Abstract

The role of aerosols in climate and climate change is one of the factors that is least understood at the present. Aerosols’ direct interaction with solar radiation is a well understood mechanism that affects Earth’s net radiative forcing. However, quantifying its magnitude is more problematic because of the temporal and spatial variability of aerosol particles. To enhance our understanding of the radiative effects of aerosols on the global climate, Singapore has joined the AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) worldwide network by contributing ground-based direct Sun measurements performed by means of a multiwavelength Sun-photometer instrument. Data are collected on an hourly basis, then are uploaded to be fully screened and quality assured by AERONET. We use a one year data record (level 1.5/2.0) of measured columnar atmospheric optical depth, spanning from November 2006 to October 2007, to study the monthly and seasonal variability of the aerosol optical depth and the Ångström exponent. We performed independent retrievals of these parameters (aerosol optical depth and Ångström exponent) by using the photometer’s six available bands covering the near-UV to near-IR (380–1080nm). As a validation, our independent retrievals were compared with AERONET 1.5/2.0 level direct Sun product.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2008

D. G. Streets, C. Yu, Y. Wu, M. Chin, Z. Zhao, T. Hayasaka, and G. Shi, “Aerosol trends over China, 1980-2000,” Atmos. Res. 88, 174-182 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

G. L. Schuster, O. Dubovik, and B. N. Holben, “Angstrom exponent and bimodal aerosol size distributions,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 111(D10), 7207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, “Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 110 (D9), 6202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, B. J. Huebert, J. Kim, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, T. Youhua, U. Itsushi, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J. H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of Asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, and W. M. Balch, “Maritime aerosol optical thickness measured by handheld Sun photometers,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87-106(2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

B. J. Huebert, T. Bates, P. B. Russell, G. Shi, Y. J. Kim, K. Kawamura, G. Carmichael, and T. Nakajima, “An overview of ACE-Asia: Strategies for quantifying the relationships between Asian aerosols and their climatic impacts,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 108(D23), 8633 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, R. Frouin, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Maritime component in aerosol optical models derived from Aerosol Robotic Network data,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 108(D1), 4033 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and O. Boucher, “A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system,” Nature 419, 215-223 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, and J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031-1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12098 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, I. Slutsker, J. M. Lobert, and V. Ramanathan, “Column-integrated aerosol optical properties over the Maldives during the northeast monsoon for 1998-2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28555-28566(2001).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, O. Dubovik, J. S. Reid, A. Smirnov, M. M. Mukelabai, N. C. Hsu, N. T. O'Neill, and I. Slutsker, “Characterization of the optical properties of biomass burning aerosols in Zambia during the 1997 ZIBBEE field campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3425-3448(2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

Y. J. Kaufman, B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, I. Slutsker, A. Smirnov, and T. F. Eck, “Will aerosol measurements from Terra and Aqua polar orbiting satellites represent the daily aerosol abundance and properties?” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3861-3864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O'Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333-31350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and T. Nakajima, “Remote Sensing of tropospheric aerosols from space: past, present, and future,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2229-2260 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, P. V. Hobbs, and B. Holben, “Use of the Ångstrom exponent to estimate the variability of optical and physical properties of aging smoke particles in Brazil,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 27473-27490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. A. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankonwiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. Hansen, M. Sato, and R. Ruedy, “Radiative forcing and climate response,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6831-6864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

1980

1976

M. D. King and D. M. Byrne, “A method for inferring total ozone content from spectral variation of total optical depth obtained with a solar radiometer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2242-2251(1976).
[CrossRef]

1974

M. Lacis and J. E. Hansen, “A parametrization for the absorption of solar radiation in the Earth's atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 118-133 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1969

W. A. Marggraf and M. Griggs, “Aircraft Measurements and calculations of the total downward flux of solar radiation as a function of altitude,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 469-477 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1953

E. Vigroux, “Contribution a l'etude experimentale de l'absorption de l'ozone,” Ann. Phys. (Paris) 8, 709-762 (1953).

1929

A. K. Ångström, “On the atmospheric transmission of Sun radiation and on the dust on the air,” Geogr. Ann 12, 130-159(1929).

