Abstract

To measure directly residual stresses by digital image correlation using hole drilling, the deformation pattern that is governed by the residual stresses is used to affine transform the image captured after the object is deformed. If the values of trial residual stress components are properly chosen, the image after affine transformation will have a maximum similarity to the original image. This turns the residual stress measurement issue into a pure numerical computational process, which leads to the direct output of residual stresses. Validation tests have proved the viability of the approach. The proposed concept and principle could be extended to other specific measurement tasks with known deformation patterns.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. M. Beaney and E. Proctor, “A critical evaluation of the center hole technique for the measurement of residual stresses,” Strain 10,7-14 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. A. Scaramangas, R. F. D. Potter-Goff, and R. H. Leggatt, “On the correction of residual stress measurements obtained using the center hole method,” Strain 18, 88-97 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. V. Grant, J. D. Lord, and P. Whitehead, “The measurement of residual stresses by the incremental hole drilling technique,” NPL Good Practice Guide No. 53-Issue 2 (National Physical Laboratory, 2006).
  4. J. B. Zhang and T. C. Chong, “Fiber electronic speckle pattern interferometry and its applications in residual stress measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6707-6715 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. V. Díaz, G. H. Kaufmann, and G. E. Galizzi, “Determination of residual stresses using hole drilling and digital speckle pattern interferometry with automated data analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 33, 39-48 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Steinzig and T. Takahashi, “Residual stress measurement using the hole drilling method and laser speckle interferometry part IV: measurement accuracy,” Exp. Techniques 27, 59-63 (2003).
  7. K. Li and W. Ren, “Application of ring-core and optical rosettes to measure residual stress distribution with depth-part I: theory,” ASME J. Appl. Mech. 74, 298-306 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Ren and K. Li, “Application of ring-core and optical rosettes to measure residual stress distribution with depth-part II: experiments,” ASME J. Appl. Mech. 74, 307-314 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Tjhung and K. Li, “Measurement of in-plane residual stresses varying with depth by the interferometric strain/slope rosette and incremental hole drilling,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 125, 153-162 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. H. Peter and W. F. Ranson, “Digital imaging technique in experimental stress analysis,” Opt. Eng. 21, 427-431(1982).
  11. B. Pan, H. M. Xie, B. Q. Xu, and F. L. Dai, “Performance of sub-pixel registration algorithms in digital image correlation,” ,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1615-1621 (2006).
  12. D. V. Nelson, A. Makino, and T. Schmidt, “Residual stress determination using hole drilling and 3D image correlation,” Exp. Mech. 46, 31-38 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. J. McGinnis, S. Pessiki, and H. Turker, “Application of three-dimensional digital image correlation to the core-drilling method,” Exp. Mech. 45, 359-367 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. D. Lord, D. Penn, and P. Whitehead, “The application of digital image correlation for measuring residual stress by incremental hole drilling,” Appl. Mech. Mater. 13-14, 65-73 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Ponslet and M. Steinzig, “Residual stress measurement using the hole drilling method and laser speckle interferometry part II: analysis techniques,” Exp. Tech. 27, 17-21(2003).
    [CrossRef]

2008

J. D. Lord, D. Penn, and P. Whitehead, “The application of digital image correlation for measuring residual stress by incremental hole drilling,” Appl. Mech. Mater. 13-14, 65-73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. Li and W. Ren, “Application of ring-core and optical rosettes to measure residual stress distribution with depth-part I: theory,” ASME J. Appl. Mech. 74, 298-306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Ren and K. Li, “Application of ring-core and optical rosettes to measure residual stress distribution with depth-part II: experiments,” ASME J. Appl. Mech. 74, 307-314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

B. Pan, H. M. Xie, B. Q. Xu, and F. L. Dai, “Performance of sub-pixel registration algorithms in digital image correlation,” ,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1615-1621 (2006).

D. V. Nelson, A. Makino, and T. Schmidt, “Residual stress determination using hole drilling and 3D image correlation,” Exp. Mech. 46, 31-38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. J. McGinnis, S. Pessiki, and H. Turker, “Application of three-dimensional digital image correlation to the core-drilling method,” Exp. Mech. 45, 359-367 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

E. Ponslet and M. Steinzig, “Residual stress measurement using the hole drilling method and laser speckle interferometry part II: analysis techniques,” Exp. Tech. 27, 17-21(2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Steinzig and T. Takahashi, “Residual stress measurement using the hole drilling method and laser speckle interferometry part IV: measurement accuracy,” Exp. Techniques 27, 59-63 (2003).

