Opt. Express 12, 3599-3604 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Power splitter based on directional coupling with two branches. Coupling length and radii of the coupling rods for up and down are depicted as ( L 1 , R c 1 ) and ( L 2 , R c 2 ) , respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized transmission spectra at two output ports B (black), A (red) for splitters with different L 2 values while (a)  R c 1 = R c 2 = 0.18 a , L 1 = 5 a , (b)  R c 1 = R c 2 = 0.14 a , L 1 = 3 a . (c) Normalized transmission at wavelength 1500 nm versus L 2 ( R c 1 = R c 2 = 0.14 a , L 1 = 3 a ); for L 2 = L 1 = 3 a , perfect splitting ( A = B = 49.6 % ) is achieved.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Normalized transmission spectra for splitters with different r c 2 values while R c 1 = 0.18 a , L 1 = L 2 = 5 a . (b) Normalized transmissions at wavelength 1500 nm versus R c 2 ; for R c 2 = R c 1 = 0.18 a , perfect splitting ( A = B = 49.7 % ) is achieved.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic diagram of a power splitter consisting of the 2PCWDC with R c = 0.14 a . (b) Normalized transmissions at wavelength 1500 nm versus different coupling lengths for the power splitter shown in (a).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Schematic of the proposed four-output power splitter with L 1 = 5 a , R c 1 = 0.18 a , L 2 = 5 a , R c 2 = 0.14 a . (b) Electrical field pattern at 1500 nm .

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