Abuhassan, N.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12098 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Andreae, M. O.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, and J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031-1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ångström, A. K.

A. K. Ångström, “On the atmospheric transmission of Sun radiation and on the dust on the air,” Geogr. Ann 12, 130-159(1929).

Arimoto, R.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, B. J. Huebert, J. Kim, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, T. Youhua, U. Itsushi, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J. H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of Asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Balch, W. M.

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, and W. M. Balch, “Maritime aerosol optical thickness measured by handheld Sun photometers,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87-106(2004).
[CrossRef]

Bates, T.

B. J. Huebert, T. Bates, P. B. Russell, G. Shi, Y. J. Kim, K. Kawamura, G. Carmichael, and T. Nakajima, “An overview of ACE-Asia: Strategies for quantifying the relationships between Asian aerosols and their climatic impacts,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 108(D23), 8633 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bates, T. S.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, B. J. Huebert, J. Kim, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, T. Youhua, U. Itsushi, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J. H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of Asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boucher, O.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and O. Boucher, “A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system,” Nature 419, 215-223 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brechtel, F. J.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, B. J. Huebert, J. Kim, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, T. Youhua, U. Itsushi, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J. H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of Asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, and J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031-1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buis, J. P.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. A. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankonwiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, D. M.

M. D. King and D. M. Byrne, “A method for inferring total ozone content from spectral variation of total optical depth obtained with a solar radiometer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2242-2251(1976).
[CrossRef]

Cahill, T. A.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, B. J. Huebert, J. Kim, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, T. Youhua, U. Itsushi, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J. H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of Asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Campos, T.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, and J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031-1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carmichael, G.

B. J. Huebert, T. Bates, P. B. Russell, G. Shi, Y. J. Kim, K. Kawamura, G. Carmichael, and T. Nakajima, “An overview of ACE-Asia: Strategies for quantifying the relationships between Asian aerosols and their climatic impacts,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 108(D23), 8633 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carmichael, G. R.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, B. J. Huebert, J. Kim, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, T. Youhua, U. Itsushi, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J. H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of Asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cass, G. R.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, and J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031-1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castle, J. V.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12098 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chatenet, B.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, “Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 110 (D9), 6202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12098 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. B.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, “Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 110 (D9), 6202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chin, M.

D. G. Streets, C. Yu, Y. Wu, M. Chin, Z. Zhao, T. Hayasaka, and G. Shi, “Aerosol trends over China, 1980-2000,” Atmos. Res. 88, 174-182 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Christopher, S. A.

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, P. V. Hobbs, and B. Holben, “Use of the Ångstrom exponent to estimate the variability of optical and physical properties of aging smoke particles in Brazil,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 27473-27490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12098 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, A. D.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, B. J. Huebert, J. Kim, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, T. Youhua, U. Itsushi, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J. H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of Asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Conant, W. C.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, B. J. Huebert, J. Kim, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, T. Youhua, U. Itsushi, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J. H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of Asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Crutzen, P. J.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, and J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031-1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Gouw, J. A.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, and J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031-1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Laat, A. T. J.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, and J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031-1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dickerson, R. R.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, and J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031-1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doherty, S. J.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, B. J. Huebert, J. Kim, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, T. Youhua, U. Itsushi, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J. H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of Asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dubovik, O.