T. Tjhung and K. Li, “Measurement of in-plane residual stresses varying with depth by the interferometric strain/slope rosette and incremental hole drilling,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 125, 153-162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

F. V. Díaz, G. H. Kaufmann, and G. E. Galizzi, “Determination of residual stresses using hole drilling and digital speckle pattern interferometry with automated data analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 33, 39-48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

1982

A. A. Scaramangas, R. F. D. Potter-Goff, and R. H. Leggatt, “On the correction of residual stress measurements obtained using the center hole method,” Strain 18, 88-97 (1982).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Peter and W. F. Ranson, “Digital imaging technique in experimental stress analysis,” Opt. Eng. 21, 427-431(1982).

1974

E. M. Beaney and E. Proctor, “A critical evaluation of the center hole technique for the measurement of residual stresses,” Strain 10,7-14 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Beaney, E. M.

E. M. Beaney and E. Proctor, “A critical evaluation of the center hole technique for the measurement of residual stresses,” Strain 10,7-14 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Chong, T. C.

Dai, F. L.

B. Pan, H. M. Xie, B. Q. Xu, and F. L. Dai, “Performance of sub-pixel registration algorithms in digital image correlation,” ,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1615-1621 (2006).

Díaz, F. V.

F. V. Díaz, G. H. Kaufmann, and G. E. Galizzi, “Determination of residual stresses using hole drilling and digital speckle pattern interferometry with automated data analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 33, 39-48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Galizzi, G. E.

F. V. Díaz, G. H. Kaufmann, and G. E. Galizzi, “Determination of residual stresses using hole drilling and digital speckle pattern interferometry with automated data analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 33, 39-48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grant, P. V.

P. V. Grant, J. D. Lord, and P. Whitehead, “The measurement of residual stresses by the incremental hole drilling technique,” NPL Good Practice Guide No. 53-Issue 2 (National Physical Laboratory, 2006).

Kaufmann, G. H.

F. V. Díaz, G. H. Kaufmann, and G. E. Galizzi, “Determination of residual stresses using hole drilling and digital speckle pattern interferometry with automated data analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 33, 39-48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leggatt, R. H.

A. A. Scaramangas, R. F. D. Potter-Goff, and R. H. Leggatt, “On the correction of residual stress measurements obtained using the center hole method,” Strain 18, 88-97 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Li, K.

K. Li and W. Ren, “Application of ring-core and optical rosettes to measure residual stress distribution with depth-part I: theory,” ASME J. Appl. Mech. 74, 298-306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Ren and K. Li, “Application of ring-core and optical rosettes to measure residual stress distribution with depth-part II: experiments,” ASME J. Appl. Mech. 74, 307-314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tjhung and K. Li, “Measurement of in-plane residual stresses varying with depth by the interferometric strain/slope rosette and incremental hole drilling,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 125, 153-162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lord, J. D.

J. D. Lord, D. Penn, and P. Whitehead, “The application of digital image correlation for measuring residual stress by incremental hole drilling,” Appl. Mech. Mater. 13-14, 65-73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Grant, J. D. Lord, and P. Whitehead, “The measurement of residual stresses by the incremental hole drilling technique,” NPL Good Practice Guide No. 53-Issue 2 (National Physical Laboratory, 2006).

Makino, A.

D. V. Nelson, A. Makino, and T. Schmidt, “Residual stress determination using hole drilling and 3D image correlation,” Exp. Mech. 46, 31-38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McGinnis, M. J.

M. J. McGinnis, S. Pessiki, and H. Turker, “Application of three-dimensional digital image correlation to the core-drilling method,” Exp. Mech. 45, 359-367 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, D. V.

D. V. Nelson, A. Makino, and T. Schmidt, “Residual stress determination using hole drilling and 3D image correlation,” Exp. Mech. 46, 31-38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pan, B.

B. Pan, H. M. Xie, B. Q. Xu, and F. L. Dai, “Performance of sub-pixel registration algorithms in digital image correlation,” ,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1615-1621 (2006).

Penn, D.

J. D. Lord, D. Penn, and P. Whitehead, “The application of digital image correlation for measuring residual stress by incremental hole drilling,” Appl. Mech. Mater. 13-14, 65-73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pessiki, S.

M. J. McGinnis, S. Pessiki, and H. Turker, “Application of three-dimensional digital image correlation to the core-drilling method,” Exp. Mech. 45, 359-367 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peter, W. H.

W. H. Peter and W. F. Ranson, “Digital imaging technique in experimental stress analysis,” Opt. Eng. 21, 427-431(1982).

Ponslet, E.