G. L. Schuster, O. Dubovik, and B. N. Holben, “Angstrom exponent and bimodal aerosol size distributions,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 111(D10), 7207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, “Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 110 (D9), 6202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, R. Frouin, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Maritime component in aerosol optical models derived from Aerosol Robotic Network data,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 108(D1), 4033 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, I. Slutsker, J. M. Lobert, and V. Ramanathan, “Column-integrated aerosol optical properties over the Maldives during the northeast monsoon for 1998-2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28555-28566(2001).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, O. Dubovik, J. S. Reid, A. Smirnov, M. M. Mukelabai, N. C. Hsu, N. T. O'Neill, and I. Slutsker, “Characterization of the optical properties of biomass burning aerosols in Zambia during the 1997 ZIBBEE field campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3425-3448(2001).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O'Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333-31350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, “Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 110 (D9), 6202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, R. Frouin, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Maritime component in aerosol optical models derived from Aerosol Robotic Network data,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 108(D1), 4033 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, I. Slutsker, J. M. Lobert, and V. Ramanathan, “Column-integrated aerosol optical properties over the Maldives during the northeast monsoon for 1998-2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28555-28566(2001).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12098 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, O. Dubovik, J. S. Reid, A. Smirnov, M. M. Mukelabai, N. C. Hsu, N. T. O'Neill, and I. Slutsker, “Characterization of the optical properties of biomass burning aerosols in Zambia during the 1997 ZIBBEE field campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3425-3448(2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, I. Slutsker, A. Smirnov, and T. F. Eck, “Will aerosol measurements from Terra and Aqua polar orbiting satellites represent the daily aerosol abundance and properties?” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3861-3864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O'Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333-31350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, P. V. Hobbs, and B. Holben, “Use of the Ångstrom exponent to estimate the variability of optical and physical properties of aging smoke particles in Brazil,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 27473-27490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. A. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankonwiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fargion, G. S.

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, and W. M. Balch, “Maritime aerosol optical thickness measured by handheld Sun photometers,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87-106(2004).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, H.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, and J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031-1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flatau, P. J.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, B. J. Huebert, J. Kim, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, T. Youhua, U. Itsushi, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J. H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of Asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Froehlich, C.

Frouin, R.

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, and W. M. Balch, “Maritime aerosol optical thickness measured by handheld Sun photometers,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87-106(2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, R. Frouin, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Maritime component in aerosol optical models derived from Aerosol Robotic Network data,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 108(D1), 4033 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12098 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Giles, D.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, “Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 110 (D9), 6202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goloub, P.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, “Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 110 (D9), 6202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, L.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, “Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 110 (D9), 6202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Griggs, M.

W. A. Marggraf and M. Griggs, “Aircraft Measurements and calculations of the total downward flux of solar radiation as a function of altitude,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 469-477 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Halthore, R.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12098 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hansel, A.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, and J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031-1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, J.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, and R. Ruedy, “Radiative forcing and climate response,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6831-6864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J. E.

M. Lacis and J. E. Hansen, “A parametrization for the absorption of solar radiation in the Earth's atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 118-133 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hayasaka, T.

D. G. Streets, C. Yu, Y. Wu, M. Chin, Z. Zhao, T. Hayasaka, and G. Shi, “Aerosol trends over China, 1980-2000,” Atmos. Res. 88, 174-182 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, P. V.

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, P. V. Hobbs, and B. Holben, “Use of the Ångstrom exponent to estimate the variability of optical and physical properties of aging smoke particles in Brazil,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 27473-27490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B.

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, P. V. Hobbs, and B. Holben, “Use of the Ångstrom exponent to estimate the variability of optical and physical properties of aging smoke particles in Brazil,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 27473-27490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

G. L. Schuster, O. Dubovik, and B. N. Holben, “Angstrom exponent and bimodal aerosol size distributions,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 111(D10), 7207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, “Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 110 (D9), 6202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, R. Frouin, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Maritime component in aerosol optical models derived from Aerosol Robotic Network data,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 108(D1), 4033 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, I. Slutsker, J. M. Lobert, and V. Ramanathan, “Column-integrated aerosol optical properties over the Maldives during the northeast monsoon for 1998-2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28555-28566(2001).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12098 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, O. Dubovik, J. S. Reid, A. Smirnov, M. M. Mukelabai, N. C. Hsu, N. T. O'Neill, and I. Slutsker, “Characterization of the optical properties of biomass burning aerosols in Zambia during the 1997 ZIBBEE field campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3425-3448(2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, I. Slutsker, A. Smirnov, and T. F. Eck, “Will aerosol measurements from Terra and Aqua polar orbiting satellites represent the daily aerosol abundance and properties?” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3861-3864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O'Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333-31350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. A. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankonwiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, N. C.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, O. Dubovik, J. S. Reid, A. Smirnov, M. M. Mukelabai, N. C. Hsu, N. T. O'Neill, and I. Slutsker, “Characterization of the optical properties of biomass burning aerosols in Zambia during the 1997 ZIBBEE field campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3425-3448(2001).
[CrossRef]

Huebert, B. J.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, B. J. Huebert, J. Kim, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, T. Youhua, U. Itsushi, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J. H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of Asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Huebert, T. Bates, P. B. Russell, G. Shi, Y. J. Kim, K. Kawamura, G. Carmichael, and T. Nakajima, “An overview of ACE-Asia: Strategies for quantifying the relationships between Asian aerosols and their climatic impacts,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 108(D23), 8633 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Itsushi, U.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, B. J. Huebert, J. Kim, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, T. Youhua, U. Itsushi, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J. H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of Asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jankonwiak, I.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. A. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankonwiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
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Jefferson, A.

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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. A. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankonwiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
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Y. J. Kaufman, B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, I. Slutsker, A. Smirnov, and T. F. Eck, “Will aerosol measurements from Terra and Aqua polar orbiting satellites represent the daily aerosol abundance and properties?” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3861-3864 (2000).
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B. J. Huebert, T. Bates, P. B. Russell, G. Shi, Y. J. Kim, K. Kawamura, G. Carmichael, and T. Nakajima, “An overview of ACE-Asia: Strategies for quantifying the relationships between Asian aerosols and their climatic impacts,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 108(D23), 8633 (2003).
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J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, and J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031-1036 (2001).
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J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, and J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031-1036 (2001).
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B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12098 (2001).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. A. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankonwiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
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J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, and J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031-1036 (2001).
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Lelieveld, J.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, and J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031-1036 (2001).
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J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, and J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031-1036 (2001).
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T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, I. Slutsker, J. M. Lobert, and V. Ramanathan, “Column-integrated aerosol optical properties over the Maldives during the northeast monsoon for 1998-2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28555-28566(2001).
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B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12098 (2001).
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J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, B. J. Huebert, J. Kim, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, T. Youhua, U. Itsushi, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J. H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of Asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
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Mayol-Bracero, O. L.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, and J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031-1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, M. A.

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, and W. M. Balch, “Maritime aerosol optical thickness measured by handheld Sun photometers,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87-106(2004).
[CrossRef]

Mitra, A. P.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, and J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031-1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukelabai, M. M.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, O. Dubovik, J. S. Reid, A. Smirnov, M. M. Mukelabai, N. C. Hsu, N. T. O'Neill, and I. Slutsker, “Characterization of the optical properties of biomass burning aerosols in Zambia during the 1997 ZIBBEE field campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3425-3448(2001).
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Nakajima, T.

B. J. Huebert, T. Bates, P. B. Russell, G. Shi, Y. J. Kim, K. Kawamura, G. Carmichael, and T. Nakajima, “An overview of ACE-Asia: Strategies for quantifying the relationships between Asian aerosols and their climatic impacts,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 108(D23), 8633 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and T. Nakajima, “Remote Sensing of tropospheric aerosols from space: past, present, and future,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2229-2260 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. A. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankonwiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
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Newcomb, W. W.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12098 (2001).
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Novakov, T.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, and J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031-1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oltmans, S. J.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, and J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031-1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Neill, N.

O'Neill, N. T.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, O. Dubovik, J. S. Reid, A. Smirnov, M. M. Mukelabai, N. C. Hsu, N. T. O'Neill, and I. Slutsker, “Characterization of the optical properties of biomass burning aerosols in Zambia during the 1997 ZIBBEE field campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3425-3448(2001).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12098 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O'Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333-31350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pietras, C.