E. Ponslet and M. Steinzig, “Residual stress measurement using the hole drilling method and laser speckle interferometry part II: analysis techniques,” Exp. Tech. 27, 17-21(2003).
[CrossRef]

Potter-Goff, R. F. D.

A. A. Scaramangas, R. F. D. Potter-Goff, and R. H. Leggatt, “On the correction of residual stress measurements obtained using the center hole method,” Strain 18, 88-97 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Proctor, E.

E. M. Beaney and E. Proctor, “A critical evaluation of the center hole technique for the measurement of residual stresses,” Strain 10,7-14 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ranson, W. F.

W. H. Peter and W. F. Ranson, “Digital imaging technique in experimental stress analysis,” Opt. Eng. 21, 427-431(1982).

Ren, W.

W. Ren and K. Li, “Application of ring-core and optical rosettes to measure residual stress distribution with depth-part II: experiments,” ASME J. Appl. Mech. 74, 307-314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Li and W. Ren, “Application of ring-core and optical rosettes to measure residual stress distribution with depth-part I: theory,” ASME J. Appl. Mech. 74, 298-306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scaramangas, A. A.

A. A. Scaramangas, R. F. D. Potter-Goff, and R. H. Leggatt, “On the correction of residual stress measurements obtained using the center hole method,” Strain 18, 88-97 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, T.

D. V. Nelson, A. Makino, and T. Schmidt, “Residual stress determination using hole drilling and 3D image correlation,” Exp. Mech. 46, 31-38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Steinzig, M.

M. Steinzig and T. Takahashi, “Residual stress measurement using the hole drilling method and laser speckle interferometry part IV: measurement accuracy,” Exp. Techniques 27, 59-63 (2003).

E. Ponslet and M. Steinzig, “Residual stress measurement using the hole drilling method and laser speckle interferometry part II: analysis techniques,” Exp. Tech. 27, 17-21(2003).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, T.

M. Steinzig and T. Takahashi, “Residual stress measurement using the hole drilling method and laser speckle interferometry part IV: measurement accuracy,” Exp. Techniques 27, 59-63 (2003).

Tjhung, T.

T. Tjhung and K. Li, “Measurement of in-plane residual stresses varying with depth by the interferometric strain/slope rosette and incremental hole drilling,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 125, 153-162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Turker, H.

M. J. McGinnis, S. Pessiki, and H. Turker, “Application of three-dimensional digital image correlation to the core-drilling method,” Exp. Mech. 45, 359-367 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Whitehead, P.

J. D. Lord, D. Penn, and P. Whitehead, “The application of digital image correlation for measuring residual stress by incremental hole drilling,” Appl. Mech. Mater. 13-14, 65-73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Grant, J. D. Lord, and P. Whitehead, “The measurement of residual stresses by the incremental hole drilling technique,” NPL Good Practice Guide No. 53-Issue 2 (National Physical Laboratory, 2006).

Xie, H. M.

B. Pan, H. M. Xie, B. Q. Xu, and F. L. Dai, “Performance of sub-pixel registration algorithms in digital image correlation,” ,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1615-1621 (2006).

Xu, B. Q.

B. Pan, H. M. Xie, B. Q. Xu, and F. L. Dai, “Performance of sub-pixel registration algorithms in digital image correlation,” ,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1615-1621 (2006).

Zhang, J. B.

Appl. Mech. Mater.

J. D. Lord, D. Penn, and P. Whitehead, “The application of digital image correlation for measuring residual stress by incremental hole drilling,” Appl. Mech. Mater. 13-14, 65-73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

ASME J. Appl. Mech.

K. Li and W. Ren, “Application of ring-core and optical rosettes to measure residual stress distribution with depth-part I: theory,” ASME J. Appl. Mech. 74, 298-306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Ren and K. Li, “Application of ring-core and optical rosettes to measure residual stress distribution with depth-part II: experiments,” ASME J. Appl. Mech. 74, 307-314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol.

T. Tjhung and K. Li, “Measurement of in-plane residual stresses varying with depth by the interferometric strain/slope rosette and incremental hole drilling,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 125, 153-162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Mech.

D. V. Nelson, A. Makino, and T. Schmidt, “Residual stress determination using hole drilling and 3D image correlation,” Exp. Mech. 46, 31-38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. J. McGinnis, S. Pessiki, and H. Turker, “Application of three-dimensional digital image correlation to the core-drilling method,” Exp. Mech. 45, 359-367 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Tech.