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, and W. M. Balch, “Maritime aerosol optical thickness measured by handheld Sun photometers,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87-106(2004).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12098 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pinker, R. T.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12098 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Prather, K. A.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, and J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031-1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quinn, P. K.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, B. J. Huebert, J. Kim, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, T. Youhua, U. Itsushi, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J. H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of Asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ramanathan, V.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, and J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031-1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, I. Slutsker, J. M. Lobert, and V. Ramanathan, “Column-integrated aerosol optical properties over the Maldives during the northeast monsoon for 1998-2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28555-28566(2001).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. A. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankonwiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reid, J. S.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, O. Dubovik, J. S. Reid, A. Smirnov, M. M. Mukelabai, N. C. Hsu, N. T. O'Neill, and I. Slutsker, “Characterization of the optical properties of biomass burning aerosols in Zambia during the 1997 ZIBBEE field campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3425-3448(2001).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, P. V. Hobbs, and B. Holben, “Use of the Ångstrom exponent to estimate the variability of optical and physical properties of aging smoke particles in Brazil,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 27473-27490 (1999).
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T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O'Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333-31350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reiner, T.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, and J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031-1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodhe, H.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, and J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031-1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Royer, A.

Ruedy, R.

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J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, B. J. Huebert, J. Kim, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, T. Youhua, U. Itsushi, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J. H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of Asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
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J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, B. J. Huebert, J. Kim, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, T. Youhua, U. Itsushi, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J. H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of Asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
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B. J. Huebert, T. Bates, P. B. Russell, G. Shi, Y. J. Kim, K. Kawamura, G. Carmichael, and T. Nakajima, “An overview of ACE-Asia: Strategies for quantifying the relationships between Asian aerosols and their climatic impacts,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 108(D23), 8633 (2003).
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J. Hansen, M. Sato, and R. Ruedy, “Radiative forcing and climate response,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6831-6864 (1997).
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B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12098 (2001).
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J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, and J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031-1036 (2001).
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G. L. Schuster, O. Dubovik, and B. N. Holben, “Angstrom exponent and bimodal aerosol size distributions,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 111(D10), 7207 (2006).
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J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, B. J. Huebert, J. Kim, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, T. Youhua, U. Itsushi, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J. H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of Asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
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B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12098 (2001).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. A. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankonwiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
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Shi, G.

D. G. Streets, C. Yu, Y. Wu, M. Chin, Z. Zhao, T. Hayasaka, and G. Shi, “Aerosol trends over China, 1980-2000,” Atmos. Res. 88, 174-182 (2008).
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B. J. Huebert, T. Bates, P. B. Russell, G. Shi, Y. J. Kim, K. Kawamura, G. Carmichael, and T. Nakajima, “An overview of ACE-Asia: Strategies for quantifying the relationships between Asian aerosols and their climatic impacts,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 108(D23), 8633 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, B. J. Huebert, J. Kim, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, T. Youhua, U. Itsushi, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J. H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of Asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
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J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, B. J. Huebert, J. Kim, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, T. Youhua, U. Itsushi, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J. H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of Asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
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J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, and J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031-1036 (2001).
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Slutsker, I.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, “Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 110 (D9), 6202 (2005).
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A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, R. Frouin, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Maritime component in aerosol optical models derived from Aerosol Robotic Network data,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 108(D1), 4033 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, I. Slutsker, J. M. Lobert, and V. Ramanathan, “Column-integrated aerosol optical properties over the Maldives during the northeast monsoon for 1998-2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28555-28566(2001).
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B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12098 (2001).
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T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, O. Dubovik, J. S. Reid, A. Smirnov, M. M. Mukelabai, N. C. Hsu, N. T. O'Neill, and I. Slutsker, “Characterization of the optical properties of biomass burning aerosols in Zambia during the 1997 ZIBBEE field campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3425-3448(2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, I. Slutsker, A. Smirnov, and T. F. Eck, “Will aerosol measurements from Terra and Aqua polar orbiting satellites represent the daily aerosol abundance and properties?” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3861-3864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O'Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333-31350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. A. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankonwiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, “Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 110 (D9), 6202 (2005).
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A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, R. Frouin, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Maritime component in aerosol optical models derived from Aerosol Robotic Network data,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 108(D1), 4033 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, I. Slutsker, J. M. Lobert, and V. Ramanathan, “Column-integrated aerosol optical properties over the Maldives during the northeast monsoon for 1998-2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28555-28566(2001).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12098 (2001).
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T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, O. Dubovik, J. S. Reid, A. Smirnov, M. M. Mukelabai, N. C. Hsu, N. T. O'Neill, and I. Slutsker, “Characterization of the optical properties of biomass burning aerosols in Zambia during the 1997 ZIBBEE field campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3425-3448(2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, I. Slutsker, A. Smirnov, and T. F. Eck, “Will aerosol measurements from Terra and Aqua polar orbiting satellites represent the daily aerosol abundance and properties?” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3861-3864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O'Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333-31350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. A. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankonwiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
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J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, B. J. Huebert, J. Kim, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, T. Youhua, U. Itsushi, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J. H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of Asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Streets, D. G.

D. G. Streets, C. Yu, Y. Wu, M. Chin, Z. Zhao, T. Hayasaka, and G. Shi, “Aerosol trends over China, 1980-2000,” Atmos. Res. 88, 174-182 (2008).
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K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, and W. M. Balch, “Maritime aerosol optical thickness measured by handheld Sun photometers,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87-106(2004).
[CrossRef]

Tanre, D.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. A. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankonwiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
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Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and O. Boucher, “A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system,” Nature 419, 215-223 (2002).
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B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12098 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, I. Slutsker, A. Smirnov, and T. F. Eck, “Will aerosol measurements from Terra and Aqua polar orbiting satellites represent the daily aerosol abundance and properties?” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3861-3864 (2000).
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M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and T. Nakajima, “Remote Sensing of tropospheric aerosols from space: past, present, and future,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2229-2260 (1999).
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Tsay, S.-C.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, “Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 110 (D9), 6202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. A. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankonwiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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E. Vigroux, “Contribution a l'etude experimentale de l'absorption de l'ozone,” Ann. Phys. (Paris) 8, 709-762 (1953).

Vogelmann, A. M.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, B. J. Huebert, J. Kim, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, T. Youhua, U. Itsushi, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J. H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of Asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12098 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, and W. M. Balch, “Maritime aerosol optical thickness measured by handheld Sun photometers,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87-106(2004).
[CrossRef]

Ward, D. E.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, O. Dubovik, J. S. Reid, A. Smirnov, M. M. Mukelabai, N. C. Hsu, N. T. O'Neill, and I. Slutsker, “Characterization of the optical properties of biomass burning aerosols in Zambia during the 1997 ZIBBEE field campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3425-3448(2001).
[CrossRef]

Weber, R. J.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, B. J. Huebert, J. Kim, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, T. Youhua, U. Itsushi, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J. H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of Asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, and J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031-1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woo, J. H.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, B. J. Huebert, J. Kim, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, T. Youhua, U. Itsushi, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J. H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of Asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

D. G. Streets, C. Yu, Y. Wu, M. Chin, Z. Zhao, T. Hayasaka, and G. Shi, “Aerosol trends over China, 1980-2000,” Atmos. Res. 88, 174-182 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Youhua, T.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, B. J. Huebert, J. Kim, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, T. Youhua, U. Itsushi, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J. H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of Asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Young, A. T.

Yu, C.

D. G. Streets, C. Yu, Y. Wu, M. Chin, Z. Zhao, T. Hayasaka, and G. Shi, “Aerosol trends over China, 1980-2000,” Atmos. Res. 88, 174-182 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. Y.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, B. J. Huebert, J. Kim, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, T. Youhua, U. Itsushi, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J. H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of Asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-Y.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, “Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 110 (D9), 6202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Z.