E. Ponslet and M. Steinzig, “Residual stress measurement using the hole drilling method and laser speckle interferometry part II: analysis techniques,” Exp. Tech. 27, 17-21(2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

W. H. Peter and W. F. Ranson, “Digital imaging technique in experimental stress analysis,” Opt. Eng. 21, 427-431(1982).

Opt. Lasers Eng.

F. V. Díaz, G. H. Kaufmann, and G. E. Galizzi, “Determination of residual stresses using hole drilling and digital speckle pattern interferometry with automated data analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 33, 39-48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Strain

E. M. Beaney and E. Proctor, “A critical evaluation of the center hole technique for the measurement of residual stresses,” Strain 10,7-14 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Scaramangas, R. F. D. Potter-Goff, and R. H. Leggatt, “On the correction of residual stress measurements obtained using the center hole method,” Strain 18, 88-97 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. V. Grant, J. D. Lord, and P. Whitehead, “The measurement of residual stresses by the incremental hole drilling technique,” NPL Good Practice Guide No. 53-Issue 2 (National Physical Laboratory, 2006).

M. Steinzig and T. Takahashi, “Residual stress measurement using the hole drilling method and laser speckle interferometry part IV: measurement accuracy,” Exp. Techniques 27, 59-63 (2003).

B. Pan, H. M. Xie, B. Q. Xu, and F. L. Dai, “Performance of sub-pixel registration algorithms in digital image correlation,” ,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1615-1621 (2006).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Residual stress σ x , σ y , and τ x y released by a hole drilled on a plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Flowchart of correlation search for residual stress measurement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Geometry of the test samples. Residual stresses equal to the uniaxial stress applied by axial extension and unloading.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for validation test. A Canon EF-S 60 mm f2.8 USM Macro lens was used to record digital images. The surface of the sample was sprayed with black paint to form a specklelike appearance.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Image initialization. The hole diameter is 2 mm . The procedure is to (a) locate the center of the hole and designate ROI by adjusting the inner and outer circle. (b) Selected ROI is then displayed as a gray-shaded (green online) circle.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of measured residual stress by the proposed method with actual strain gauge readings. The standard deviation is 1.15 × 10 4 .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Intensity variations. Image 2 was recorded 30 s after the acquisition of image 1. The intensity distribution along a line shows the intensity variations due to electronic and other noise during image acquisition.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Correlation distribution in the vicinity of a maximum. (a) Correlation versus displacement. (b) Correlation versus nominal stress.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental Recordings During the Uniaxial Extension Test on an Aluminum Sample a

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

u r s ( x , y ) = 1 + μ E a 2 r { ( σ x + σ y 2 ) cos θ + ( σ x σ y 2 ) [ ( 1 a 2 r 2 ) cos 3 θ + χ cos θ ] + τ x y [ ( 1 a 2 r 2 sin 3 θ + χ sin θ ] } v r s ( x , y ) = 1 + μ E a 2 r { ( σ x + σ y 2 ) sin θ + ( σ x σ y 2 ) [ ( 1 a 2 r 2 ) sin 3 θ χ sin θ ] τ x y [ ( 1 a 2 r 2 ) cos 3 θ χ cos θ ] } ,
{ D 1 ( x 1 , y 1 ) D 2 ( x 2 , y 2 ) D 3 ( x , 3 y 3 ) } = { f x 1 f y 1 f x y 1 f x 2 f y 2 f x y 2 f x 3 f y 3 f x y 3 } · { σ x σ y τ x y } ,
{ σ x σ y τ x y } = { f x 1 f y 1 f x y 1 f x 2 f y 2 f x y 2 f x 3 f y 3 f x y 3 } 1 · { D 1 ( x 1 , y 1 ) D 2 ( x 2 , y 2 ) D 3 ( x 3 , y 3 ) } .
F = { F ( x i , y j ) } , i = 1 M , j = 1 N , G = { G ( x i , y j ) } , i = 1 M , j = 1 N ,
x = x u r s ( x , y ) , y = y v r s ( x , y ) ,
G = { G ( x i , y j ) } , i = 1 M , j = 1 N .
C = F · G F · G ( F F ) 2 ( G G ) 2 ,
C = C [ u ( σ x , σ y , τ x y ) , v ( σ x , σ y , τ x y ) ] .
x = x u 0 w 0 x + ϖ y u r s ( x , y ) , y = y v 0 w 0 y ϖ x v r s ( x , y ) ,
C = C ( u 0 , v 0 , w 0 , ϖ , σ x , σ y , τ x y ) .

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