D. G. Streets, C. Yu, Y. Wu, M. Chin, Z. Zhao, T. Hayasaka, and G. Shi, “Aerosol trends over China, 1980-2000,” Atmos. Res. 88, 174-182 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zibordi, G.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12098 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (Paris)

E. Vigroux, “Contribution a l'etude experimentale de l'absorption de l'ozone,” Ann. Phys. (Paris) 8, 709-762 (1953).

Appl. Opt.

Atmos. Res.

D. G. Streets, C. Yu, Y. Wu, M. Chin, Z. Zhao, T. Hayasaka, and G. Shi, “Aerosol trends over China, 1980-2000,” Atmos. Res. 88, 174-182 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.

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M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and T. Nakajima, “Remote Sensing of tropospheric aerosols from space: past, present, and future,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2229-2260 (1999).
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Geogr. Ann

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Geophys. Res. Lett.

Y. J. Kaufman, B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, I. Slutsker, A. Smirnov, and T. F. Eck, “Will aerosol measurements from Terra and Aqua polar orbiting satellites represent the daily aerosol abundance and properties?” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3861-3864 (2000).
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J. Atmos. Sci.

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J. Geophys. Res.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, I. Slutsker, J. M. Lobert, and V. Ramanathan, “Column-integrated aerosol optical properties over the Maldives during the northeast monsoon for 1998-2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28555-28566(2001).
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T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, O. Dubovik, J. S. Reid, A. Smirnov, M. M. Mukelabai, N. C. Hsu, N. T. O'Neill, and I. Slutsker, “Characterization of the optical properties of biomass burning aerosols in Zambia during the 1997 ZIBBEE field campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3425-3448(2001).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O'Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333-31350 (1999).
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B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067-12098 (2001).
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G. L. Schuster, O. Dubovik, and B. N. Holben, “Angstrom exponent and bimodal aerosol size distributions,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 111(D10), 7207 (2006).
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T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, “Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 110 (D9), 6202 (2005).
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A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, R. Frouin, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Maritime component in aerosol optical models derived from Aerosol Robotic Network data,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos.] 108(D1), 4033 (2003).
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Other

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Our AOD retrievals are compared with AERONET. (b), (c) Absolute and relative retrieval errors for the entire data set.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Singapore’s aerosol seasonal AOD variability measured at 500 nm . The data shown correspond to four selected periods.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Entire data set statistics, showing the degree of skewness, kurtosis, mean, median, and standard deviation for all data points at all wavelengths.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ångström exponent retrievals performed via the NLLSIF method compared with the band method used by AERONET.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Histograms of the seasonal distribution of the Ångström exponent at 500 nm . The dashed vertical line indicates α = 1 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Total distributions of AOD and Ångström exponent; individual histograms showing AOD and Ångström exponent distributions. The lower scatter plot shows the Ångström exponent density relative to AOD.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Seasonal correlation between the linear parameter, α 1 , of the second-degree polynomial fitting and the retrieved Ångström exponent.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Correlation between the Ångström curvature, d α / d ln λ , obtained from a second-degree polynomial fitting versus the retrieved seasonal (upper panels) and global (lower panel) AOD ( 500 nm ).

Equations (6)

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F ( λ ) = F o ( λ ) e K e ( λ ) m ( ξ ) .
τ t ( λ ) = τ a ( λ ) + τ R ( λ ) + τ g ( λ ) ,
τ a ( λ ) = τ a 0 λ α ,
α = ln [ τ a ( λ 2 ) [ τ a ( λ 1 ) ] ln ( λ 1 ) ln ( λ 2 ) .
ln τ a ( λ ) = α o + α 1 ( ln λ ) + α 2 ( ln λ ) 2 ,
α = d α d ( ln λ ) = d ( d ln τ a ( λ ) / d ln λ ) d ln λ = 2 α 2 .

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